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Index Supplement to the Notes and Queries, with No. 265, Jan. 25, 1S73. 


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"When found, make a note of." CAPTAIN CUTTLE. 






Index Supplement to the Notes and Queries, with No. 265, Jan. 25, 1873. 






4* S. X. JULY G, 72.] 



CONTENTS. N. 236. 

NOTES : The Death-Warrant of Charles I. : another His- 
toric Doubt, 1 Symbolum Marise, 4 Monumental 
Brasses, Ib. " Kidley Wink," 5 Mrs. Wyat of Boxley 
Abbey, Ib. " The Bath Chronicle " Scaligeriana 
Forget me not Revival of the Stocks A remarkable 
Picture The earliest Advertisement Remarkable Epi- 
taph The Verb " Collide " Sir Walter Scott and Bur- 
ton, 6. 

QUERIES : The Paterini, 7 Lords of Brecon " Dora " 
Ferrey's " Recollections of Welby Pugin " Foreign In- 
ventories Garrick in the Green Room Last of Gretna 
Priests Guinea-Lines Heald and Whitley of York- 
shire, W.R. Heritable Millers William Kenrick. 
Local Second-hand Booksellers Lloyd of Tovvy Lon- 
don Monumental Brasses Marley Horses" The Oath" 
" Opus inoperosum " " Other- Worldliness " Theodore 
Parker Preservation of Seals Quotations wanted 
Symbolism of the Human Ear Great Warrior White 
and Green as the Royal Colours Worley, or Wyrley Fa- 
mily, 7. 

REPLIES :-The Date of the Marriage of Lady Jane Grey, 
11 Dinners "a la Russe," Ib. The Tontine of 1789, 12 
Defects in Marriage Registers, 13 Sir John Denham's 
Death, Ib. Christian Names, 14 Thomas Chaucer 
Miss Steele Miserere Carvings Edward Underbill, the 
"Hot Gospeller" Trey ford: Elsted Monastic Inven- 
tories " Stand on Sympathy," "Richard II.," Act iv. 
Sc. 1 Fortune's Spinning-wheel Rev. Thomas Rose, 
temp Edward VI. " Oss " or " Orse " Mysticism : Mil- 
tonBenjamin Franklin's " Laurel Wreath " : a Picture- 
Names of Paper Red Deer " Make a Bridge of Gold," 
Ac. " When Adam delved," &c., 15. 

Notes on Books, &c. 


If there be one event in English history re- 
specting which, looking to its unparalleled cha- 
racter, the momentous results which flowed from 
it, and the sensation which it created throughout 
Europe, we should expect our information to be 
full, clear, and beyond dispute, it would surely be 
the execution of Charles I. 

Yet, what is really the case ? Beyond the one 
great fact, that the 30th of January 1649 * saw 

" Charles our dread sovereign murther'd at his gate," 

every incident connected with that fearful tragedy 
is involved in more or less obscurity. The very 
spot where the execution took place is matter of 
controversy, and the identity of the executioner 
is as much disputed as that of the Man in the 
Iron Mask, or the writer of the Letters of Jtmius. 

Few historical documents have been made so 
familiar to the public by means of facsimile as 
the Warrant for the execution of the unhappy 
monarch. A strip of parchment, measuring some 
eighteen inches wide and ten inches deep, on 
which there are about a dozen lines of writing, and 
some threescore seals and signatures, destroyed 

* The year then ending March, all the documents con- 
nected witlu the trial and execution bear the date of 

monarchy in England, to be by that very destruc- 
tion more firmly established. 

Often as this remarkable document has been 
quoted and referred to, I do not know that the 
original has ever been examined by any of our 
historians. Sure am I that if the learned author 
of The Curiosities of Literature, when preparing 
for publication his interesting Commentaries on the 
Life and Reign of diaries the First, had had the 
original AVarrant under his eyes, he would have 
anticipated me in pointing out the " grave doubts," 
to use the mildest phrase, which an examination 
of it throws upon the truthfulness of what has 
hitherto been supposed to be an authentic as well 
as authorized report of the King's trial namely, 
the True Copy of the Journal of the High Court of 
Justice for the Trial of King Charles I. 

There is no doubt that the Warrant in question 
is the one under which the King suffered. It 
came from the possession of Colonel Hacker, one 
of the three officers to whom it was addressed, 
when he was arrested in 1660, and by whom it 
was produced before the House of Lords, where 
it has ever since remained. Yet this remark- 
able document, almost the only original document 
connected with this great event which has been 
preserved a Warrant for the execution of one 
who rightly described himself as "not an ordinary 
prisoner " is in many of its most important parts 
written on erasures, and by a different hand. 

Before entering into a consideration of these 
erasures, and what they seem to point to, it will 
be necessary to sketch briefly the incidents of the 
so-called Trial of the King. 

On January 4 Master Garland presented to the 
House of Commons a new Ordinance for erecting 
a High Court of Justice for the trial of the King 
(the Lords having rejected the former one), which 
Ordinance was read a first, second, and third 
time, assented to and passed the same day ; and 
it was ordered that no copy be delivered : and the 
House resolved, That the' people are (under God) 
the original of all just power. That themselves 
being chosen by and representing the people have 
the Supreme Power in the nation ; that whatso- 
ever is enacted or declared for law by the Com- 
mons in Parliament hath the force of a law and 
the people concluded thereby; though consent of 
king and peers be not had thereunto. 

The following is a List of the Commissioners 
appointed by this Ordinance, not in the order in 
which their names are recited in it, but alpha- 
betically, for convenience of reference hereafter. 

The respective shares which the Commissioners 
took in the subsequent proceedings are indicated 
as follows : The dates after the names show on 
what days of the trial, viz. 20th, 22nd, 23rd, and 
27th January, they were present in Court. The 
names of those who signed the Warrant are printed 
in italics. The letter S marks those who were 


s. X. JULV C, 72. 


present when the sentence was agreed to ; anc 

Overton, Rob. 

8 Staply, Anth. 20, 22, 23, 

the letter W those who attended in the Paintec 

S Pelham, Peregrine. 20, 22, 


Chamber when the Warrant professes to haTie 
been executed. 

27. W 
Pennington, Jas. 20, 22, 

S Temple, Jas. 20, 22, 23, 
27. W 
Temple, Sir Peter. 

Allanson, Sir W. 
S Allen, Francis. 20, 22, 23 

Gratwick, Rog. 
S Grey of Grooby, Th. Ld 

Pickering, Sir Gilb. 
3 Potter, Vincent. 20,22,23, 
27. W 

S Temple, Peter. 20, 22, 23, 
27. W 
S Thomlinson,Matt. 22,27. 

27. W 

S Alured, John. 20, 22, 27 

20, 22, 23, 27. W 
S Hammond, Th. 20, 22, 23, 

S Pride, Th. 20, 22, 23, 27. 

Thorp, Francis. 
S Titchbourn, Rob. 20, 22, 

S Andrews, Th. 22, 23, 27 
Anlaby, John. W 

Harrington, Sir Jas. 23. 

S Purefoy, Wm. 20, 22, 23, 
27. "W 

23, 27. W 
Tr6ncli3.rcl Jolin 

Armyn, Sir W. 
Atkins, Th. 

S Harrison, Th. 20, 22, 23, 
27. W 

Reynolds, Rob. 
Rifjbv Alex 

S Yen, John. 20, 22, 23, 27. 

Bainton, Sir Edwd. 
Barrington, Sir John. 
S Berkstead, John. 20, 22, 
27. W 
Berners, Josias. 
S Blagrave, Dan. 20,22,23, 
27. W 

S Harvey, Edm. 20, 22, 23, 
27. " 
Hazlerig, Sir Ar. 
S Heveningham, Wm. 22, 
23, 27. 
Hill, Roger. 
S Holland, CorneK 20, 22, 

Roberts, Sir Wm. 
S 'Roe, Owen. 20, 22, 23, 27. 
Salwey, Rich. 
Salwev, Humphry. 
S Say, Wm. 20, 22, 23, 27. 

S Waller, Sir Hard. 20,22, 
23, 27. "W 
Wallop, Rob. 22. 
S Wanton, Vol. 20, 22, 23, 
27. W 
S Wayte, Th. 27. 
\V"6ciV6r John 

S Blakistone, John. 20, 22, 
23, 27. W 

23, 27. 
Honywood, Sir Th. 

S Scot, Th. 20, 22, 23, 27. 

Wentworth, Sir Peter. 

Blunt, Th. 
Bond, Dennis. 

S Horton, Th. 20, 22, 27. 

S Scroop, Adrian. 20, 22, 

OQ 07 \TT 

S Whaley, Edw. 20, 22, 23, 
27 W 

Boon, Th. 
Bosvile, Godfrey. 
S Bourchier, Sir J. 20, 22, 
23, 27. W 
S Bradshaw, John. 20, 22, 

S Huson, John. 20, 22, 23, 
27. W 
S Hutchinson, John. 20, 22, 
23, 27. _ W 
Ingoldsby, Rich. "W 

/o, z / . w 
Sidney, Alg. 
Skinner, Aug. 
Skippon, Philip. 
S Smith, Henry. 20, 22, 23, 
27. "W 

Wild, Edm. 
Wilson, Rowland. 
S Woqan, Th. 22, 27. 
Wroth, Sir Th. 

23, 27. W 

S Ireton, Henry. 20, 22, 23, 

Brereton. Sir W. 
S Brown, John. 20. 

27. W 

S Jones, John. 20, 22, 23, 
27. "W" 

In compliance with a resolution of the House 
of Commons of Jan. 6, the Commissioners met in 

S Careu, John. 20, 22, 23, 

Lambert, John. 

the Painted Chamber on the 8th, when the Act 


Lassels, Francis. 20,22. 

was openly read, and the court called. Fifty- 

S Cawley, Wm. 20, 22, 23, 

Lenthall, John. 

three Commissioners were present; the first name 

27. W 

S Lilbourn, Rob. 20,22,23, 

on the list is that of Fairfax this being, I be- 

Challoner, Jas. 20, 22. 
S Challoner, Th. 20, 22, 23. 
S Clement, Gregory. 20, 22, 

S Lisle, John. 20, 22, 23, 
27. W 

lieve, the only occasion on which his name occurs 
in any part of the proceedings. 

23, 27. 

Lisle, Philip Ld. 

It will be remembered that on the first day of 

S Constable, Sir W. 20, 22, 

Lister, Th. 20. 

the trial, when his name was called, his wife (a 

23, 27. W 
Corbet, John. 
S Corbet, Miles. 23. 
S Cromwell, Oliver. 20, 2'> 

S Livesey, Sir M. 20, 22, 
23, 27. W 
S Love, Nicholas. 20, 22, 
23, 27. W 

De Vere) startled the Court by exclaiming aloud, 
" He had more wit than to be there " a bearding 
of the Court which she followed up shortly after- 

23, 27. W 

Lowry, John. 

wards, when the Impeachment was being read and 

3 Danvers, Sir John. 20,22, 

S Ludlow, Edm. 20, 22, 23, 

declared to be in the name of " all the good peo- 

23, 27. 
Darlev, Richard. 
S Dean', Richard. 20, 22, 33, 

27. W 
S Maleverer, Sir Th. 20,22, 
23, 27. 
Manwarin" 1 Rob. 

ple of England," by declaring, " No, not the hun- 
dredth part of them," upon which Hacker ordered 
his soldiers to fire into the box whence the voice 

Desborough, John. 

S Martin, Henry. 20, 22, 23, 

proceeded ; an order not, however, carried out. 

S Dixwell, John. 20, 22, 23, 

27. W 

The Commissioners then proceeded to fix a day 

27. W 
Dove, John. 
S Downs, John. 20, 22, 23, 
Duckinfield, Rob. 
S Edwards, Humph. 20,22, 
23, 27. W 

Masham, Sir Wm. 
S Mayne, Simon. 20, 23, 27. 
Mildmay, Sir H. 23. 
Mildmay, H. 
S Millinqton, Gilb. 20, 22, 

for holding the High Court, and issued a warrant 
for that purpose, and appointed Wednesday the 
10th. To this warrant only thirty-seven affixed 
their names and seals, Fairfax not being one of 
them. This is no doubt the second document 

S Ewer, Isaac. 20. W 

23, 27. W 

referred to in The Trials of the Regicides when 

Fagg, John. 
Fairfax, Th. Lord. 
Fenwick, Geo. 
S Fleetwood, Geo. 27. 

S More, John. 20,22,23,27. 
Morley, Herbert. 
Mounson,Wm.Ld. 20,22. 
Nelthrop, Jas. 

" two warrants" are spoken of, to which reference 
the opinion sometimes expressed that there are 
other copies of the Death Warrant probably owes 

Fowks, John. 

Nicholas, Rob. 

its rise. 

Fry, John. 20, 22, 23. 
S Garland, Aug. 20, 22, 23, 

S Norton, Sir GregJ. 20,22, 
23, 27. 

Many similar meetings were held by the Com- 
missioners in the Painted Chamber, at which they 

27. "W 

S Goff, Wm. 20, 22, 27. W 
Gourdon, John. 

Nutt, John. 
S Okey, John. 20, 22, 23, 
27. W 

appointed counsel, clerks, and other office^. At 
the meeting of the 10th Bradshaw was named 

4'* S. X. JULY 6, '72.] 


President, and at the next, on the 12th, " after an 
earnest apology for himself to be excused," he 
submitted to their order, and took his place accord- 
ing ; and upon the Court resolving he should be 
styled Lord High President, he protested against 
the title, but was overruled by the Court. Ar- 
rangements were next made for the attendance of 
a guard, for the fitting- up of the court, &c. 

At the meeting on Jan. 13, the " discretion " 
which prompted the President to have his memo- 
rable " broad-brimmed hat " made bullet-proof,* 
induced the Commissioners to order the Serjeant- 
at-arms to search and secure the vaults under the 
Painted Chamber, their place of meeting. 

On Jan. 17, fifty-six Commissioners being pre- 
sent, such absent members as had not hitherto 
appeared were ordered to be summoned by war- 
rants a proceeding which seems to have failed 
in securing their attendance. 

In their anxiety to give as much appearance of 
legality as possible to what Hallam calls their 
" insolent mockery of the forms of justice," the 
Commissioners issued an order to Sir Henry Mild- 
may to deliver up the Sword of State to Mr. 
Humphreys " to bear before the Lord President." 

On the morning of the 20th, fifty-seven Com- 
missioners being present in the Painted Chamber, 
before proceeding to Westminster Hall, Mr. Lisle 
and Mr. Say were appointed assistants to the Lord 
President, and as such to sit near him, and the 
charge against the King was read and returned 
to Cooke to be exhibited by him in open court. 

At length, on the preliminary arrangements 
being completed, Charles, having been previously 
removed from "Windsor to St. James's, on Saturday, 
Jan. 20, the Trial commenced. 

Bradshaw, preceded by the Sword of State 
and the Mace, attended by the ushers of the 
Court and a guard of gentlemen carrying parti- 
sans, proceeded to Westminster Hall, and opened 
the Court. The Act appointing the High Court was 
read, and the names of the Commissioners being 
called over, those who were present (sixty-seven 
in number) rose as they answered to their names. 

Then the King was brought in, and, as the 
official record tells us, " places himself in the chair, 

* This hat, rendered immortal by the second line of a 
very inaccurate couplet in Bramston's Man of Taste 

" So Britain's monarch once uncovered sat 

While Bradshaw bullied in a broad-brimmed hat," 
is still preserved in the Ashmolean Museum at Oxford. 
Kennett tell us in his History of England, iii. 181, note 
"Mr. Serjeant Bradshaw, the President, was afraid of 
some tumult upon such new and unprecedented Insolence 
as that of sitting Judge upon his King ; and therefore, 
beside other defence, he had a thick high-crowned 
Beaver Hat lined with plated Steel to ward off blows. 
This Hat had long hung useless, when the Reverend 
Dr. Bisse, Preacher at the Rolls, lighting on it, sent it 
for a Present to the Museum at Oxford, with a Latin 
Inscription to preserve the memorv of it." 

not at all moving his hat, or otherwise showing the 
least respect to the Court" a line of conduct 
which certainly could not have taken the Court 
by surprise, inasmuch as at their meeting in the 
Painted Chamber on the same morning they had 
determined " that as to the prisoner's not putting 
off his hat, the Court will not insist for this day." 
This was only reasonable on the part of the Court ; 
for, having predetermined to remove the King's 
head, it was not worth while squabbling over the 
removal of his hat. 

The charge having been read, and the King 
refusing to recognise the authority of the Court, 
he was removed. 

On Monday the 22nd the Commissioners met 
in the Painted Chamber, and resolved that if the 
King refused to recognise their jurisdiction and 
answer the charge, " the Court will take it as a 
contumacy" ; then proceeded to the Hall, where 
70 being present, the scene of Saturday was re- 
peated; and Bradshaw having ordered the de- 
fault to be recorded, and that no answer would be 
given to the charge, the King was again guarded 
forth to Sir Robert Cotton's house. 

On Tuesday the 23rd the King was again 
brought to Westminster Hall, sixty-three Com- 
missioners being present ; and still refusing to 
acknowledge the jurisdiction of the Court, Brad- 
shaw directed the clerk to record the default, 
and the prisoner to be taken back. 

The Court did not meet in Westminster Hall 
on Wednesday 24th, Thursday 25th, or Friday 
26th, but busied themselves in examining wit- 
nesses (not, be it remembered, in the presence of 
the accused) and other preparations for "the 
bitter end." At the meeting on Thursday they 
determined to " proceed to sentence, and ordered 
a draught to be prepared, with a blank for the 
manner of Jhe death." On the 26th the form of 
sentence was agreed to and ordered to be en- 
grossed, and the King ordered to be brought up 
on the following day to receive it. 

On the morning of Saturday 27th, sixty-seven 
Commissioners^met in the Painted Chamber, ap- 
proved of the sentence which had been engrossed, 
and ordered it to be published in Westminster 

To Westminster Hall the Court accordingly 
adjourned. The King was brought before the 
Court for the last time, and received his sentence, 
sixty-seven Commissioners testifying their assent 
by standing up when it was pronounced. The 
Court returned to the Painted Chamber and ap- 
pointed a Committee to make preparations for the 

On Monday the 29th forty-eight Commissioners 
met in the Painted Chamber, whose proceedings 
are thus officially described : 

" Upon Report made from the Committee for con- 
sidering the Time and Place of the execution of the Judg- 


[4 th S. X. JOLT G, 72. 

ment against the King, that the said Committee have 
resolved That the open street before Whitehall is a fit 
place, and that the said Committee conceive it fit that 
the King be there executed the morrow, the King having 
already notice thereof. The Court approved thereof, and 
ordered a Warrant to be drawn up for that purpose. 
Which said Warrant was accordingly drawn and agreed 
unto, and ordered to be engrossed ; which was done, and 
signed and sealed accordingly." 

This was followed by another Order to the 
Officers of the Ordnance within the Tower of 
London to deliver up to the Serjeant-at-Arms 
attending the Court " the bright Execution Ax 
for the executing of malefactors." 

Upon this Warrant, alleged to be so drawn up, 
agreed to, engrossed, signed and sealed, the King 
was, on the following day, Tuesday, Jan. 30, 1649, 
executed in the open street before Whitehall. 

(To be continued.) 


At a time when so much is said for and against 
the retention or omission of the Athanasian creed, 
it may not be uninteresting to recall to remem- 
brance, without dogmatic note or comment, a 
creed which, now buried though it be, and almost 
entirely forgotten, was doubtless dear to thousands 
or millions of good Catholics in those days when 
only fitful and transient breezes of heresy had dis- 
turbed the placid slumbers of the Church. The 
Psalter of the Virgin* a very curious production, 
and well worthy of more than a passing notice, is, 
in its Latin form, only noticed by Hain as having 
been printed once in the fifteenth century (Ant- 
werpice, 1487), 8vo. The copy from which I am 
about to quote is, however, of an edition of 1497, 
an 8vo, it is true, but of extremely minute dimen- 
sions, and beautifully printed in red and black. 

The composition of the Psalter is attributed to 
St. Bernard. It is followed by the Symbolum 
Maria, which I give in extenso, for it appears 
to me to possess considerable intrinsic interest, 
and I doubt whether the text has been hitherto 
published in England : 

" Quicunque vult salvus esse ante omnia opus est, ut 
teneat de Maria firmam fidem. Quam nisi quisque in- 
tegram inviolatamque servaverit ; absque dubio in eter- 
num peribit. 

"Quoniam ipsa sola virgo manens peperit. Sola 
cunctas hereses interemit. Confundatur et erubescat be- 
breus qui dicit Christum ex Joseph semine esse natum. | 
Confundatur manicheus, qui Christum fictum dicit ha- ' 
bere corpus.^ Palleat omnis qui hoc ipsum aliunde, et 
non de Maria dicit assumpsisse. 

"Idem namque filius qui est patris in divinis uni- 
genitus ; est et verus unigenitus Virginis Maria? filius. 

'_' In coslis sine matre, in terris sine patre. Nam sicut 
anima rationalis et caro propter unionem de homine vere 
__ i 

* A totally different work, of course, from the invaluable I 
Psalterium Novi:m B. V. M. of Xitzschewitz (Zinnre). 

nascitur : ita deus et homo Christus de Maria vere gene- 
ratur. Induens carnem de carne virginis ; quia sic genus 
humanum redimi congruebat. Qui secundum divinitatem 
est equalis patri, secundum humanitatem vero minor 
patre. Conceptus in utero Virginis Maria?, angelo annun- 
ciante, de Spiritu sancto, non tamen Spiritus sanctus pater 
ejus est. Genitus in mundum sine poena carnis virginis 
raatris quia sine carnis delectatione conceptus. Quern- 
lactavit mater ubere de coelo pleno quam circumstabant 
angeli obstetricum vice, nunciantes pastoribus gaudium 
magnum hie a magis, muneribus adoratus ; ab Herod e 
in Egyptum fugatus : a Joanne in Jordane baptizatus ; 
traditus, captus, flagellatus, crucifixus, mortuus et se- 
pultus. Cum gloria ad coelos resurrexit, Spiritum sanc- 
tum in discipulos et in matrem misit. Quam demum in 
coelum ipse assumpsit et sedet a dextera filii, non cessans- 
pro nobis filium exorare. Haec est fides de Maria, virgine 
matre, quam nisi quisquis fideliter firmiterque crediderit., 
salvus esse non poterit." 

West Derby. 


The following additions and corrections to> 
Haines's Manual of Monumental Brasses, 1861, may 
not be without interest to some of your readers. 
I should be glad if any of your readers would 
furnish similar notes: 

Cornwall: Constantino. The brass of Rich. 
ufeyrveys, Esq., 1574, is stated by Mr. Waller 
(Arch. Journal, xviii. 80) to be " palimpsest," and 
'the reverse is one of the finest examples of 
Flemish execution I have ever seen." The design 
s fully described in the above quoted notice. 

Dorsetshire: Wimborne Minster. S. Etheldred. 
Df this brass will be found interesting notices in 
he Arch. Jour. xxv. 172. and Gent. Mag., Dtc, 

Herefordshire. The whole of these brasses will 
be found more fully described by Mr. Haines in a 
paper read before the Archaeological Association, 
and published in their Journal, xxvii. 85, 198. 

Hereford Cathedral. Part of the brass to Thos. 
Cantelupe, Bp., 1282, remains. It represents S. 
Ethelbert holding his head in his hand, and is 
stated by Mr. Havergal (FastHfereforde}ises,I8Q^, 
p. 178) to be a unique example of the saint so re- 

Kinnersley. An ecclesiastic vested in amice 
and chasuble, Yv r m. Dermot (?), " discretus bacu- 
larius," 1421 ; mural, north wall of chancel. 

Kent: Cobham. The brass (xix.) is to Win. 
Hobson, and was found to be a "palimpsest" by 
Mr. Waller; and an accurate notice will be seen 
in Arch. Jour. xxv. 249. 

S. Mary Cray. I was unable to discover the 
brass of Eliz. wife of Ger. Cobham (n.) when 
visiting the church in Nov. 1867. Query, is it 

Horton Kirty. There is a second brass repre- 
senting a lady (in the S. Tr.), and a shield,, " on a 
canton, a mullet." 

. X. JULY G, '72.] 


Canterbury Cathedral. A brass to Abp. Dene 
existed in 1644, and is mentioned by Weever, 
1631, p. 232. 

Lancashire : Ormskirk. The brass is to Thomas 
Scarisbrick, who married Elizabeth, the base 
daughter of Thomas, Earl of Derby. A represen- 
tation of the brass will be found in the Heralds' 
Visitation of the church in 1644, and lodged at 
the Heralds' College. 

London, Middlesex: Westminster Abbey. The 
brasses of Robt. de Waldeby, Abp. of York, and 
Abbot Estney, are both restored to altar tombs. 

Norfolk: Lynn, S. Margaret. For an account of 
these brasses see Mackerell's Hist, of Lynn, 1738, 
illustrated by Taylor. In the same book will be 
found an engraving of a brass (now lost) in S. 
Nicholas church to Thomas Waterdyn, Mayor of 
Lynn "a tree finely engraven on brass, about 
the ^body of which runs a label with a motto or 
device, and under it two hearts are joined toge- 
ther." See also Archceoloyia, xxxix. p. 505, where 
the engraving is reproduced. 

Somersetshire: Clevedon. I believe there are 
two brasses in this church. If so, of whom ? 

Sussex : Wittingdon. The figure of John 
Parker's wife is lost. In this church I found loose 
a shield, but unfortunately my note is mislaid. It 
was engraved on both sides. 

Wiltshire: Steeple Ashton. Deborah Marks, 1730, 
aged ninety-nine ; t( palimpsest," very curious. 
See Jour. Arch. Assoc. } xxi. 193. S. K. 



If the enclosed copy of verses, which I have 
recently met with amongst some other newspaper 
cuttings, is of any use to you as illustrative of the 
derivation of the common term of " Kidley Wink," 
as applied to a beer-shop, it is at your service. 

Mercury Office, Cheltenham. 


^_A new song to the old tune of ' Derry down," 1 appointed to 
be said or sung in all the manufacturing and agricul- 
tural districts. J 

" Ye topers of England, attend to my song, 
The moral is great and the matter not long; 
It concerns those new shops for the vending of drink, 
Which are, by most people, called Kidley Wink. 
Derry down, down, derry down ! 

" Now, this Kidley Wink is the name of a man, 
Who in London resides, and is fond of a can ; 
He advised this new method of turning the ' chink,' 
And therefore each shop is called Kidley Wink. 

" The law was proposed, it could not have been better, 
By the worthy X-Chancellor of the X-chequer, 
And he made a long speech on the blessings of drink, 
But he ne'er took his can in a new Kidley Wink. 

" Now the consequence is, that everywhere 
Tailors, hucksters, and all take to selling of beer ; 
They pawn their best coats, buy a barrel of drink, 
Turn landlords, and set up a Kidley Wink. 

" And the cobbler his pegging-awl drops to unloose 
The peg while the tailor, forsaking his goose, 
Makes a gf>ose of his friend, robs his purse, 'till the brink 
Of ruin is found in a Kidley Wink. 

" Then in country or town, wherever you gazo, 
Strange signs of the times stare you full in the face : 
Griffins grin in your teeth Angels tempt you to drink 
All your money away in a Kidley Wink. " 

" The Dog, Cow, and Horse are each pictured so pat, 
That beholders, quite puzzled, ask ' What sign is that ? ' 
But to some men the Devil, I verily think, 
Would be pleasing if hung o'er a Kidley VVink. 

" Now, 'tis plain that those men, with their malting and 


Do themselves little good, while the landlord they ruin ; 
For the profits of sale, and the strength of the drink, 
Are together dispersed in each Kidley Wink. 

" Then let each man in future keep to his own trade, 
And depend on't that all things will better be made ; 
For 'tis vain for our huckstering landlords to think 
A fortune to make in a Kidley Wink. 

" But 'tis avarice makes us forget we're all brothers, 
And we seek our own gains on the ruin of others ; 
Then, ye lovers of justice and hearty good drink, 
Pray for England's deliverance from Kidley Wink. 
"November, 1831." 


Your columns are so kindly open to all who wish 
to ensure accuracy in their publications, that I ven- 
ture to ask you to insert the following note. In 
my new edition of the Poems of George Sandys, 
just published by Mr. Russell Smith, I say (Intro- 
duction, p. 50) : 

" The Mrs. Wyat who gladdened Richard Baxter's 
eyes with the sight of the summer-house on the old stone 
wall in the garden of Boxley Abbey, in which George 
Sandys ' retired himself for his poetry and contemplation,' 
was, I presume, Frances, the wife of Edwin Wyat, ser- 
jeant-at-law (the serjeant spelt his name Wiat), son and 
heir-male of Sir Francis Wyat, the husband of Margaret 

Mrs. Richards, of Boxley Vicarage, writes to 
me that this is a mistake ; and that the lady was 
probably the wife or widow (the latter 1 believe) 
of an elder brother of the serjeant, whose only 
child being a daughter did not inherit the lands 
granted by Queen Elizabeth to Lady Wyat and her 
son George, but did inherit what lands (Boxley 
Abbey included) the said George bad acquired 
by purchase or exchange. This Mrs. Wyat was 
a Miss Jane Duke of Copington. Her daughter, 
Frances Wyat, married Sir Thomas Selyard ; and 
their granddaughter (Lady Austen ?) sold Boxley 
Abbey. There was a fierce law-suit between 
Serjeant Wyat and his niece Lady Selyard, to 
whom the whole property had been left by her 
father or grandfather, which terminated by the 
decision that all the royal grant was to be his as 
male heir ; while the portion which their ancestor 
George Wyat had bought, or which had been 
since acquired by the family, might legally be 


. X. JULY 6, 72. 

Revised to her (Lady Selyard). The Serjeant 
erected a monument in Boxley church, on which 
he ignores his elder brother, sister-in-law, and* 
niece. Baxter's Mrs. Wyat (Miss Jane Duke), 
Mrs. Richards informs me on the authority of 
the Hon. Robert Marsham (brother of my Lord 
Roniney), who takes great interest in the family 
records, to revenge herself on the rest of the family 
for not possessing a son herself, tore up and burnt 
every paper, and deed, and record she could lay 
her hands on. Probably many interesting facts 
about George Sandys and his friends, or even his 
own MSS., were then irretrievably lost. 

Boxley Abbey (now my Lord Aylesford's pro- 
perty) is about three-quarters of a .mile from the 
church, whilst Boxley House is close to it. Both 
were the property of Sir Francis Wyat, George 
Sandys's nephew ; but the poet lived and died at 
the abbey, Boxley House was the Serjeant's 
residence. RICHARD HOOPER. 

Upton Vicarage, Didcot. 

"THE BATH CHRONICLE." So many persons 
from all parts of the kingdom have died at Bath 
that the obituary of The Bath Chronicle possesses 
more than a local interest. Genealogists, there- 
fore, will like to know that the file commences 
in 17GO, and that Mr. Russell of 6, Terrace Walk, 
Bath, undertakes to make searches for a small 
fee. TEWARS. 

SCALIGERIANA. The compiler of the volume 
of " Table-Talk " in Constable's Miscellany series 
(Edinburgh, 1827), states in bis preface that the 
a Scaligeriana " was the first of those well-known 
collections in point of date ; that it u professes to j 
contain tho opinions and conversations of Joseph 
Scaliger"; that it was published in 1099; and 
that it is " altogether unworthy of that great 
name, and affords little which is calculated to 
afford either amusement or instruction." Now, I 
have a copy of the 

"Scaligeriana; sive, Excerptn ex ore Joseph! Scali- 
geri. Per F. F. P. P. [The brothers Puteanos, as .stated 
in the second title and preface.] Genevie : Apud 1'etrus 
Columesium, M,IKJ,LXVI." 

It is perfectly clear from the introduction, 
" Typographic Lectori," written in fine old Latin, I 
and printed in superb old type, that the book is j 
quite genuine. The contents were, it is stated, 
taken down from Joseph Scaliger's own lips by 
u Jacobus et Petrus Puteani," copied out from 
their manuscript by Claudius Sarravius, and di- 
gested into alphabetical order by another most 
learned man unnamed. I find the book both en- 
tertaining and instructive, albeit there is not the 
overflowing fulness and lively humour of the Me- 
nagiana and some other collections, and although 
the learned Joseph used Latin and French indis- 
criminately even in his table-talk with his friends. 

It appears to me that the compiler for Constable's 
series had not seen this earlier and unadulterated 
edition of the book which he rates so cheaply. 



FORGET ME NOT. Among the mint marks found 
on French coins of the fifteenth century is the 
cinquefoil ; and in an ordinance issued by the king, 
this mark is called " un ne m'obliez mye," anti- 
quated French for "Ne m'oubliez jarnais." 


Eisely, Beds. 

REVIVAL OF THE STOCKS. The following is 
worth noting in "N. & Q." : 

" A novel scene was presented in the Butter and Poultry 
Market at New bury on Tuesday afternoon (June 11). 
A rag and bone dealer, who for several years had been 
well known in the town as a man of intemperate habits, 
and upon whom imprisonment in Reading gaol had 
failed to produce any beneficial effect, was fixed in the 
stocks for drunkenness and disorderly conduct at divine 
service in the parish church on Monday evening. Twenty- 
six years had elapsed since the stocks were last used, arid 
their reappearance created no little sensation and amuse- 
ment, several hundreds of persons being attracted to the 
spot where they were fixed. He was seated upon a stool, 
and his leg:i were secured in the stocks at a few minutes 
past one o'clock ; and as the church clock (immediately- 
facing him') chimed each quarter, he uttered expressions 
of thankfulness, and seemed anything but pleased with the 
laughter and derision of the crowd. Four hours having 
passed he was released, and, by a little stratagem on the 
part of the police, he escaped without being interfered 
with by the crowd." Manchester Guardian, June 14 

1&79 " 


A REMARKABLE PICTURE. Some days since I 
received a catalogue of "the genuine furniture 

removed from House, to be sold at 191, 

Bishopsgate Without, by Joseph Ingledew & Co." 
Therein lot 174 is thus described: '-'Portrait of 
Lord Nelson on board, the Trafalgar, by Sir G. 
Kneller." There was something sublime in the 
idea of Nelson standing on the deck of a vessel 
named after the bay in which he so gloriously 
fell, and in the fact of its being prophetically 
embodied by Sir Godfrey. I hastened, therefore, 
to inspect this interesting portrait, when I at once 
came to the conclusion that, if really painted by 
Kneller, it must have been so, not in his lifetime, 
but iiclla miseria. JOSEPH THOMAS. 

The Green, Stratford, E. 

that Mr. James Grant, in The Newspaper Press 
(2 vols., Tinsley, 1871), states that "no instance 
is on record of any advertisement being inserted 
in any of the newspapers of the day prior to 1652." 
In this he follows an article in the Quarterly Re- 
view, but his own researches " in the vaults of the 
British Museum " lead to the same result. This 
is the advertisement given from the Mercurius 
Politicus : 

4* S. X. JULY 6, 72.] 


" Monotlia Gratiolari, an Heroic Poem : being a Con- 
gratulatory Panegyric for my Lord General's late lie- 
turn ; Summing up his Successes in an Exquisite Man- 
ner. To be sold by John H olden in the New Exchange. 
London, printed by Tho. Xewcourt, 1652." 

I have looked over my seventeenth century 
newspapers, and find two examples of advertise- 
ments previous to that date. These occur in the 
Mercurius Elencticus, No. 45, Oct. 4, 1G48, which 
, contains this : 

" The Reader is desired to peruse A Sermon, Entituled 
A Looking-glasse for Levellers, Preached at S' Peters, 
Paules Wharf, on Sunday Sept. 24, 1648, by Paul Knell, 
Mr. of Arts. Another Tract called A Reflex upon our 
Reformers, with a Prayer for the Parliament" 

And No. 47, Oct. 18, 1648, has 

" The Reader is desired to take notice of two Bookes 
newly Printed and Published. One is Anti-MerLinus 
or a Confutation of Mr. William Lillies Predictions for 
this yeare 1648. The other A Breefe discourse of the pre- 
sent Miseries of the Kingdome, &c." 

These are printed at the bottom of the last 
page. JOHN PIGGOT, JUN., F.S.A. 

REMARKABLE EPITAPH. At the entrance of 
the church of San Salvador, in the city of Oviedo, 
in Spain, is a most remarkable tomb, erected by a 
prince named Silo, with a very curious Latin in- 
scription, which may be read two hundred and 
seventy ways, by beginning with the capital S in 
the centre. 



These letters are inscribed on the tomb : 

H. 8. E. S. S. T. T. L. 

the initials of the following Latin words : 

"Hie situs est Silo. , Sit tibi terra levis." 
Here lies Silo. May the earth lie light on thee. 


THE VERB " COLLIDE." The verb collide," 
generally reckoned as of American introduction, 
is used by Carlyle in Latter-Day Pamphlets, pub- 
lished 1850. In the edition of 1858, p. 137, line 
18, " clash and collide as seems fittest to you." 


Scott in Rub Roy puts the following aphorism 
into the mouth of Bailie Nicol Jarvie : " It's nae 
mair ferlie to see a woman greet, than to see a 
goose gang barefit," and I have always thought 
this not the least racy and origins.! of the worthy 
Bailie's quaint sayings. But in turning over the 
third series of Southey's Commonplace Book, I 
find at p. 800 a quotation from the Anatomy of 
Melancholy which proves Scott to have been anti- 
cipated by Burton. It is " As much pity is to 
be taken of a woman weeping as of a goose going 
barefoot." H. A. KENNEDY. 

Junior United Service Club. 


I have been reading, not for the first time, 
Mr. William Bernard Mac Cabe's beautiful ro- 
mance called Bertha, and a question has again 
occurred to me, which I was upon the point of 
asking in your columns more than twenty years 
ago, when the book was first published. 

Among the characters introduced are divers 
members of the sect of the Paterini. They are, 
as far as my knowledge extends, not represented 
in darker colours than they deserve ; but every- 
thing about these mediaeval heretics is so obscure, 
even to the derivation of their name, that it is 
almost impossible to feel certain that any picture 
of them, whether drawn by historian or romance 
writer, represents the men such as they were. 
One opinion attributed to them by Mr. Mac Cabe 
*is so horrible that I would fain believe it owes its 
origin to the fancy of the author. I quote his 
own words, put into the mouth of a member of 
the sect, and am very anxious to know whether 
there be any contemporary authority to substan- 
tiate their accuracy : 

" I do not believe that there is another world ; but I 
am much disposed to believe and, in fact, cannot pre- 
vent myself from believing that, after what is generally 
called death, there is life in this world. I believe that, 
in that rotting, momentarily corrupting piece of defunct 
humanity, which we designate a corpse, there is still left 
the power of thought, and even of feeling, although the 
powers of motion and expression have alike departed 
from it ; and I believe, moreover, that, as long as that 
mass remains together, whether it be in the totality of 
the flesh, or the completeness of the skeleton, that the 
mental sentient man is there; and hence it is that I do 
believe the Pagan Eomans acted like sensible philo- 
sophers, when they directed their bodies should be burned, 
instead of consigning them to ages of misery and abhor- 
rence in filthy graves." Vol. i. p. 185. 

Another reference to this superstition may be 
found in vol. iii. p. 190. CORNUB. 

LORDS OF BRECON. A gentleman from Brecon 
Place was kind enough to answer a query respect- 
ing the lords of Brecon. Would that same gen- 


. X. JULY 6, '72. 

tleman oblige me with a copy of the pedigree of 
Bleddyn ap Maernarch, as the querist finds he 
cannot quite understand how the Welsh pedigrees' 
run? H. A. DE SALIS, 169, Finborough Road, 
West Brompton. 

" DORA." Is there any explanation of the fol- 
lowing coincidence : Tennyson's Dora is identical 
with a sketch of Miss Mitford's, entitled Dora 
Cresivell (Our Village, 2nd series), as regards the 
principal incidents only the farmer's name is 
different; while the Mary Hay of Our Village 
becomes in the poem "a labourer's daughter, 
Mary Morrison." WALTHEOF. 

In the Recollections of Welby Pugin, published by 
me in 1861, 1 have given an anecdote of Napoleon, 
when First Consul, and the artist Isabey, as it was 
told me -by the elder Pugin, who was on intimate 
terms with Isabev. I have read in one of the 
late Charles Lever's books (but cannot remember 
the title of it) a very similar story, but slightly 
varied. I shall be glad if any of your readers can 
refer me to the work in which it is contained, 
and I am curious to know whence the late Mr. 
Lever obtained his information, as I always under- 
stood that the extraordinary incident related by 
Pugin was not generally known. 

I annex the account as given by me (p. 31) : - 

" Isabev, the favourite miniature painter to Napoleon L, 
was another of his companions. This man boasted of 
his familiar acquaintance with the Emperor Avhen First 
Consul. That he was at all events a very presuming 
person, may be inferred from the following practical 
joke told by Pugin. Xapoleon when First Consul resided 
at Malmaison, delighting in the retirement which it 
afforded him in his moments of leisure from state affairs ; 
then it was his custom to take solitary walks in the 
avenues, wrapt in contemplation, with his arms folded 
across his breast. Jsabey one day bragging of his great 
intimacy with Napoleon, boastingly laid a wager that he 
would (as boys do in playing at leap-frog) follow the 
First Consul in his solitary promenade, run behind him, 
and jump over his head. The challenge being accepted 
and the opportunity watched, the artist attempted his j 
practical joke ; which in fact he accomplished, but at a j 
cost he little expected. Isabey running, and planting 
his hands on the First Consul's shoulders, sprung clean 
over his head ; and being recognised and instantly chased, 
would have paid dearly for his frolic had Napoleon caught 
him. Fortunately the artist outran the Consul ; who, 
however, resented the gross liberty by ever afterwards 
excluding Isabey from his presence." 


FOREIGN INVENTORIES. I am anxious to know 
the titles of German and Dutch books containing, 
either in Latin or in the vernacular, inventories 
of articles of domestic use : such as we find in 
account rolls and testamentary documents in this 

Has anything been published on the Continent 
similar to the Fabric Rolls of York Minster 
(Surtees Society), or the various early church- 

wardens' accounts that have seen the light in 
the Archceoloyia and elsewhere ? CORNUB. 

impression of Hogarth's picture of "Garrick in 
the Green Room," surrounded by his friends, and 
should be glad to learn where I can consult a key 
to the names of the persons. I have also a proo'f 
before any letters of a fine portrait, I feel con- 
vinced, of Dr. Johnson. The two hands rest on a 
book, and the chin rests on the hands. The 
natural hair is combed back; the face almost 
profile, with a profound expression of attention. 
Information is requested as to painter, engraver, 
and subject. J. B. D. 

[There is no key to the print of " Garrick in the G-reen 
Room," engraved by Ward, and it is doubted whether 
the picture was painted by Hogarth. The print is no 
rarity, the plate being probably still in existence. There 
is a portrait of Dr. Johnson, answering to our corre- 
spondent's description, in the British Museum collection.] 


" Old Simon Lang is dead, who for many years past 
has been the sole survivor of a long line of self-appointed 
dignitaries. He died, April 23, at Kelling near New- 

It would be interesting to many readers of 
" N. & Q." to hear something of the origin of the 
Gretna marriages ; the earliest records of them ; 
the celebrities and scions of noble houses who 
have been joined by the Gretna priests; also, the 
form of ceremony adopted necessarily at times, 
I suppose, a very hurried one. As we are told, 
the last ceremony he ever performed was in com- 
plete dishabille, he having nothing on but his shirt 
and drawers. Gretna has declined in fame with 
the advance of science, in this age of steam. Many 
of the rising generation would be interested in 
facts relating to the golden days of the Border 
village. EGAR. 

I should be glad to be informed if there was a 
register kept of the marriages celebrated in former 
days at Gretna Green. And if so, whether these 
registers have ever been copied and published ? 


26* Rutland Street, 

GUINEA-LINES. The last bookseller's catalogue 
which I have read describes some of the books as 
having guinea-lines. What are these ? I have 
read a good many catalogues, but never came 
across the term before. F. M. S. 

[The guinea-lines are, no doubt, those that are tech- 
nically known among bookbinders as the guinea-edges 
the lines resembling the rim of the old guineas running 
down the outside of some books close to the backs.] 

William Heald, clerk, married Hester, daughter 
of J. Whitley, and was living in 1653. Can any 
correspondent inform, me what living he held, or 
who were his parents? also the residence of 

4 th S. X. JULY 6, 72.] 



J. Whitley, his father-in-law, and any other in- 
formation regarding these families ? 

JAMES Eusur. 
21, Ainger Terrace, Regent's Park, X.\V. 

HERITABLE MILLERS. I shall be greatly obliged 
for any references as to the position, revenues, c. 
of " heritable millers " in Scotland in days of old. 
What was the office of a heritable miller, and 
how was it acquired? Was it necessarily held 
by one individual, and was it attended with any 
other duties than those involved in drawing the 
revenues from the mill or mills P I presume, 
from the following extracts, that the heritable 
miller ' was not necessarily the bond fide miller 
who ground the corn. 

In the chart-alary of Newbottle mention is made 
of " Eufamia nobilis mulier tenens tertiam partem 
molendini de Stanhus " [Stenhouse]. 

In 1C77 Adam Scott alienated the heritable 
office of miller of the mills of Musselburgh, near 
Edinburgh, to James, Patrick, and Francis Scott, 
writers in Edinburgh ; and in 1715 Gideon Scott, 
of Falnash, possessed a third part of the heritable 
office of miller of the same mills. 

Where can I find any account of the revenues 
-of the actual and heritable millers, and the pro- 
portions in which the amounts were divided 
between them ? F. M. S. 


M Stands Scotland where it did ? Alas ! no more, 
Since truant Jeffrey flies his native shore 
For who among her sons to speed their gains 
(Her sons, more famed for brimstone than for brains) 
Like him retraced the path which Kenrick trod, 
Traduced his country, and blasphemed his God ? 
Mourn Caledonia ! let thy rocks reply, 
Not leaden Sydney can his loss supply. 
Too dull, alas ! to satisfy a pique, 
His heart is willing, but his brain is weak." 

Modern Dunciad. London, 1835. 

On what writing of Kenrick is this charge 
made ? I know only his Falstaff's Wedding and 
Poems, Ludicrous, Satirical, and Moral, London, 
1768, 8vo, pp. 307. This volume contains the 
" Epistles to Lorenzo," which, though not free 
from scepticism, do not appear to me blasphemous, 
or implying anything which may not be legally 
maintained by a clergyman of the Church of 
England. Without concurring in his opinions, I 
have read his poetry with much satisfaction. 
Some people have a bad habit of calling all who 
differ from them "blasphemers," and the title 
may be as inapplicable to Kenrick as to Jeffrey, 
of whom Daniel says, in a note in the third edi- 
tion, 1815, but not reprinted in that of 1835 : 

" The criticisms of this man, in the Edinburgh Review, 
are notorious for their vulgarity and profaneness. He is 
now, it is said, gone to America, leaving his journal to 
the Hon. Mr. Lambe, the Rev. Sydney Smith, and others. 
How far the predictions of these brutal Scotchmen," &c. 

It is strange that a man who could write so 
well and judge so soundly as Ueorge Daniel 
should have written such undisguised malignity. 
The joke about brimstone was worn out in the 
days of Wilkes ; but even his followers did not 
impute to the Scotch want of brains, and it was 
weak to persevere in the " dulness " of " leaden " 
Sydney in 1835. I say to persevere because the 
edition of 1815 has, 

" Mourn Caledonia ! let thy rocks replv, 
Nor Lambe nor Sydney can his lo.-s supply. 
Sj'dney has too much lead, and simple Lambe 
Retains the will but wants the power to damn 
Too dull," &c. 

Lambe in the last edition is left out, and the dis- 
paragement concentered on Sydney, which shows 
that it was not left in by inadvertence. Think- 
ing that Kenrick's blasphemy may be as real as 
the profanity of Jeffrey, the dulness of Sydney 
Smith, and the brainlessness of the Scotch, I ask, 
was there any warrant for the accusation ? 

Garrick Club. 

one inform me of any second-hand booksellers, or 
places where books of decent worth are to be 
bought, in the towns of Cirencester, Gloucester, 
Evesham, and Ross and Stroud ? Information 
sent at once, direct to me, will be most acceptable. 


Tivoli Cottage, Cheltenham. 

LLOYD or TOWY. Information would be gladly 
received respecting the pedigree of Lloyd of Towy, 
'who was sheriff of Breconshire in the reign of 
Elizabeth, and who is buried in Builth church. 
The family property of Pencoedcae, situated near 
Builth, is still possessed by a descendant of Lloyd 
of Towy, but there are certain links in the chain 
of descent wanting. Can any of your readers 
supply the complete pedigree ? T. P. PRICE. 

23, Old Square, Lincoln's Inn. 

your readers inform me at which of the London 
churches there are monumental brasses ? 


MARLEY HORSES. Will you kindly inform me 
what are, and where I may glean some informa- 
tion respecting, the Marley (?) horses ? J. P. B. 

"THE OATH." A new play called The Oath 
was performed at Newcastle-on-Tyne for the first 
time on 20th May, 1816. Who was author of 
this drama, and was it printed ? E-. INGLIS. 

answer to E. L. S. (p. 475) says that the crank 
in civil prisons is the favourite example of the 
opus inoperosum. The expression is employed as 
if one in familiar use to designate unproductive 



[4 th S. X. JULY 6, 72. 

labour. It may be familiar to others, but I would 
ask whether, if inoperosus is a Latin word at all, 
the translation would not be " unlaborious " or 
" easy," instead of t( unproductive," thus giving a 
meaning the reverse of that intended. E. S. GK 

K OTHER- WOBLDLIITESS," With whom did this 
phrase originate ? Curiously enough, it is used by 
two writers in the same number of the Contem- 
porary Review (June, 1872), where it is spoken 
of by one as "Coleridge's happy phrase" (p. 5) ; 
by the other as " Leigh Hunt's phrase " (p. 28). 


Tor qua}'. 

THEODORE PARKER. Wanted, any biographical 
sketches, magazine articles, or other books and 
information regarding Theodore Parker, an Ame- 
rican literate of reputation. Address, H. BRIDGE, 
136, Gower Street, Euston Square. 

PRESERVATION OF SEALS. I have a good col- 
lection of the conventual, municipal, and other 
seals of my native county. Can any of your cor- 
respondents tell me how to preserve them in a 
safer form than that of sealing-wax ? I should 
prefer electrotype. Is there any one who does 
this well and cheaply ; or is there a simple method 
of doing it myself? T. Q. COUCH. 


QUOTATIONS WANTED. Who is the author of 
the paradoxical remark, that the best way to be- 
come well acquainted with a subject is to write a 
book about it ? JAMES T. PRESLEY. 

" Anser, apis, vitulus, regna gubernant." 
Pen, wax, and parchment govern the world. 

These words, quoted a week ago by the wise 
Punch, are apparently the beginning and ending 
of an hexameter verse. What are the words 
which should be supplied between vitulus and 
regna ? and where are they to be found ? H. K. 

" My father gave high towers three, 
To Lilias, Christobel, and me. 
In the space between the towers 
He set for us the fairest flowers : 
For them white rose and eglantine, 
The myrtle and red rose were mine." 


" Romans, countrymen, and lovers, lend me your ears." 
A considerable time ago the idea occurred to 
me that the human ear resembles in form the 
head to which it is attached, and that it no less 
than the cranium or face is indicative of character. 
Since then, observation has tended much to con- 
firm this idea ; and I have only met with one 
instance that appeared to point in a different way. 
My hypothesis, if it deserves to be so called, is 
simply this : As the configuration of a leaf re- 
sembles in outline the mass of foliage from which 
it has been plucked, so the ear of man or woman 

is of the same pattern as the head to which it 
belongs: the ear being large above the external 
opening when (in , phrenological language) the 
moral and intellectual regions in the cranium are 
well developed, and small in the lower lobe when 
the animal propensities are correspondingly small : 
the converse of all this occurring when those parts 
of the brain above the opening of the ear are 
small, and the lower part is large. If there be 
anything beyond mere fancy in this notion of 
ear-symbolism, the model human ear must be, 
not a small one, such as Greek art has assumed, 
but one that is delicately small below the open- 
ing, and well rounded and fully developed ( above; 
and there is this to be said in favour of the idea, 
that the form of ear which, according to it, 
indicates high moral worth and mental power, 
has more of physical beauty than any other. The 
ventilation of this subject may perhaps be not 
unworthy of " N. & Q.'"; at all events, I would 
be thankful to ascertain through your columns 
the opinions of any one competent to speak 
regarding it. W. M'D. 



" One soldier we have heard of who gave up the post 
of honour, and the chance of high distinction, to cover an 
early failure of that great warrior whom England has 
lately lost, and to give him a fresh chance of retrieving 
honour. He did what Eli did, assisted his rival to rise 
above him." Robertson's Sermons, 4th series, Serm. I. 

What is the allusion ? The sermon was preached 
in January, 1848. T. LEWIS 0. DAVIES. 

Pear Tree Vicarage, Southampton. 

I have long known that our Tudor sovereigns 
gave white and green for their livery, and that 
those colours were considered emblematic of 
loyalty during their time. But I have never 
hitherto noticed that the same were maintained 
under the Stuarts. I have just met with the 
account of the Petition in favour of Church and 
King which was brought to London by the men of 
Surrey in May 1648. It is said they came to White- 
hall, shouting "High for King Charles !" being 
furnished with white and green ribbands. I should 
be glad to have any other contemporary notices 
of these colours pointed out. J. G. N. 

vour correspondents give information in regard to 
the family of Worley, or Wyrley, or Werley, 
other than is contained in Erdeswick's History of 
Staffordshire and Burke's Landed Gentry? The 
family came over with the Normans, settled at 
Sandon in Staffordshire, and removed thence to 
Dodford in Northamptonshire. Their names are 
given in the authentic Roll of Battle Abbey. ^ The 
direct male line is now extinct. What is the 
origin of the name ? A. WORLEY. 

Xew York. 

S. X. JULY 6, '72.] 





(4 th S. ix. 484.) 

I am happy to be able to furnish HERMEN- 
TRTJDE with a satisfactory response, having some 
years ago pursued the same inquiry for myself. 
The result is given in my Biographical Memoir of 
King Edward the Sixth, at p. cxci. ; but as I am 
not aware that it has hitherto been drawn forth 
into more popular literature than that of the Rox- 
burghe Club, I will now briefly relate it. I found 
that no really contemporary account of the Lady 
Jane's marriage, from' the pen of English chroni- 
nicler or letter-writer, has been published, nor 
was the day of its solemnization ascertained either 
by our historians or by the biographers of the 
Lady Jane. The dates they mention by conjec- 
ture range from the. beginning of May to the be- 
ginning of June, One author only, so far as I 
could discover, positively names May 21, 1553; 
this is Hutchinson, in his History of Durham, 
vol. i. p. 430, but without quoting any authority. 
Grafton, in his Chronicle, states, " About the be- 
ginning of the nioneth of May there were three 
notable marriages concluded, and shortly after 
were solempnized at Durham Place " j which state- 
ment Stowe follows in his side-note, "Three 
notable marriages at Durham Place "; but in his 
text he mixes up with the three the marriage of 
Martin (really Thomas) Key es to the Lady Mary 
Grey, which did not occur until August 1565. 
This misled Sir John Hayward, who alters Stowe's 
" three" into "divers notable marriages," and 
thenceforward this mis-statement is copied by 
Heylyn, Burnet, and other historians, and even 
adopted by Dugdale in his Baronage, ii. 259. The 
three contemporary marriages were Lord Guil- 
ford Dudley to the Lady Jane Grey, the Lord 
Herbert (son of the Earl of Pembroke) to her 
sister the Lady Katharine Grey, and Lord Hast- 
ings (son of the Earl of Huntingdon) to the Lady 
Katharine Dudley, daughter of the Duke of 
Northumberland. They were celebrated at the 
duke's town mansion, Durham Place (which stood 
on the site of the present Adelphi, in the Strand), 
on Whitsunday, May 21, 1553. Any official re- 
gistration of the solemnization that was made is 
either destroyed or undiscovered ; and there is no 
fuller account of it than the following, from the 
pen of an Italian visitant, Giulio Raviglio Rosso : 
" nelle feste dello spirito santo, le nozze molto 
splendide e reali, e con molto concorso di populo 
et de' principal! del regno." (Historia delle cose 
occorse nel regno d 1 Inghilterra, in materia del Duca 
di Notomberlan, dopo la morte di Odoardo VI.} 
The feast of the Holy Ghost, as Rosso terms it, 
or Whitsunday, fell in 1553 on May 21 ; there- 
fore Hutchinson had ascertained the correct date, 

but whether from Rosso or through any other 
channel I could not tell. The 21st of May was 
only six weeks and four days before the declining 
King breathed his last, on July G. How interest- 
ing would any authentic details be of the manner 
in which those six weeks were passed by the 
amiable Lady Grey and the handsome bridegroom 
who certainly won her affection. They have been 
left open to the imagination and invention of the 
poet and romance-writer. Was that honeymoon 
passed at the palace of Richmond, or at her father- 
in-law's house at Syon ? The only grain of con- 
temporary information that we have is from the 
Chronicle of the Grey Friars of London that on 
July 10, four days after the King's death, Jane 
was brought as Queen from Richmond to West- 
minster, and so to the Tower of London by water. 
I have suggested in The Chronicle of Queen Jane 
and Queen Mary (Gamden Soc. 1850), p. 3, that 
Richmond and Syon might be readily confused, 
and perhaps it is more probable that the young 
couple were immediately under their parents' eyes- 
at Syon, than enjoying that freedom which our 
modern manners would have afforded them, in an, 
establishment of their own at Richmond. 


(4 th S. ix. 422, 488.) 

It would have been too presumptuous to expect 
that the protest of an humble individual though 
a sufferer could prevail to the disuse of this 
fashion of dining. But some one must begin in 
every kind of opposition ; and notwithstanding the 
different opinions of P. P. and P. A. L., I am not 
without hopes that many will side with me. 

The loss of the lady's fine silver dishes and 
tureens is certainly one to be lamented; and is 
hardly made up for by the greater display of gor- 
geous epergnes, flower and fruit vases, and a grand 
centrepiece ; to say nothing of the drawback that 
the central horticultural display often completely 
hides the company on the opposite side of the 

The difficulties raised by the above correspond- 
ents chiefly concern the carvers; and I allowed 
that there lay the principal arguments in favour 
of these dinners. But I write rather as one of 
the company, and plead in their behalf. For it 
appears very selfish for the master and mistress to 
consult their own comfort, so much to the discom- 
fort of their guests ; and after all, I cannot see 
that there is much reasonably alleged on their 
side. For there is, or there ought to be, a real 
pleasure in helping one's company, even if it be 
sometimes to our own privation, and particularly 
in studying and gratifying each one's taste, as far 
as practicable ; a matter which, as I have shown, 



.X.JULY 6, 72. 

is totally thrown aside in the system of which 
I complain, as the servants cut alike for all indis- 

The bill of fare, or the menu, as it is now af- 
fectedly called, is, as P. P. hints, often but scan- 
tily distributed ; and it also often happens that 
some of the dishes are served out of their due 
order, and that others never appear at all. Then 
compare, even at the best, the trouble of perpetu- 
ally consulting this culinary " Bradshaw,'"' and 
striving to bear the order of dishes in rnind, with 
the comfort, in the true English system, of seeing 
every thing at each course displayed before you 
on the table, and inviting your choice, which has 
not either to wait to be gratified. 

P. P. assumes quite gratuitously that I am 
unduly fond of the smell of fish, game, &c. under 
my nose. I think one cannot object to the smell 
of what one is actually eating, and really not 
much more reaches our olfactories than what is 
on the plate before us. But if we are to analyse 
dinner odours, I must own to liking far more the . 
smell of meats which are not long together on the 
table, than of fruits, apples, strawberries, melons, 
c,, which are sending forth their odours the 
whole time of the repast. I see no objection in 
the attention shown to the lady of the house by 
gentlemen relieving her of the small trouble of 
carving. I doubt if Russian dinners are more 
economical, when one sees so many portions carved 
and taken away because no one chooses them ; and 
nothing, in my opinion, can compensate for the 
much longer time taken up by these dinners, and 
the tedious waiting between each serving. In 
our good old system you could keep going on ; 
and when one dish was despatched, send for some- 
thing else that you liked, instead of sitting list- 
lessly staring at the fruits and flowers before you, 
if, as it will happen, your neighbours do not in- 
vite conversation, till it pleases the servers to offer 
you something else ; and if that was not accept- 
able, being in" for another five or ten minutes of 
tantalizing vacancy. I once asked a lady next to 
me if she liked these dinners : she answered yes, 
but that they would not suit if you were hungry. 
The ladies with their lunch a real dinner at 
two, and their tea at five, have of course no chance 
of sitting down hungry at seven ; but this is not 
doing justice to the principal meal. Though I 
never witnessed such a mishap as an old lady's 
head-gear being hooked off by a footman's sleeve 
button, I have had my full share of disasters, such 
as the butler tottering under a heavy surloin, and 
spilling the hot gravy over my best habiliments. 
Still I cordially say to our old dinners : 
" English ! with all your faults, I love you still." 

F. C. H. 

(4 th S. ix. 486.) 

I have some little knowledge of the subject 
referred to, having had two near relatives in the 
tontine above-mentioned, and having in fact (some 
forty-five years ago) received for them their in- 
terest on stock in the tontine ; for which purpose 
I had to grope my way along some dark passages 
to the office of the Clerk of the Pell (whatever 
that may be), somewhere in the purlieus of West- 
minster Hall. 

The plan of this tontine was somewhat after 
this fashion: Government issued 1,000,0007. of 
stock, which was taken up by individuals : 100/. 
only being allotted to each, and the interest being 
payable to each holder only for life. The interest 
(say at 3 per cent.) on the million tontine stock 
would be 30,000/. ; and the number of tontine 
holders would be at the outset one thousand, who 
for the first year would, of course, only receive 
3L interest each. Bat the principle of the tontine 
is, that the total interest on the original million 
continues to be divided amongst the surviving 
tontine holders, who necessarily diminish in num- 
ber yearly. So that the last survivor would take 
the whole interest (30,000/0 during the remainder 
of his life. This is the tontine theory, supposed to 
be honestly carried out. I will now simply state 
the facts as regarded my two female relatives. 
They were respectively aged about seventeen and 
twenty when their names were put into the ton- 
tine. The younger one received the interest on 
her 100/. tontine for about fifty-two years, and 
then died. ' At the time of her death she received 
some 71. or 8/. only ! The elder one lived about 
sixty-two years, that is, to the age of eighty-two. 
At the time of her death, I believe her interest 
had not risen to more than 14/. ! ! Any actuary 
can calculate how many persons out of one thou- 
sand, would be living after the lapse of sixty-two 
years. Your readers may draw their own con- 
clusions. M. H. JR. 


R. T. will probably find all the information he 
wants in M'Culloch's Commercial Dictionary. This 
dismal kind of property is described as follows in 
the dictionary of the French Academy : 

" Sorte de rentes viageres, avec droit d'accroissement 
pour les survivants." 

So that the surviving proprietor cheerfully takes 
the pool. R. H. WELDOIS T . 


In my youth I used to hear much of tontines. 
The longest survivors were, of course, the greatest 
gainers. The originator of this plan was Lorenzo 
Tonti of Naples, and it has naturally taken his 
name. A tontine is a loan for a life annuity for a 

4 th S. X. JI:L\ G, '72.] 



certain interest. The lenders are distributed into 
classes by their ages : all of thirty in one class, 
all of thirty-one in another, and so on. The whole 
annual fund of each class is divided among its 
members. As they die out, the survivors con- 
tinue to receive the same equally divided among 
them, so that their gains keep increasing, till at 
last the whole annual fund falls to one survivor; 
and upon his death, it reverts to the originators 
of the tontine. So that the scheme is merely an 
annuity to a number of persons instead of one, 
constantly diminishing till the whole is payable 
to a single one. F. C. H. 

(4 th S. ix. 277, 345, 434.) 

Only yesterday, on my return to town, had I 
an opportunity of reading the Act referred to by 
E. V. and the one as amended, 1 Viet. c. 22, 1837; 
and I find nothing there which makes a clergy- 
man liable for entering the age in years ; on the 
contrary, a clause specially exonerates him from 
blame for making all the inquiries required by the 
Act. The Registrar-General's circular probably 
not one clergyman in a hundred has seen ; and 
" not required to enter the precise age," i. e. date 
of birth, is a different matter from saying that 
registering the years is a breach of the law. A 
great number of marriages take place just about 
the time when minors are verging on " full age," 
and yet are ignorant of the fact, or what " full 
age " legally means ; and thus there is reason to 
fear that through the careless entering of "full 
age " in doubtful cases, to save trouble, many 
false entries have been made in large parishes. 
The same inquiry, as to age, has to be made, very 
pointedly, at every census, and a penalty attaches 
to anyone returning a false answer; and on 
other occasions women as well as men have to 
state their ages; and it is for their own interest to 
do so correctly at marriage, as the register, even 
if one statement only be correct, the other ap- 
proximate, will serve as moral, if not as collateral 
legal evidence, of identity, relationship, and other 
points of interest and moment to their families, 
friends, or descendants. In large parishes, couples 
of the same name are sometimes married nearly 
at the same time, two or three John Smiths to 
as many Mary Browns, all of " full age " ; and 
the ages in years, even approximate, would after- 
wards serve to determine who's who. In the 
interests of the public I trust more clergymen 
than ever will, as the majority probably already 
do, enter the ages in years whenever no reluc- 
tance is shown by the persons concerned. 

An occasional source of error which those who 
may be engaged in tracing pedigrees and genealo- 
gies in parish registers would do well to bear in 
mind, is the misspelling of names occasioned by the 

difference of pronunciation between parishioners 
and their clergyman, which the latter sometimes 
forgets to allow for; e.g. Shaw, in Yorkshire or 
Derby, is pronounced " Show " ; but Moule, in 
parts of Somerset, is called " Maule." So in many 
other cases .there is a difference of pronunciation 
in Norfolk, in Cheshire, in Cornwall, and Somer- 
set ; and I remember seeing surnames of the same 
family spelt in different ways from this cause. 

Compton Terrace, Highbury. 

(4 th S. ix. 504.) 

There is not the slightest doubt as to the date 
of the death of Sir John Denham. He was buried 
in Westminster Abbey, March 23, 1668-9. His 
will, dated on the 13th of the same month, was 
not (from some unknown cause) proved until 
May_9, 1670. Pepys, therefore, was correct in 
this instance. I wish, however, to take advantage 
of the question thus raised by referring to another 
matter in which Pepys's accuracy has been lauded 
unduly, to the discredit of another diarist of still 
greater eminence. 

Pepys, under date of August 10, 1667, stated 
that he was that day informed by the bookseller 
at the New Exchange that Cowley was dead. To 
this paragraph Lord Braybrooke appended the 
following foot note : 

" We have here a striking instance of the slow com- 
munication of intelligence. Cowley died on the 28th of 
July, at Chertsey ; and Pepys, though in London, and at 
all times a great newsmonger, did not learn till the 10th 
of August that so distinguished a person was dead. 
Evelyn says that he attended Cowley's funeral on the 3rd 
of August, which shows that he did not keep his diary 
entered up as regularly as our journalist, for the inter- 
ment is thus recorded in the register of Westminster 
Abbey : ' On the 17th of August, Mr. Cowley, a famous 
poet, was buried at the foot of the steps to Henry VII.'s 
chapel.' " 

Although Lord Braybrooke appears to hav 
quoted the Abbey register, it is clear that he 
really quoted from the version of it printed in the 
Collectanea Top. et Gen. vii. 374. In order to 
comprehend fully my further remarks, I give two 
consecutive entries from the burial register of the 
Abbey, under the year 1667 : 

" Aug. 3. Mr. Cowl} 7 -, a famous Poet, was buried neere 
Mr. Chaucer's monument. 

" Aug. 17. TheCountessof Clarendon was buried at the 
foot of the steps ascending to K. H. 7ths Chapel." 

It will be seen that in the Collectanea these two 
entries were jumbled together, the name of the 
Countess of Clarendon being omitted altogether. 
This instance shows pointedly the necessity for a 
revision of that portion of the Abbey register 
printed in the Collectanea, and the importance of 
the work in which I have so long been engaged. 
This mutilated entry misled the learned editor of 



[4th S. X. JULY 6, 72. 

Pepys into making a charge of inaccuracy against 
Evelyn, who, it now appears, was strictly correct. 
On the other hand, however, Pepys only learnea 
on August 10 that Cowley was dead, and for this 
information he had to make a pilgrimage into the 
City, although he had been buried, almost before 
his own eyes, and in great state, a full week before! 

(4 th S. ix. 423, 510.) 

There is no reason why Clare or Clara should not 
have been a woman's Christian name in this coun- 
try from the thirteenth century downwards. Saint 
Clare, the friend of Saint Francis and foundress 
of the Poor Clares, was a popular saint in Eng- 
land. Her name occurs in many of our mediaeval 
kalendars, and is to be found under her feast-day 
(August 12) in Queen Elizabeth's Latin Prayer 
Book. The monastic order that bears her name 
was introduced here by Blanch of Navarre, the 
wife of Edmund, Earl of Lancaster, about 1293. 
They had houses at Aldgate, Waterbeache, Denny, 
and Brusyard (Monast. Anglic., 1846, vi. 1548). 
According to August Potthast's Bibliotheca Medii 
sEvi, two other Clares are commemorated in the 
Ada Sanctorum. His references are August, iii. 
676 j April, ii. 507. FLORENCE. 

Allow me to thank MR. PEACOCK and P. P. for 
their kind response to my suggestion, and to say 
that to " go on and on producing still earlier 
instances," is precisely the state of affairs which 
I desired to evoke. I never meant arrogantly to 
assert that the instances which I gave were the 
earliest which could be found, but merely that they 
were the earliest / had found two very different 
statements ; and I also intended to intimate " if 
any one else should find earlier ones, please 'make 
a note of." 

Within the last few weeks I have met with 
evidence that Clare is earlier than I previously 
knew. I beg to assure MR. PEACOCK that I had 
not forgotten " Clara de Clare, of Gloster's blood," 
and that I did not doubt that Scott had authority 
for his use of the name, i. e. for Clare : for be it 
remembered that his use of Clare or Clara de- 
pends on his metre. But I have now the pleasure 
of adding that two Clares, of the Reformation 
period, appear in the Post-mortem Inquisitions: 
/. P. M. Clarce Nevyll, 21 Hen. VIII. ; and I. P. 
M. Clara North, viduce, 1553. I say advisedlv, 
Clares ; for they are only Claras because their 
names are in Latin. 

Avice is the same as Avis, or Hawise, all being 
derived from Hadewisa, and related to the Ger- 
man Hedwiga. I am glad to hear that Avice, 
Idonia, and Muriel, are not obsolete. I should 

date the disuse of a name from the period when 
it ceased to be employed previous to the modern 

The name of Muriel has certainly not become 
obsolete ; there is a very respectable surgeon in 
Norwich of that name, who is well known ; but 
I am unable to furnish any particulars of his 
family, or to give any idea of the extent of his 
connexions. F. C. H. 

" Ere while he honoured Bertha with his flame, 
And now he chants no less Louisa's name," 

are lines occurring in " A Familiar Epistle to 
Mr. Julian, Secretary to the Muses," one of the 
list of satirical poems in the MS. volume which I 
have ascribed in a former communication to Dr. 
Donne, chaplain to Charles II. HERMEXTRUDE'S 
first public record (1694) of Louisa, therefore, is 
primd facie an evidence in favour of any suppo- 
sition that the work referred to was never pub- 
lished, while on the other hand the MS. proves a 
pre-existence for Louisa, inasmuch as the first line 
of '' The Sham Prophecy," which is 121 pages 
later in the volume, runs thus : 

" In sixteen hundred seventy-eight." 
But possibly the register of St. James's, Piccadilly, 
may refer to the marriage, though rather late in 
life, of the same Louisa, and indeed to Julian, 
whose very amorous feelings towards her may be 
judged from the following additional reference to 
have merited such a consummation : 

" For when his passion has been bubling long, 
The scum att last boyls up into a song; 
And sure no mortall creature at one tyme. 
Was ne're so farr or'e gone in love and rhime. 
To his dear self of poetry he talkes ; 
His hands and feet are scanning as he walks, 
His squinting looks, his pangs of witt accuse 
The verry simtoms of a breeding muse, 
And all to gain the great Louisa's grace, 
But never pen did pimp for such a face." 

A hasty glance through the volume also reveals 
these Christian and nicknames : Lory, Ephelia, 
Franck, Julia, Betty, Lucy, Gary, Harriatt, Nancy, 
Patty, Nan, Nelly, Mall, Nanny, Ned, Dick, Tom 

" Can two such pigmies such a weight suppoi't, 
Two such Tom Thumbs of Satyr in a Court." 

Proverbs. Some " Select Sentences," gathered 
from the best English writers, and included in 
The Speaker (Enfield'^, Warrington Academy, 
Oct. 1774) have since passed into proverbs, as for 
instance : 

"Prosperity gains friends and adversity tries them." . . 

" By others' faults wise men correct their own." 

" To err is human ; to forgive, divine." 

"A friend cannot be known in prosperity; and an 
enemy cannot be hidden in adversitv." 

0. B. B. 

4 th S.X. JULY 6, '72.] 



Your correspondents are right in refusing 
believe that the name of " Muriel " is obsolei 
They will find it in that form in the Peerage 
under the title of Dunmore, and in the form 
u Meriel " under De Tablev. I know other ii 

stances of " Muriel 
seen elsewhere. 

but " Meriel 

I have n 

THOMAS CHAUCER (4 th S. ix. 381, 436, 46 
493.) The principal dates respecting him are a 
follows : 

Constable of Wallingford, Oct. 16, 1399. 

Grand Butler, Nov. 30, 1403: confirmed b 
Henry VI., Dec. 5, 1422. 

Sheriff of Oxon and Bucks before Feb. 20, 

Sent, in suite of Henry le Scrope, to treat wit 
Duke of Burgundy, June 21, 1414. 

Died Nov. 18, 1434. 

(Rot Pat., 1 H. IV., Part 1 ; 5 H. IV., Part 1 
14 H. IV. ; 4 H. V. ; 1 H. VI., Part 1; Rot. Ex 
Pasc. 2 H. V. ; /. P. M. 13 H. VI. 35.) 

Certain offices are alluded to (but not defined 
which Thomas Chaucer held "ex concession 
Johannis Ducis Aquitanie et Lancastrie, Mar. 20 
1399." (Rot. Pat. 22 Pt. II., Part 2.) 

While I believe Thomas to be Geoffrey's son 
I must honestly own that I have never found an 
allusion to him as such in the public records. 


Since penning my former note (4 th S. ix. 468 
I have met with the following extract: 

" The King committed to Thomas Chaucer, Esq., th 
custody of the manor of Adington in Com. Bucks, which 
John Burton, Sen., lately deceased , held for life by de 
myse of Wm. Molyns, Sen., dec d [13801, and which after 
the death of the said John Barton [or Burton] fell into 
the king's hands by reason of the minority of Alianor, dt 
and h. of Win. Molyns, Kt. [dec. 1428'?], sone of the 
foresaid William, who held in capite, and for that reason 
came into the king's hands." [No date, p. 622.] White 
Kennett's Parochial Antiquities. Oxford, 1695". 

This will serve fully to identify the "gentyl 
Molyns"of Lydgate's Chaucer ballad (see "N. &Q." 
(4 th S. ix. 381) with Dame Alianore Molines 
as suggested. I may add that the Molines family 
were very closely related to the Burghershes, 
so that Maud Burghersh, who married Thomas 
Chaucer, was cousin to Sir Wm. Molynes, who 
died 1428, or 1424-5, as some say. A. HALL. 

Miss STEELE (4 th S. ix. 476, 521.) She wrote 
a number of hymns, remarkable for piety of spirit 
and good versification. DR. DIXON calls her Mrs. 
Steele, but she was never married. Her poems 
were collected and reprinted in America in 1808. 

MISERERE CARVINGS (4 th S. ix. 405, 471, 517.) 
In reply^ to the query whether documentary evi- 
dence exists to show that such a penance for incon- 
tinence (as is believed to be represented by the 

miserere carving at Worcester) was ever instituted 
or undergone, see Blount's Jocular Tenures (ed. 
1679, pp. 144 and 149). 

The Close, Salisbury. 

I do not know whether F. C. H.'s note is meant 
for a reply to my query as to the name Miserere, 
but if so, it is no answer at all. Of course we 
know all which F. C. H. says about the thing. 
My question had reference to the name. F. C. H. 
says of the upper seat in the stalls, that " it was 
called miserere as being a merciful contrivance to 
relieve fatigue." If for miserere he had written 
misericordia I should have agreed with him ; but 
then, as now, there would still remain the original 
question namely, what is the origin, meaning, 
and date of first use of the word miserere as ap- 
plied to these seats, or, if F. C. H. prefers to call 
them so, these " small shelves " ? 

3, Delahay Street, Great George Street, S.W. 

(4 th S. ix. 484.) Though unable to supply the 
nformation asked for by HERMENTRUDE, I offer 
;he following particulars concerning the " Hot 
jospeller," in the hope that they may be of some 
use in aiding her researches. 

He was born about 1520, and was the eldest 
son of Thomas Underbill, of a family originally 
from Wolverhampton. In 1544 he sold the manor 
of Hunningham and embraced a martial' life. He 
1 folio wed the wars" in Hainault and France, 
and being at once valiant and accomplished, was 
peedily admitted into the band of gentlemen-at- 
rms. About this time he married Joan Perrins, 
;he daughter of a citizen of London, and by her 
lad eleven children, of whom one received the 
ame of Guilford, and was the godson of Lady 
ane Dudley, better known as Lady Jane Grey. 
Narratives of the Reformation, Camden Society.) 
According to the inquisition taken at the death 
f his brother Ralph in 1556, he succeeded to his 
ands at Stoneleigh and Baginton (both in War- 
wickshire), and in subsequent years exercised the 
ght of patronage of the living at the latter place. 
By an entry in Machin's Diary it would seem 
hat his wife died in 1562, and was buried at Aid- 
ate " with a dozen of scutcheons of arms." In 
563 (the year of the heralds' visitation), he was 
esident at Hunningham. With the close of his 
utobiography all trace of him and his descendants 
lost, and an inquiry made some years ago through 
N. & Q." failed to elicit any information. 
The name as a name lingered for some time 
Baginton ; for we find that in 1628 the parson 
lere had permission to reside in a house on 
Underbill's Farm," and to enjoy the buildings 
d close thereto belonging." (Thomas's Con- 
nation of Dug dale ^) WM. UNDERBILL. 

Kelly Street, Kentish Town. 



X. JULY 6, '72. 

TREYEORD: ELSTED (4 th S. ix. 486.) The 
dedication of the old church at Treyford, Sussex, 
was to St. Mary ; the new church, consecrated itf 
1849, was dedicated to St. Peter. (Lower's .His- 
tory of Sussex, ii. 208.) The saint to whom the 
church at Elsted was originally dedicated does 
not appear to be known. No information on the 
point is given in Bacon's Liber Regis, nor in the 
histories of the county by Dallaway and Hors- 
field. E. H. W. DUNKIN. 

Kidbrooke, Blackheath. 

MONASTIC INVENTORIES (4 th S. ix. 360, 432, 
487.) " Open and spar the book." Spar is here 
clearly in one of the senses of the German v. a. 
sperren, to open out widely and place something in 
the opening to prevent shutting. Das Such auf- 
sperren is exactly in the sense of the English 
phrase. C. D. A. 

IV. Sc. 1 (4 th S. ix. 462.) Sympathy equality, 
is not uncommon in Shakespeare 
" A sympathy in choice." 

Midsummer NigJii's Dream, I. 1. 
" Be what it is, 

The action of my life is like it, which 
I'll keep, if but for sympathy." 

Cymbel'me, V. 4. 

See also Falstaff' s letter, Merry Wives, II. 1 
" A message well sympathized." 

Love's Labour's Lost, III. 1. 



" Fortune (who slaves men") was my slave; her wheel 
Hath spun me golden threads." 
The Roaring Girl, Dodsley, vol. vi. p. 14, ed. 1825. 

Rustington, Littlehampton, Sussex. 

REV. THOMAS ROSE, temp. EDW. VI. (4 th S. ix. 
484.) Lysons says (Environs of London, iv. 265) 
of him : 

" Upon Queen Elizabeth's accession he returned, and 
took possession again of the vicarage of Westham, which 
he resigned in 15G3 for the living of Lutenhoo in Bed- 
fordshire, where he died at a very advanced age." 


" Oss " OR ORSE " (4 th S. ix. 404, 492, 524.) 
I have often heard this word used in Lincolnshire ; 
it Appears to me to be a corruption of " offer," e. g. 
" it's ossing to rain," i. c. " it is offering to rain." 

Springthorpe Rectory. 

MYSTICISM : MILTON (4 th S. iii. 506, 598.) 

" My tastes are with the aristocrat, my principles with 
the mob. I know how the recoil from vulgarity and 
mobocracy, with thin-skinned and over-fastidious sen- 
sitiveness, has stood in the way of my doing the good 
I might do. My own sympathies and principles in this 
matter are in constant antagonism, and until these can 
be harmonised, true Christianity is impracticable. A 

greater felt the same Milton ; but he worked far more 
ardently for his principles, though as life went on he 
shrank more and more from the persons with whom his 
principles associated him ; and so at last never went even 
to church, detesting the dissenter's vulgarity and the 
republican's selfishness." Life and Letters of Frederick 
W. Robertson, M.A., London, 1866, ii. 126. 

J. G. 

A PICTURE (4 th S. vii. 189.) MR. SHEARES, of 
Highbury, is anxious for the artist's name who 
executed this work. Baron Tolly, of Brussels, 
designed and painted this striking scene in Fra^nk- 
lin's sojourn at the court of Versailles in 1778. 
W. O. Gellon, of London, has engraved this work 
of art. JNO. KEYDAN. 

South Kensington. 

NAMES OF PAPER (2 nd S. i. 251 : 4 th S. vi. 
417, 557.) 

" Printers are sometimes asked why various kinds of 
paper obtained the peculiar names they bear. Here is 
the reason : In ancient times, when comparatively few 
people could read, pictures of every kind were much in 
use where writing would now be employed. Every shop, 
for instance, had its sign, as well as every publichouse ; 
and those signs were not then, as they are often noAv, 
only painted upon a board, but were invariably actual 
models of the thing which the sign expressed as' we still 
occasionally see some such sign as a beehive, a tea canis- 
ter, or a doll, and the like. For the same reason, printers 
employ some device, which they put upon the title-pages 
and at the end of their books. And papermakers also 
introduced marks by way of distinguishing the paper of 
their manufacture from "that of others ; which marks 
becoming common, naturally gave their names to differ- 
ent sorts of paper. A favourite paper-mark between 1540 
and 1560 was a jug or pot, and would appear to have 
originated the term ' pot paper.' The fool's cap was a 
later device, and does not appear to have been nearly of 
such long continuance as the former. It has given place 
to the figure of Britannia, or that of a lion rampant sup- 
porting the cap of liberty on a pole. The name, however, 
has continued, and we still denominate paper of a par- 
ticular size by the title of ' foolscap.' ' Post ' paper seems 
to have derived its name from the post horn, which at 
one time was its distinguishing mark. It does not appear 
to have been used prior to the establishment of the 
General Post Office (1670), when it became a custom to 
blow a horn ; to which circumstance, no doubt, we may 
attribute its introduction. Bath post is so named after 
that fashionable citv." Engineer, March 17, 1871. 



RED DEER (4 th S. ix. 428, 493, 521.) The 
ancient Derbyshire Forest (De alto Pecco} used to 
abound with red deer. Glover, the county his- 
torian, says that most of the deer perished in a 
great snow about the time of James I. and the 
latter part of the reign of Queen Elizabeth. 

Hazelwood, Belper. 

The whole epitaph upon this worthy, who " was 
considered the most accomplished hero of his age 
in the practice of deer-stealing," is as follows : 

4S.X. JULY G, '72.] 



ever, be permitted to suggest that a distinction 
should be drawn, in strict accuracy, between 
Christian names originally surnames, such as 
Percy, Sidney, &c., and names which, though 
now used as surnames, were Christian names 
originally, and have never entirely ceased to be 
so ? Herbert and Cecil are of the latter class, and 
were Christian names long before any one thought 
, of using them as surnames. HERMENTRTJDE. 
This epitaph was made some time before the 
hero's death, and so delighted was he with it that 
he had it graven upon a stone in anticipation of I in his note on this subject, writes "'Thogh ye 
his demise. He died in 1752, in his seventy- | hadde loste the ferses twelve' has no definite 

I suppose ; merely signifying, if your 

1 Here lies a marksman, who, with art and skill, 
When young and strong, fat bucks and docs did kill. 
Now conquered by grim death (go reader tell it) 
He's now took leave of powder, gun, and pellet ; 
A fatal dart, which in the dark did fly, 
Has laid him down among the dead to lie. 
If any want to know the poor slave's name, 
Tis Old Tom Booth ne'er ask from whence he came. 
He's hither sent ; and surely such another 
Ne'er issued from the belly of a mother." 

fifth year. Tnos. RATCLIFFE. 

" MAKE A BRIDGE or GOLD," ETC. (4 th S. ix. 
397, 492.) This proverb, or something similar, is 
put by Bran tome (born about 1547, died 1614), 
in his Memoires (torn. ii. p. 83), into the mouth 
of Louis XII. (succeeded 1498, died 1514). I 
quote from Le Roux de Lincy (ii. 178) : 

" On lit dans Brantome, au sujet de 1'accord fait par 
M. de la Tremouille avec les Suisses apres la deroute de 
Novare et dont le roi Louis XII blamait beaucoup les 
conditions : ' Toutesfois apres avoir bien pese' le tout et 
que pour chasser son ennemy il nefaut nullement espargner 
unpont d 1 argent, quoi qu'il aille un pen de 1'honneur.' " 

But it was also known in Spain at the period 
when Brantome lived, in the precise form of a 
"bridge of silver," as Cervantes, who published 
the first part of Don Quixote in 1605, says (ii. 58) : 
" Que al enemigo que huye hacerle la puente de 
plata " " Make a bridge of silver for a flying 
enemy." Can it be traced to a classical source ? 


ADAM DELVED," ETC. (4 th S. ix. 415? 
476, 517.) The engraving of F. C. H. corresponds 
impart remarkably with some painted glass in a 
window in the parish church of Halam, near 
Southwell, Notts. The upper half only of the 
window, which is square-headed and of two lights, 
is filled with painted glass, containing in each light 
two compartments. The two upper represent S. 
Christopher and S. Blasius (the name of the latter 
is visible across the picture, though his emblem, 
the wool comb, has been replaced with a trian- 
gular piece of white glass). The two lower con- 
tain Adam digging with a long crutch-handled 
spade, and Eve, sitting on a tree-stump spinning. 
The compartments are edged along the sides with 
a border of " popinjays." In the triangular space 
between the heads of the arches of the tracery is 
a shield bearing a chief indented (tincture not 
recognisable), and a chevron gules. The shield, I 
think, must have been or, as there seems to be too 
much discoloration for it ever to have been meant 
for argent. R. F. SMITH, Vicar of Halam. 

ix. 506.) NEPHRITE has started an interesting 
question, parallel with my own. May I, how- 

meaning, 1 suppose ; 

loss had been twelve times as great." The fers, 
in mediaeval chess, was the piece equivalent to 
the modern chess queen, but with power much 
more circumscribed, its range being limited to- 
one square diagonally. When the Shatranj, or 
mediaeval form of chess, developed into the modern 
phase of the game, the fers became the queen, 
and from the rank of a minor piece was elevated 
to that of the most potent on the board, com- 
bining in her own person the powers of rook and 

The Earl of Surrey wrote a graceful little poem 
called The Lady that scorned her Lover, which 
turns upon the similarity between the game of 
chess and the game of life. It contains these 
lines : 

" I rede ye take good heed, 

And mark this foolish verse ; 

For I will so provide 

That I will have your ferse. 

And when j r our ferse is had, 

And all your war is done ; 

Then shall yourself be glad, 

To end that you begun." 

The following passage also occurs in the Booke 
of the Dutchesse : 

" At the chesse with me she gan to play 
With her false draughts full divers. 
She stole on me, and toke my fers ; 
And when I saw my fers away, 
Alas ! I cauthe no longer play." 

Junior United Service Club. 

SIR JOHN VANBRUGH (4 th S. ix. 499.) ID 
Robinson's History of the Priory and Peculiar of 
Snaith, 1861, it is stated at p. 77 that Henrietta 
Maria, first child of Colonel Yarburgh of Hesling- 
ton, was married at St. Lawrence, York, Jan. 14 r 
1718-9, to John Vanburgh, Esq., of Castle Howard. 
They had an only son Charles, an ensign in the 
army, who died in 1745 from wounds received at 
the battle of Tournay. Lady Vanburgh, who was 
left a widow March 25, 1726, died April 22, 1776, 
aged eighty-six. Her will bears date June 15, 
1769. Lord Carlisle was certainly a member of 
the Kitcat Club, his portrait being one of the 
most spirited in that series ,* and Hunter, on the 



[4 th S. X. JULY 6, '72. 

last page of his South Yorkshire, vol. ii., says 
that Lord Carlisle erected the canopy covering 
Robin Hood's Well near Doncaster, from a design 
by Vanburgh or Vanbrugh. It is also said that 
he furnished the design for Duncombe Park. 

G. D. T. 

HERALDIC (4 th S. ix. 180.) I think G. P. C. 
will find coat (3), " Sa. on a chevron or, between 
three griffins' heads erased of the last, langued 
gu., three estoiles of the field," is that of Beale, co. 
Kent. See Berry's Enc. Her. vol. ii. 


CURFEW TOLLS" (4 th S. ix. 339, 436; 
510.) I make no attempt to settle the question 
how the poet intended the line to be punctuated, 
but if he were here I should tell him that the 
reading to which we have been so long and gene- 
rally accustomed was the one preferable for his 
adoption. I cannot agree with my excellent 
friend DR. DIXON that S. Kemble's reading was 
an improvement. The whole tenor of Gray's ex- 
quisite composition appears to me to warrant a 
conclusion to the contrary. F. C.JI. 

DUGDALE'S "MONASTICON" (4 th S. ix. 506.) 
My reprint of Dugdale's Monasticon, edited by 
Caley, Ellis, and Bandinel is verbatim, and page 
for page, a reprint of the edition of 1817-1830, 
but has ari additional portrait of Dugdale which 
had been used in Hamper's Life of Dugdale. Why 
the editor of Lowndes should have fallen into the 
error of stating "there are slight omissions in this 
reprint " cannot be accounted for, as the comparison 
of any leaf would have shown that the reprint 
is, what the prospectus promised, a verbatim reprint 
of the edition of 1817-1830. JAMES BOHN. 

ENEMY" (4 th S. ix. 423.) I had never met with 
this proverb till HERMENTRUDE quoted it. Are 
we to suppose it another form of what we find 
in the Scriptures (Matt. x. 25) ' A man's foes 
shall be they of his own household " ? Tacitus 
(Hist. iv. 70) had remarked how bitter and unex- 
tinguishable were the hatreds of near connections, 
"acerriina proximorum odia," and in this sense 
I would understand " famylyar." It is curious 
to observe that this contentious feeling in the 
bosom of Italian families seems to have been 
handed down to present times, and is marked by 
a proverb which I found to exist among the Nea- 
politans. They say, "II tuo pin gran nemico, 
dopo il fratello, e il servitore " Your greatest 
enemy after your brother is your servant ; but the 
following proverb of the Tuscans seems still more 
like what HERMENTRIJDE has quoted : " Non e 
peggior lite, clie tra sangue e sangue " There is 
no greater strife than that which springs up be- 
tween blood relations ; and they also say, " Chi 
vuol vivere e star sano, da' parenti stia lontano " 

Whosoever wishes to live and remain well, let 
him be at a distance from relatives. The French 
say in very strong language 

" Courroux cle fibres, 
Courroux de diables d'enfers." 

But perhaps it may be only a translation of the 
proverbial expression of Plato (Sophist. 252, c.), 
where he speaks of a domestic (famylyar) enemy 
within a man's own breast 


otKoBev T&I> TroXf/jLiov Ku.1 fva.VTiuxr6u.evoi' 
.... ael iropevovrcu. 

They do not require others to refute them, but walk 
about, having, as the saying is, an enemy and adversary 
at home. 

Some of your correspondents well acquainted 
with the English of the sixteenth century may be 
able to tell us what is the meaning of " famylyar" 
as applied to " enemy." I confess to be puzzled 
somewhat by the use of the expression. 


MAPPA MUNDI (4 th S. ix. 507.) There is a 
fourteenth century Mappa Mundi prefixed to a 
MS. on vellum of the Polychronicon of Higden 
dated 1377, presented by William of Wykeham 
to Winchester College. Jerusalem is placed in 
the centre of a fiat circle, the extreme east being 
India, and the extreme west the Pillars of Her- 
cules. The ocean forms a circular margin, and in 
it floats Britannia opposite toFrancia and Flandria. 


ix. 340, 416) bought by me at Sir Simon Taylor's 
sale for 52/. 10s. afterwards became the property 
of the late Mr. Beriah Botfield. It happened to 
be in his town house at the time of his death, 
and was sold by auction by Messrs. Sotheby 
and Co. JAS. BOHN. 

OAKS AND BEECHES (4 th S. ix. 507.) MAC 
CALLUM may go far a-field before he will find a 
finer group of trees than at Coney Hall Farm, at 
the south-west skirt of Hayes Common, about 
two miles south of Bromley Station. The ferny 
brae on which they stand faces about south-west, 
and the glinting of the sun, when " in westering 
cadence low " on their gnarled trunks and tortu- 
ous limbs and roots, affords a grand study. 

H. H. W. 

10, Fleet Street. 

TRANSMUTATION or LIQUIDS (4 th S. ix. 235, 
328, 410, 476, 521.) I agree with DR. HYDE 
CLARKE that <e it is not easy to see on what prin- 
ciples of comparative philology the English word 
rain can be derived from the Greek rhain" and 
that " it is as reasonable to assume that the Greek 
rhain is derived from the English ram." " The 
Greek root rhain," your other correspondent says, 
" was throwing out its suckers some thousand 

4 th S. X. JULY 6, '72.] 



years before any root of German growth had been 
transplanted to" Britain." This is, however, only 
blank assertion. The word in one form or other 
is found in every dialect of the Gotho-Teutonic 
speech. It is, I believe, a generally accepted fact 
that the Greek, the Gothic, and Slavonic are de- 
scended from some dialect nearly related to San- 
scrit. One writer goes so far as to say that 
remotely such was the affinity between the lan- 
guage of the Greeks and Goths that it is not 
known whether the Goths spoke Greek or the 
Greeks spoke Gothic. J. R. CK. 

426.) When the late Captain Ryder Burton, 
R.N., was a candidate for the Tower Hamlets, his 
facetiousness and humour caused a good amount 
of amusement. On one occasion an elector in 
front of the hustings called out, "You've no 
chance, Burton ! cut your lucky ! " On this the 
gallant tar seized a pen, and in large characters 
wrote beneath one of his election bills, " I have 
naled my colours to the mast ! " This specimen 
ofkakography was hailed with uproarious laughter, 
and the captain was designated " Burton-nale " ! 
A cheap illustrated publication took advantage of 
the inscription and published an engraving (by 
Grant) of a foaming tankard, where the captain's 
phiz figured instead of a Toby's ! Under it was 
inscribed "A Pot of Burton-nale!" The MS. 
passed into the possession of a late popular City 
magnate, who preserved it as a curiosity to amuse 
his friends, one of whom was 


LEPELL FAMILY (4 th S. ix. 506.) There is a 
place named Lepel in S. W. Russia (Vitebsk). 
The name may, however, be derived from Leo- 
polis (Lemberg) ; or perhaps rather from Leo- 
pold or Luitpold; like Tipple from Theobald. 
Lepel, Le Paul, Lepaul, Le'paulle, are found as 
French surnames. The old French word lep is = 


Gray's Inn. 

TREES (4 th S. ix. 504.) The following extract 
illustrative of this subject, from Macaulay's History 
of England, is interesting j but whether the state- 
ment is true, I cannot say : 

" Yet a few months, and the quiet village of Todding- 
ton in Bedfordshire witnessed a still sadder funeral. 
Near that village stood an ancient and stately hall, the 
seat of the Wentwortha. The transept of the parish 
church had long been their burial-place. To that burial- 
place, in the spring which followed the death of Mon- 
moutb, was borne the coffin of the young Baroness 
Wentworth of Nettlestede. Her family reared a sump- 
tuous mausoleum over her remains; but a less costly 
memorial of her was long contemplated with far deeper 
interest. Her name, carved by the hand of him she 
loved too well (i. e. Monmouth), was a few years ago still 
discernible on a tree in the adjoining park" Vol i 
p. 624, second edition, 1850. 

The date of the death of the Baroness Went- 
worth of Nettlestede is 1686, and that of the 
publication of the first edition of Macaulay's His- 
tory of England 1848. No authority is cited by 
the historian for the truth of this statement ; but 
perhaps some Bedfordshire correspondent may be 
able to give information on the subject? 


ICELAND (4 th S. ix. 535.) The Vatna Jokull is 
a vast region of mountain and snow in the south- 
east of Iceland, which has never been ascended or 
explored. The peaks are of no great height. To 
the north lies the Odafta Hraun, a desert of lava. 
The whole extent of desert of snow, mountain, and 
lava is about the area of Devonshire. The Jokull 
derives its name probably from being the source 
of countless rivers and streams. 



Dramatists of the Reformation. The Dramatic Works of 
Sir William D'Avenant. Volume the First. (Pater- 
son, Edinburgh.) 

When one remembers the reputation which the godson 
of Shakespeare, the successor of Ben Jorison in the Lau- 
reateship, and the author of Gondibert, once enjoyed, it 
is certainly matter of surprise that no attempt has been 
made until now to put forth his collected works in a more 
complete and satisfactory manner than that in which 
they are presented to us in the folio edition published by 
Heveringham in 1673. For though what he said of 
Carew may go somewhat beyond what might justly be 
said of Davenant 

" Thy verses are as smooth and high 
As Glory, Love, and Wine from Wit can raise" 
yet the Editors of this new edition are fullv justified in 
asserting that his plays, nearly thirty in "number, are 
ably constructed, and redolent of innumerable flashes of 
wit and high poetic imagery ; and they have shown good 
judgment in giving Sir William Davenant the foremost 
place in their series of The Dramatists of the Reforma- 
tion. The volume before us, which is appropriately 
dedicated to Lord Houghton, contains, in addition to a 
complete and interesting Prefatory Memoir, two tragedies, 
" Albovine" and " The Cruel Brother" ; the tragi-comedy 
"The Just Italian" ; and two masques, " The Temple of 
Love " and " The Prince d'Amour." The names of the 
editors, Mr. Maidment and Mr. Logan, are a sufficient 
guarantee for the accuracy of the text, and the printer 
has done his share of the work in a most creditable 

The Ancient Stone Implements, Weapons, and Ornaments 
of Great Britain. By John Evans, F.R.S., F.S.A., 
Honorary Secretary of the Geological and Numismatic 
Societies of London. (Longmans.) 
When we lately called attention to the fact that, 
although of very recent origin the new study of Pre- 
historic Archaeology was already remarkable for its scien- 
tific results, we were scarcely prepared for such a jus- 
tification of our remarks as is contained in the handsome 
volume before us. After a pleasing introduction, in 
which he sketches the early traces of civilisation through 
the three distinct eras now recognised as the Stone, the 
Bronze, and the Iron, and on the manufacture of stone 



[4th s. X. JULY 6, 72. 

implements in pre-historic times, the author proceeds to 
classify, in a very clear and instructive manner, the 
various implements of the Neolithic Period, wisely re- 
legating to smaller type the bulk of minute details of 
little interest to ordinary readers. But conscious that 
no power of description, however graphic, would avail 
in pointing out the peculiarities and characteristics of 
the early monuments which form the subject of his 
researches, Mr. Evans has enriched his pages with nearly 
five hundred woodcuts. These tell the story so plainly, 
that he may run that readeth it. The book is altogether 
a most interesting and satisfactory one, and fully main- 
tains the character of an intelligent archaeologist which 
Mr. Evans so fairly won for himself by his excellent book 
On the Coins of the Ancient Britons. 
The Poetical Works of George Sandys, now first collected. 

With Introduction and Notes, by the Rev. Richard 

Hooper, M.A., Vicar of Upton and Aston Upthorpe, 

Berks, and Editor of " Chapman's Homer." In Two 

Volumes. (J. Russell Smith.) 

These new volumes of Mr. Russell Smith's valuable 
" Library of Old English Authors " will be very welcome 
to that 'large, and happily increasing class of readers, 
who have imbibed from the study of The Christian Year 
a taste for Sacred poetry. Sandys, so much admired in 
his own day, whose Paraphrases, eulogised by Baxter, 
were frequently perused by Charles during his imprison- 
ment at Carisbrook, and of whom Warton commenting 
on Pope's verses : 

" the easy vigour of a line, 

Where Denham's strength and Waller's sweetness join," 
complains that sufficient justice has not been done, since 
he " did more to polish and tune the English language, 
by his Paraphrases on the Psalms and Job, than either 
of these two writers" is now known to comparatively 
few readers. Mr. Hooper tells us that he is not aware of 
any edition of his works since that dated in 167G. It 
wa"s high time that the reproach upon our national taste 
which is conveyed in this long neglect should be re- 
moved ; and we' trust that the labour of the editor and 
the enterprise of the publisher, in removing it, will 
meet with the success they deserve. 

GUILDHALL LIBRARY. In consequence of the dispute 
in the building trade, the chairman of the New Library 
and Museum Committee, Win. Sedgwick Saunders, M.D., 
announced to the Court of Common Council, at their last 
meeting, that the opening of the new buildings would 
have to be postponed for a few months. 

MR. HUGO REID. This amiable and well-informed 
gentleman died in London on June 13, 1872. He formerly 
held the office of Principal of Dalhousie College, Halifax, 
and was an accurate classical scholar, an able mathema- 
tician, and an enlightened geologist ; and also a frequent 
contributor, under his initials " H. R.," to the pages of 
" N. & Q." A pleasing sketch of his life, from the pen 
of a loving friend, appeared in the Edinburgh Courant of 
June 20, 1872. 

WE hear that a new Monthly Magazine will be pub- 
lished on the 1st of August next. The name of it is to 
be the Et Cetera, and it is to contain high- class articles 
on almost every kind of subject. 

THE BISHOP OF GLOUCESTER has presented to Con- 
vocation a photograph of an ancient manuscript copy of 
the Athanasian Creed with which he had been favoured 
through the kindness of the Master of the Rolls, Lord 
Romiily. The manuscript was stolen from the British 
Museum, and found its way into the public library at 
Utrecht. One of the best palaeographers of the day be- 
lieved the manuscript was to be traced to the period 

between the years A.D. 600 and 700. It contained the four 
damnatory clauses. The recovery of this document would 
render it necessary to re-open the question of the history 
of the Creed. 



Particulars of Price, &c., of the following books to be sent direct to 
the gentlemen by whom they are required, whose names arid addresses 
are given for that purpose : 

Wanted by Mr. Thos. Stephens, Merthyr-Tydfll. 

HUME'S HISTORY OF ENGLAND. Vol. I. Regent's Edition, small STO, 


Wanted by Mr. J. T. Harris, Englefield Green, near Staines. 



LEVER'S KNIGHT OF GWYNNE. Parts 10 and 18. 

Wanted by Mr. A . R. Milne, 199, Union Street, Aberdeen. 

to Corrtfjmntonttf. 

PEL.AGIUS. Lessing's Laocoon was translated into Eng- 
lish bij W. Ross in 1836, price 15s., and by E. C. Beasley 

inlS53,price5s. Some account o/'EpistoltcObscurorum 

Virorum appeared in "N. & Q." 2 nd S. vi. 22, 41, 76. 
The conjectured authors of this work are Ulric von Hutten, 
Joannes Reucldin, and D. Erasmus. 

C. (Feuchurch Street.) According to Jamieson, " Fal- 
derall, is (1.) A gewgaw, synon. Fall-all. (Hogg.} (2.) 
Sometimes used to denote idle fancies or conceits. A. term 
apparently formed from the unmeaning repetitions in some 
old songs." 

JOHN PICKFORP, M.A. Sir Jonah Harrington was 
born at Knapton, Queen's County, Ireland, in 1760, and 
ended a gay, bright, prodigal life in exile in 1832. There 
is a Memoir of him by Townsend Young, LL.D., prefixed 

to the third edition of his Personal Sketches, 1869. A 

copy of Bishop Percy's Essay on the Origin of the Eng- 
lish Stage, 1793, is in the British Museum. At Field's 
sale in 1827 it fetched 12s. 

H. (Edinburgh.) 7 ay lor (Words and Places) conjec- 
tures that the river Tyne may be from the Celtic tian, 
running water. 

X. K. Q. (Monmouth.) Oaths were taken on the Gos- 
pels so early as A.D. 528. The saying " Queen Anne is 

dead," has been noticed in " N. & Q." 4 th S. iii. 405, 467. 
It occurs also in Thackeray's Virginians, p. 204, edition 

W. WHITEACRE. Among the Irish, O' prefixed to 
proper names signifies son of; as O'Neil, the son of Neil ; 
like the Gaelic prefix Mac. 

MYSTIFICATION (Bath). Pauky, or Pawky, means 
(1.) Sly, artful. (2.) Wanton, applied to the eye : 
" The Howdie lifts frae the beuk her ee, 

Says, Blessings light on his pawkie ee ! " 
See Jamieson' s Scottish Dictionary. 

W. B. WlLCOCK (Oswestry). The extract from 
ty~add's Memorabilia on the origin of the snying "Going 
snacks," appeared in " N. & Q." 2 ud S. i. 267. 

To all communications should be affixed the name and 
address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 
as a guarantee of good faith. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print ; and 
to this rule we can make no exception. 

All communications should be addressed to the Editor 
at the Office, 43, Wellington Street, W.C. 

4> S. X. JULY 13, '72.] 





VOTES : The Death-Warrant of Charles 1. 1 another His- 
toric Doubt, 21 Folk Lore : Cuckoos changed into 
Eagles Pins Cures for the Hooping Cough Popular 
Superstition: Churning Irish Folk Lore, 24 Comic 
Newspapers, 25 German Song, 26 Everard, Bishop of 
Norwich, Ib. Collins and his " Baro netage " " La Belle 
Sauvage" "Popular Rhymes and Nursery Tales" 
Primitive Divisions of Time Realis m of the Stage 
The Death of Count Melun " An Anci entand Dangerous 
Custom of Churchwardens," 27. 

QUERIES: "Aurelio and Isabell " Arthur Brooke of 
Canterbury Cat Long and Short Fo rms in Churches 

The Four White Kings Jewish Era "The Judg- 
ment of Solomon " Kinloss Barony Sheri dan Knowles, 
&c. Leylaud and Penwortham Churches Archbishop 
Parker and Dean Hook Maria del Occidente M.P.s of 
Castle Rising Samuel Sutton The Battle of Waterlop 

Ann Wood Worms in Wood, 29. 

REPLIES: Apocryphal Genealogy, 31 Lairg, Largs 
Largo, 33 The Birth of Thomas Sackville, First Earl of 
Dorset, 34 Kylosbern, Ib. Sir Henry Raeburn Din- 
ners "a la Russe" "Titus Andronicus": Ira Aldridge 

Irish Street Ballads Cater-Cousins " What I spent 
that I had," &c. Barker and Burford's Panoramas 
Soho Square lolanthe Japanese Marriage.Ceremouy 
Mr. Kett of Trinity, Oxford " Fetch a Compass " Sir 
Robert Aytoun Napoleon's Scaffold at Waterloo 
"Roy's Wife of Aldivalloch" William Hallet Iron 
Shipbuilding Eccentric Turning, &c., 35. 

Notes on Books, &c. 

Souldiers and other the good people of this Nation 
to he assistinge unto You in this service Given 
under our Hands and Scales 

" To Collonell Ff rands Hacker, Colonel Huncks 
and Lieutenant Colonell Phayre and to 
every of them." 

To this document fifty-nine Commissioners have 
attached their signatures and seals. They occupy 
seven columns (which I will distinguish by letters 
A to G), and are arranged in the following order : 


Let us now examine this Warrant carefully, and 
see how far it confirms or contradicts the official 
Record of the Proceedings connected with it :- 

" At the high Co't of Justice for the tryinge 
and iudginge of Charles Steuart Kinge of 
England January XXIX** Anno Dm 

"Whereas Charles Steuart Kinge of England 
is and standeth convicted attaynted and con- 
demned of High Treason and other high Crymes 

And sentence uppon Saturday last pronounced 


Jo. Bradshawe. 
Tho. Grey. 
O. Cromwell. 
Edw. Whalley. 


M. Livesey. 
John Okey. 
J. Danvefs. 
Jo. Bourchier. 
H. Ireton. 
Tho. Mauleverer. 


Har. Waller. 
John Blakiston. 
J. Hutchinson. 
Willi. Goff. 
? Tho. Pride. 
Pe. Temple. 
T. Harrison. 
J. Hewson. 


Hen. Smyth. 
Per. Pelham. 
Ri. Deane. 
Robert Tichborne. 
H. Edwardes. 
Daniel Blagrave. 
Owen Rowe. 
William Perfoy 
Ad. Scrope. 
James Temple. 


A. Garland. 
Edm. Ludlowe. 
Henry Marten. 
Vin* Potter. 
Wm. Constable. 
Richd. Ingoldesby. 
Will. Cawley. 
J. Barkestead. 
Isaa. Ewer. 
John Dixwell. 
Valentine Wanton. 

Simon Mayne. 
Thos. Horton. 
J. Jones. 
John Moore. 
Gilb. Millington. 
G. Fleetwood. 
J. Alured. 
Rob. Lilburne. 
Will. Say. 
Anth. Stapley. 
Gre. Norton. 
Tho. Challoner. 


Thomas Wogan. 
John Venn. 
Gregory Clements. 
Jo. Downes. 
Tho. Wayte. 
Tho. Scot. 
Jo. Carew. 
Miles Corbet. 

The first thing that strikes one on comparing 
the Warrant with the official record is, that while 
only forty-eight Commissioners attended the 
meeting at which it purports to have been signed, 

against him by this Co't to be put to death by I it bears no less than fifty-nine signatures. 

the severinge of his head from his body Of w ck Nor is the number the only discrepancy. In 

sentence execut'on yet remnyneth to be done the list of Commissioners (ante, p. 2), the names 

These are therefore to will and" require you to see 

the said sentence executed In the open Streete 

before Whitehall upon the morrow being the 

Thirtieth day of this instante Moneth of Janu- 

ary between the hours of Tenn in the morninge 
and Five in the afternoone of the said day w th full 
effect And for so doing this shall be yo r sufficient 
warrant And these are to require All Officers and 

* Concluded from p. 4. 

of those Commissioners who signed the warrant 
are printed in italics, and those who are offi- 
cially reported to have been present are marked 
by the letter W. By these means we learn that 
of the forty- eight 'present on the 29th, four, 
namely Allen, Anlaby, Lisle, and Love, did not 
sign ; so that the Warrant is actually signed by 
fifteen who were not present on the 29th. 

Who those fifteen Commissioners were will be 
seen presently; but meanwhile I wish to point 



[4* S. X. JULY 13, 72. 

out other evidence which the Warrant affords that 
it was not signed on the 29th. 

This is furnished by the fact that the date of 
it, " xxix th " ; the time when sentence was pro- 
nounced "uppon Saturday last"; and besides 
some other minor points, the names of the three 
officers * to whom it was addressed, with the 
exception of the word a Huncks," are written 
over erasures, and in a different hand, from the rest 
of the document. 

Not only does the fact that these alterations, 
made no doubt on the 29th, being in a different 
hand, prove that the document was not entirely 
written on that day ; but the additional fact that, 
and I say it advisedly, on the authority of practised 
writers, it would have taken as little, if not less 
time, to re- copy the whole Warrant, than to make 
the various erasures and insert the corrections, 
unquestionably points to the same conclusion. But 
re-copying would have entailed signing and sealing 
afresh on the part of the Commissioners, who had 
already executed it; and that was, perhaps, not to 
be accomplished. 

Men who possibly repented of what they had 
done might have hesitated to sign a second time ; 
and, like two of those to whom the Warrant was 
originally directed (for there can be little doubt 
that the names of " Hacker " and "Phayre " take 
the place of those of two recalcitrant officials), de- 
clined the responsibility of so great an act. 

There is one other small piece of evidence 
strongly confirmatory of the fact that the War- 
rant was not entirely signed on the " 29th/' the 
day of its professed execution. The word " thir- 
tieth" does not fill up the space originally left for 
the date, which seems to have been left sufficiently 
large to take in the words " twenty-sixth " or 
" seventh," as the case might be. 

But it may be asked, if not signed on Monday, 
the 29th, when was it signed ? Certainly not on 
the 27th, Saturday ; for as originally written, the 
Warrant directed that the execution should take 
place "upon the morrow," and as the majority of 
the Commissioners doubtless shared the feeling of 
him whom Barnabee saw 

" Hanging of his cat on Monday, 
For catching of a mouse on Sunday " 

they would scarcely have sanctioned a public exe- 
cution on that day, even though the sufferer was 
a king. 

But we have probably a correct answer to the 
question If not originally drawn up and signed 
on the 29th, when was it ? in the confession of 
one of the regicides, Augustus Garland, he who, 
as the King was on the last day being removed 
from the Court, " spat in his face." Garland, on 

* It is possible that the names which have been erased 
were Lieut.-Colonel Gobbet and Captain Merryman, to 
whom, in conjunction with Colonel Tomlinson, the cus- 
tody of the King had been committed. 

his trial, said, " I do confess this; I sate and at 
the day of sentence signed the warrant." 

And this statement that the Warrant was 
signed on the day of sentence is confirmed by the 
fact that the fifteen Commissioners who were not 
present on the 29th, but whose signatures are to 
the Warrant, were all present when the Sentence 
was pronounced. They are marked S in the List, 
and are Alured, Carew, Th. Challoner, Clement, 
Corbet, Danvers, Downes, Fleetwood, Lilburne, 
Mauleverer, More, Norton, Stapley, Wayte, and 

I do not contend that the whole fifteen signed 
on the Day of Sentence; for, as will be seen here- 
after, Downes and Wayte were compelled to sign 
on the 29th. But on the " day of sentence " 
whatever that day was, and I am inclined to believe 
it was intended to sentence the King on the 26th 
and execute him on the 27th opinions were pro- 
bably divided, and the execution consequently 
postponed, until a larger number of signatures to 
the Warrant for it had been obtained. 

It is clear that all sorts of expedients were 
resorted to in order to secure a good show of 
signatures to the Warrant. The story of the 
manner in which Ingoldesby was compelled to 
affix his name, as told by Clarendon, though not 
strictly accurate has, no doubt, like all such 
stories, a certain modicum or substratum of truth 
in it. Ingoldesby's story is, that 

" The next day after the horrid sentence was pro- 
nounced he had an occasion to speak with an officer, 
who he was told was in the Painted Chamber, where, 
when he came there he saw Cromwell and the rest of 
those who had sat upon the King ; and were then, as he 
found afterwards, assembled to sign the Warrant for the 
King's death. As soon as Cromwell's eyes were upon 
him he run to him, and, taking him by the hand, drew 
him by force to the table, and said 'though he had 
escaped him all the while before, he should sign that 
paper as well as they,' which he, seeing what it was, 
refused with great passion, saying, ' he knew nothing of 
the business,' and offered to go away. But Cromwell 
and others held him by violence ; and Cromwell, with a 
loud laughter, taking his hand in his, and putting the 
pen between his fingers with his own hand, writ Richard 
Ingoldesby, he making all the resistance he could and he 
said, ' If his name there were compared with what he 
had ever writ himself, it could never be looked upon as 
his own hand.' " Clarendon (ed. 1826), vii. 490. 

Now, though one part of this story seems to be 
contradicted by the fact, that the EICH. ISTGOLDESBY 
subscribed to the Warrant is as bold and free as 
signature can be, and could never have been 
written by Ingoldesby with his hand forcibly 
guided by Cromwell yet, as he certainly never 
took any part in the Trial of the King, and his 
name only appears as having been present on the 
morning of the 29th, when the Warrant was 
signed, it is scarcely probable that he signed save 
under compulsion.* 

* Certain curious points of resemblance between some of 
the letters in the signatures of Cromwell and Ingoldesby 

4*" S. X. JULY 13, 72.] 



Strange as this scene is, it is not without paral- 
lel. In The Trials of the Regicides there is a 
passage (p. 242) which may well be cited here. 
Ewer, a witness against Harry Marten, after 
stating that, on January 29 he followed Marten 
into the Painted Chamber, proceeds : 

" I was pressing to come near, but I was put off by an 
officer or soldier there, who told me I should not be there. 
I told him I was ordered to be there by that gentleman. 
My Lord, I did see a pen in Mr. Cromwell's hand, and he 
marked Mr. Marten in the face with it, and Mr. Marten 
did the like to him.* But I did not see any one set his 
hand, though / did see a Parchment there with a great 
many Seals to it" 

It is not, I think, a very overstrained inference 
to draw from this, that Marten, whose name 
stands thirty-first on the list, had signed the 
Warrant previous to the 29th ; and that, on the 
29th, it was brought to the Painted Chamber f to 
get additional names to it. 

Of the manner in which such additional signatures 
were obtained, the Trials of the Regicides furnish 
much illustration. In the case of Harvey, who was 
present when sentence was pronounced, though 
against his opinion, there is evidence (p. 239) 
how, on the morning of the 29th, he was "sol- 
licited with very much earnestness to go and sign 
and seal and order that bloody execution." Pen- 
nington, again (p. 240), utterly refused to sign the 
Warrant, though " often solicited thereto." Mil- 
made me anxious to see some other signature of the latter. 
There is in the Public Record Office a very fine autograph 
of Ingoldesby to a Petition to Charles the Second, which, 
I am bound to say, corresponds so completely with that to 
the Warrant, as to prove that, if he were com pelled by Crom- 
well to sign, the compulsion was moral and not physical. 

* These ill-timed outbursts of merriment on the part 
of Cromwell contrast so strangely with the general 
character of this remarkable man, that were it not for 
the abundant evidence of the fact, they would seem in- 
credible. In addition to the incidents here described, we 
have the strange story, lately printed in " N. & Q." (4 th 
S. ix. 386), of his behaviour at the wedding of his daughter 
to Rich, when he threw sack posset and wet sweetmeats 
over the dresses of the ladies and daubed the stools on which 
they were to sit ; and the still more extraordinary one 
which Ludlow tells us in his Memoirs (i. 240), of his 
conduct at a dinner at Whitehall, shortly before the 
Trial of the King, when, to use Ludlow's words, " he 
took up a cushion and flung it at my head, and then ran 
down the stairs; but I overtook him with another, 
which made him hasten down faster than he desired." 

f There has long existed a tradition that the Death 
Warrant was signed in the beautiful little Chantrey 
Chapel in St. Stephen's Cloister ; and in the Gentleman's 
Magazine (v. Ivii. p. 501) there is mention of a similar 
tradition, that it was signed at Challoner's house in 
Clerkenwell. What Professor Owen said lately, that 
there are few myths in Natural History that he has not 
discovered to have some foundation in fact, may I believe 
be said of most Historical Traditions. And it is not at 
all improbable that, while the majority of the signatures 
were affixed to the Warrant in the Painted Chamber, 
others may have been added both in Challoner's house 
and in the Chantrey Chapel. 

lington told the Court (p. 246) he was " awed by 
the power then in being." Smith, who like Lil- 
burne, pleaded that he acted in ignorance, adds, 
(p. 249) u that there were those then in authority 
whom he dared not disobey." 

Downes, who gives (p. 254) a very interesting 
account of his interference on behalf of the King, 
and of his treatment in consequence by Cromwell, 
excuses his signing because " he was threatened 
with his very life ; he was induced to do it." 

Simon Meyne says (p. 260) there were some 
present who knew by what importunity he was 
led to sign the Warrant, and was told " what 
Fear was there when Forty were there before ? " 
This statement is confirmed by the fact that his 
name is the fortieth on the list of signatures. 

Heveringham, although in Court when sentence 
was pronounced, did not sign the Warrant for exe- 
cution, and says (p. 263) " at the time of sealing 
I had that courage and boldness that I protested 
against it." 

But the statement of Thomas Wayte (p. 262) 
is so characteristic of the state of things at the 
time of the trial that I must be permitted to 
quote it more fully. Wayte, it .will be seen, was 
present when sentence was agreed to and pro- 
nounced, and signed the warrant although not one 
of the forty- eight present on the 29th, when it pro- 
fesses to have been signed. After stating how he 
went into Leicestershire and Rutlandshire, being 
against the Act in the House, and refused to come 
up though threatened with sequestration, he pro- 
ceeds : 

" I came then to London, when all these things were 
destroyed ; I came to London the day before the sentence 
was given. I went to the House (thought nothing) 
some were sent to the Tower, and I was sent for to the 
House, and my name was in the Act, unknown to me ; 
but one sent a note in my Lord Gray's name, that he 
would speak with me. I went to him, and I said, My 
Lord, what would you do with me ? Saith he, I did not 
send for you ; thereupon Cromwel and Ireton laid hold 
on me ; said they, We sent for you, you are one of the 
High Court of Justice ; No, said I, not I, my judgment is 
against it. They' carried me to the Court. When the 
King desired to speak with his Parliament, I rising up, one 
told me I must not be heard, for the President was to give 
judgment; and said, there was an order that none should 
speak in Court. Mr. Downes did move, and they did ad- 
journ the Court, and I was glad I got out ; Cromwel laughed, 
and smiled, and jeered, in the Court of Wards. I hope your 
Lordship will be pleased to consider, I was no contriver, no 
soldier that put the force upon the House, that erected the 
Court, none of the law-makers, or did any thing malici- 
ously against the King. My Lord, I was looked upon 
with an evil eye, for regarding the King's friends in the 
country. Gray, he told me, the King would not die. 1 
hope he will not, said I. The next day, on Monday, I 
went to the House, they were labouring to get hands for 
his execution at the door ; I refused, and went into the 
House ; saith Cromwel, Those that are gone in shall set their 
hands. I will have their hands now." 

But it is time to bring this note (which I wish 
to be considered tentative, not decisive) to a close. 



[4* S. X. JULY 13, 72. 

I myself feel strongly persuaded that this Warrant 
was neither signed at the time, nor in the manner, 
declared by the official record ; but was tampered* 
with, and altered, to suit the circumstances of the 

Supposing, which of course few would admit, 
the rest of the proceedings of the High Court of 
Justice to have been legal, I leave it to others 
more competent than myself to decide, how far 
the Sentence of that Court was legally carried out 
by a document so irregular in every respect as I 
have shown to be the case with the Death War- 
rant of Charles the First. 



mine, who has lately returned from Switzerland, 
when informing me of the large number of cuckoos 
heard in that country, also remarked how sur- 
prised he had been with the belief, which he 
found on inquiry amongst the peasantry to exist 
in several parts of the country, that the cuckoos 
heard in one year would be young eagles during 
the year following. S. RAYNEK. 

PINS (4 th S. ix. 354.) MR. PEACOCK says, in 
speaking of bewitched persons, that it seems pro- 
bable that the object for which pins were swal- 
lowed was to wound the evil spirit with which the 
swallower believed herself to be possessed. But 
it seems to have been considered that the witches 
forced their victims to swallow them. This is 
expressly stated in an account given in The His- 
tory of the Witches of Renfrewshire (Paisley, 
1809) of the bewitching of a young girl named 
Christian Shaw, daughter of John Shaw of Bar- 
garran, a man of some note in the county. 

"Jan. IGth and 17th [1697]. When recovered of her 
swooning fits, she put out of her mouth a great number 
of pins, which she declared J P had forced into her 
mouth, an*l a gentlewoman who had been one of her 
most violent tormentors." P. 83. 

Besides pins, this young girl is said to have 
vomited many other things, suck as straw, hair, 
&c. It appears from this account that from the 
time when a ball of hair, similar to that which 
she had been accustomed to vomit, was found in 
the pocket of one of her supposed tormentors, she 
put forth no more. 

In the same book is an account of the bewitch- 
ing, in 1676, of Sir George Maxwell of Pollok. 
He is said to have 'been tormented by means of 
waxen and clay images, the pins in which, we are 
told, had been put there by the black gentleman. 

Seven reputed witches were burned at Paisley 
on June 10, 1697, for the bewitching of the 
above-named Christian Shaw. D. MACPHAIL. 


There is a Durham superstition, that if anyone 
is bewitched, the author of the evil may be dis- 
covered by the following means : Steal a black 
hen, take out the heart, stick it full of pins, and 
roast it at the " dead hour of the night." The 
" double" of the witch will come and nearly pull 
the door down. If the "double'' is not seen, 
any one of the neighbours who has passed a re- 
markably bad night is fixed upon. This was done, 
not long since, by a woman at Easington village, 
whose child did not grow. The door was almost 
battered down by an appearance of an old Irish- 
woman, who was supposed to have bewitched the 
child by her evil prayers. Mr. Henderson, in his 
Folk Lore of the Northern Counties, mentions 
somewhat similar stories. Again, if a lover does 
not come often enough, he may be brought by 
roasting an onion which has been stuck full of 
11 ounce" pins (they must not have been through 
paper). The pins are to prick his heart. Perhaps 
an onion is chosen because it may be thought to 
bear some resemblance to a human heart. 


recently heard of two cures for the hooping 
cough, still practised in the Midland Counties. 
The one is, that a boy thus afflicted should ride for 
a quarter of a mile upon a female donkey, a jackass 
being substituted when the patient is a girl. This 
remedy I know to have been tried in good faith at 
Great Burton, in Lincolnshire, only last year. 
Brand, in his Popular Antiquities, says : 

" There is a vulgar superstition still remaining in 
Devonshire and Cornwall, that any person who xides ou 
a pye-balled horse can cure the chin-cough." 

The other remedy is involved in an interesting 
superstition. The cure is effected by eating a 
piece of bread baked on Good Friday. This is 
kept by the prudent housewife, to be ready when 
required ; and bread baked on Good Friday never 
goes mouldy ! This is akin to an old French 
superstition, that a Good Friday loaf placed in 
the centre of a stack preserved it from vermin. Is 
there not a connection between these habits and 
the old custom of reserving the Sacrament ? In 
Cornwall it is supposed that rain caught on 
Ascension Day possesses qualities specially appli- 
cable to bread-making. J. CHARLES Cox. 

Hazelwood, Belper. 

heard that it is the custom, when a churning is 
going on in the dairy, that each person who comes 
in during the process is expected to put his or her 
hand to the handle of the churn, " in order that 
he or she may not take the butter away." 



IRISH FOLK LORE. Having occasion last week 
to attend the Court of the Revising Barrister at 

4 th S. X. JULY 13, 72.] 



Castle-Blayney with reference to an important 
land case the result of the new Land Act, which, 
in Ulster at least, is j ust now exciting the hopes 
of speculating tenants, and giving employment to 
the lawyers I received in a very secret and mys- 
terious nianner a little packet from an old woman 
living in my domain, with an assurance that if I 
would keep' it it would assuredly bring me luck, 
and I should escape the wiles of my enemies the 
aforesaid speculating tenants. Whether it was 
from the possession of this charm, or from the 
goodness of my own cause, it is not for me to say, 
but I certainly returned in triumph from Castle- 
Blayney, having asserted my rights, and, as the 
Irish call it, " won the day." I found that the 
packet contained some dried yarrow (MUlefolium 
terrestre vulgare, Hibernice Aliirhallune) , a well 
known plant of an astringent nature, and not with- 
out many useful properties according to the herbals. 
I inquired of my friend, the old woman, in what 
its virtue consisted ? She whispered, after some 
hesitation, " that it was the first herb our Saviour 
put in his hand when a child " ; and that there- 
fore, she added, to those who were by tradition 
acquainted with that fact, "it would certainly 
bring luck." Ev. PH. SHIRLEY. 


The following may be added as a supplement 
to the list noted above ; many of them are local 
and little irnown out of the districts where they 
appeared. The titles of some already given are 
furnished with dates : 

American Scrap Hook, and Magazine of United States 
Literature, No. 1, London, Oct. 26, 1861, price Id. 

Arrow, The, illustrated title, No. 18, Liverpool, Feb. 9, 
1867, price Id. Defunct. 

Black Dwarf, The, edited, printed and published by T. J. 
Wooler, vol. iv. No. 5, London, Feb. 9, 1820. Succeeded 
by The Yellow Dwarf, which lived only three months, 
price 6d. 

Boomerang, The, illustrated, No. 3, Melbourne, Aug. 
10, 1861, price 3d. 

Broadsides ; or, the Yorkshire Charivari, No. 1, Leeds, 
published montbly, May 14, 1864, price 2d. 

Comet, The, Anti- Humbug, illustrated, No. 3, Newcastle- 
on-Tyne, Sept. 1857. 

Comic Monthly, illustrated, No. 3, vol. v., New York, 
Oct. 1863. Reached vol. ix., April 1. 1868 ; no informa- 
tion since. 

Dibden's Penny Trumpet, to be blown Weekly (not 
Weakly} throughout the British Empire, illustrated, No. 5^ 
No. 17, 1832, price Id. Only blown for four weeks. 

Figaro in London, illustrated, No. 1, Dec. 10, 1831, 
price Id. Was published for about eight years. 

Gossip, illustrated, No. 1, Blackburn, elan. 18, 1865, 
price Id. Came out during the election of 1865. 

Grave and Gay, illustrated, No. 1, June 14, price Id. 

Jones, illustrated, published every fortnight, price ( 2d. 
No. 23,056, Liverpool. 

Lankishire Loominary, The, Un Weekly Loohin Glass, 
edited by J. T. Staton, No. l,Oct. 3, 1863, price Id. 

* Continued from vol. ix. p. 529. 

Lion, The, or Lancashire Charivari, illustrated, No. 34, 
Liverpool, Jan. 1, 1848, price 2d. 

Literary Fly, The, illustrated title-page an old 
fashioned stage-coach or fly laden with literature in pack- 
ages, labelled, No. 1, London, Jan. 18, 1779, price 4d. Ex- 
tended to some ten or twelve numbers; the earliest paper 
of this class I have seen. 

London Life, illustrated, No. 1, July 16, 1864, price 2d. 

Merryman's Monthly, illustrated, New York. 

Mr. Merryman, illustrated, No. I, London, March 23. 
1864, price Id. 

Motley (illustrated title), a Literary, Critical, and Comic 
Journal, No. 3, Liverpool, Jan. 16, 1*864, price Id. 

Odd Fellow, The, illustrated title, No. 118, April 3, 
1841, price Id. 

Paul Pry, No. 3, Nov. 12, 1827, price Id. 

Porcupine, The, illustrated title-page (" The Porcupine " 
to the early numbers), No. 1, Liverpool, Oct. 6, 1860. In 
vigorous health and spirits at the present time. 

Punch Cymbraeg, illustrated, Rhif 83, Chwef 20, 1864, 
Swydda. Printed in Liverpool for circulation in Wales. 

Puppet Show, The, illustrated, vol. i., London, 1848. 

Puppet Shows, The, Old and New, exhibited twenty - 
eight weeks, price l^d. 

Puppet Show, The New, illustrated, No. 6, Aug. 23, 
price lie/. 

Shadow, The, No. 40, Manchester, June 19, 1869, 
price Id. 

Simpson: in Town and Country, the Great Moral Re- 
former of the Age, and Epitome" of Life as it is, No. 5, 
Jan. 18, 1862, price Id. 

Struggle, The, illustrated, No. 59, Preston, price Id. 
Appeared during the Anti-Corn -Law agitation. 

Tallies Illustrated Life in London, No. 1, April 2, 
1864, price 2d. 

Tomahawk, illustrated title, No. 1, Liverpool, Nov. 19, 
1864, price halfpenny. 

Town Crier, The; or, Jacob's Belles Lettres, illustrated 
title-page, No. 10, Birmingham, Oct. 1861, price 3d. 
Published occasionally. 

Quiz, illustrated monthly, No. 1, July 1858, price 3d. 

Quiz: a Journal of Laughter, illustrated, No. 1, Jan. 
8, 1859, price 2d. 

Vanity Fair, illustrated, vol. ii., No. 40, New York, 
Sept. 29, 1860. 

Vulcan, illustrated, No. 1, Barrow-in-Furness, June 3, 
1871. Still alive. 

An interesting article, "Notes upon Comic 
Periodicals," will be found in The Bookseller for 
August 31, 1867, followed by another on " Mis- 
chievous Literature," July 1, 1868. I merely 
mention these two articles'm connection to notice 
the very exhaustive list given of all the polluted 
currents ; while the gleanings among the comic 
offerings are rather meagre, strange to say, the 
record of the filth seems to have been carefully 
treasured. Cannot the same be done for the many 
aspirants for fame, who, since the advent of 
Punch, have come like shadows, and as suddenly 
disappeared ? A complete history of this generally 
wholesome and well-conducted literature could 
not fail to meet with kindly help from many 
living writers who have been long in the field. 
The recent pages of " N. & Q.," in various articles 
on Baron Nicholson and his publications, Mark 
Lemon, Douglas Jerrold, and others, show that 



S. X. JULY 13, '72. 

there is no better time than the present for gather- 
ing up the fragments. JAMES GIBSON.. 
32, YVavertree Road, Liverpool. 

I beg to add the following to MR. RAYNER'S 
list : 

Billet Doux, The, illustrated, No. 4, Dublin, Dec. 31, 

Blarney, illustrated, No. 1, Dublin, Sept. 20, 1870. 

Breadbasket, The, edited I think by Albert Smith, 1845. 

Brum, Birmingham, 1869. 

Budilnik ("The Alarm Bell"), St. Petersburg, 1868. 

Bull Dog, The, announced in 1871, Oxford. 

Censor, The, No. 1, Jan. 4, 1846. 

Charivari, Paris. The model after which our Punch 
was formed. 

Comic Bradshaw, The, illustrated, edited by Angus B. 
Reach, 1848. Monthly. 

Daily Twaddleqraph, a skit upon The Daily Telegraph, 
issued from the office of The Hornet, " July 40, 18C8." 

Dart, The, Montreal, 1870. 

Dawn, The, Edinburgh, announced for May 1, 1871. 

Derby Ram, The, Derby, 1868. 

Diogene, Constantinople. Now in existence. 

Frank und Frei (German), at St. Louis, U.S.A. Ceased 
in 1870. 

Free Lance, Ipswich, 1869. 

Gavarni in London, about 1845-6. 

Gil Bias, Madrid, 1867. 

Gridiron, The, Birmingham, 1867. 

Grinchuckle, Montreal, 1870. 

Humbug, Melbourne, 1869. 

Iskra ("The Spark"), St. Petersburg, 1868. 

Jack-o 1 - Lantern, Brighton, 1868. 

Japan Judy, illustrated, No. 1, Yokahama, June, 18G9. 

Japan Punch, illustrated, Yokahama, 1869. 

Le petit Journal pour rire, Paris, 1870. 

Madrid Punch, 1807. 

Man about Town, The, No. 1, Oct. 11, 1869. 

Mephistopheles, No. 1, Dec. 12, 1845. 

National Omnibus, The, 1832. A very clever weeklv, 
which ran for some years. 

New Zealand Punch, No. 1, Auckland. Nov. 14, 1868. 

Peep o' Day, Manchester, 1864. 

Punchinello, Ne\v York, 1870. 

San Francisco News Letter, California. In existence. 

Sheffield Blade, No. 1, Sheffield, Nov. 11, 1868. 

Sydney Punch, New South Wales. In existence. 

Third Member, The, Birmingham, 1869. 

War Cry (illustrations only, by Matt Morgan), No. 1, 
Aug. 1870. The only one issued. 

Will-o>- the Wisp, Brighton, 1868. 

Wit of the Week, May, 1869. 

There was also a paper, under the title of (I 
think) Nonsuch, in or about 1846, which professed 
to be comic. It bore the second title of " A Far- 
rago of Something, Nothing, Everything, and 
many things besides." It was brought out by 
the son of a Piccadilly tailor named Bolton, who 
soon ran through the property amassed by his 
father in one or two disastrous seasons with the 
Olympic Theatre. 

MR. RAYNER invites corrections as well as ad- 
ditions; I would therefore respectfully suggest 
that Charley Wag could scarcely be called a comic 
paper. I believe it was the adventures of a thief 

published in a certain number of periodical parts. 
The Knight Errant was a Dublin publication. I 
have No. 3, Aug. 13, 1870. 

I think The Satirist of Barnard Gregory and 
The Penny Satirist of MR. RAYNER'S list were 
distinct papers the former was started in 1831. 
'The Period was started May 14, 1870. The Birm- 
ingham Town Crier was started in 1860. The 
Censor appeared on May 23, 1868. There was a 
previous paper under the same name, which will 
be found in my list. ALEXANDER ANDREWS. 

Stoke Newington. 

The following are additions to the list : 

Lictor, The, voh i., No. 6, Sydney, Aug. 12, 1869. An 
illustrated, political, facetious, and satirical journal. 

Sphinx, The, vol. iv., No. 156, Manchester, Aug. 5, 

Zozimus, New Series, vol. i., No. 9, Dublin, Dec. 30, 



I cannot supply F. C. H. with the remainder of 
the song of which he quotes (p. 388) the first 
verse, but there has been one lately published in 
Germany which somewhat resembles it. It is a 
translation by F. Bodenstedt from the Persian of 
Mirza SchafFy, and has been set to very lively 
music by Wilhelm Jahn, conductor of the Wies- 
baden Opera. I give herewith a copy of the 
verses, as they may perhaps please some lover of 
German songs. WEB . 

." Wenn der Friihling auf die Berge steigt 

Und im Sonnenstrahl der Schnee zerfliesst, 

Wenn das erste Griin am Baum sich zeigt. 

Und im Gras das erste Bliimlein spriesst; 

Wenn vorbei im Thai nun mit einemal, 

Alle Regenszeit und Winterqual, 

Schallt es von den Hohn bis zum Thale weit, 

O, wie wunderschon ist die Friihlingszeit ! 
" Wenn am Gletscher heiss die Sonne leckt, 

Wenn die Quelle von den Bergen springt, 

Alles rings mit jungem Griin sich deckt, 

Und das Lustgeton der Walder klingt, 

Liifte lind und lau wiirft die grime Au 

Und der Himmel lacht so rein und blau, 

Schallt es von den Hb'hn bis zum Thale weit, 

0, wie wunderschon ist die Friihlingszeit ! 
"War's nicht auch zur jungen Friihlingszeit, 

Als dein Herz sich meinem erschloss, 

Als von dir, du wundersiisse Maid, 

Ich den ersten, langen Xuss genoss ! 

Durch den Hain erklang heller Lustgesang, 

Und die Quelle von den Herzen sprang, 

Scholl es von den Holm, bis zum Thale weit, 

0, wie wunderschon ist die Friihlingszeit ! " 

The editors of the new Monasticon assert (iv. 2, 
note) that Everard, Bishop of Norwich (1121- 
1145), is identical with Everard de Montgomery, 

4'bS.X. JULY 13/72.] 



the son of Roger Earl of Aruhdel and Shropshire by 
his second wife Adeliza de Puiset, and Mr. Eyton 
says the same thing in the Antiquities of Shrop- 
shire. But with ail deference to the authority of 
this learned and accurate writer, I cannot help 
thinking that this identity has been rashly as- 
sumed from a mere coincidence of name, date, and 
profession; for there are facts on record about 
Bishop Everard which cannot be reconciled with 
what we know of Everard de Montgomery. 

Orderic Vitalis, whose intimate connection with 
the family of Montgomery makes his silence as sig- 
nificant as his statements, twice notices Everard 
amongst the sons of Earl Roger. He says in his 
5th book (written in 1127) 

"the earl had by his second wife an only son named 
Everard, who was brought up to learning, and has lived 
to this day in the court of William and Henry, kings of 
England, amongst the royal chaplains." 

The other passage (which occurs in the 8th 
book and was written in 1133) sounds as if it 
might have been written after Everard's death : 

"Philip and Everard had different fates in life, for 
Philip went abroad with Duke Robert, and died at An- 
tioch ; whilst Everard, who was the son of the Countess 
Adelaide, held the office of clerk in the chapel of King 
Henry, amongst men of second-rate position (inter me- 

It seems incredible that Orderic would thus 
refer to the living Bishop of Norwich, who had 
been consecrated to that see on June 12, 1121, 
and had been Archdeacon of Salisbury since 1115. 
The same remark applies to Orderic's description 
of the downfall of the house of Montgomery in 

" Henry I. was so implacable in his resentment against 
this family, that he unmercifully deprived the nuns of 
Almaneches of their lands in England because their 
Abbess Emma was the sister of Robert de Belesme." 

If Emma's brother Everard had afterwards so 
completely regained the favour of Henry I. as to 
be promoted to an English bishopric, Orderic 
would scarcely have omitted to mention so notable 
a circumstance. 

I now pass to what has been recorded about 
Everard the bishop. 

When William de Albini, Pincerna of Henry I., 
at the funeral of his wife Matilda Bigot, about 
1128, granted to the monks of Wymondham the 
manor of Hapesburgh in Norfolk, the grant was 
expressly made for the soul of Roger Bigot, and 
for the souls of the sons of Everard, the venerable 
Bishop of Norwich (Man. iii. 330). These sons of 
the living bishop would assuredly have been born 
in lawful matrimony, and the charter therefore 
proves that Bishop Sverard was a widower with 
children when he entered holy orders. Whereas 
Everard de Montgomery, whose birth cannot be 
placed earlier than 1085, must have been devoted 
to celibacy from his boyhood, as he was attached 
to the chapel of William Rufus who died in 1100. 

Again : in the Norfolk Pipe Roll of 31 Henry I. 
the Bishop of Norwich renders an account of 
III. 13s. 4.d. " for the land of his father." This 
entry can scarcely be supposed to apply to a 
younger son of Earl Roger, who had been dead 
some thirty-six years, and whose estates had been 
confiscated and redistributed so far back as 1102. 

Again. Blornefield quotes from the diocesan re- 
cords (Hist, of Norfolk, 8vo, iii. 650) that Bishop 
Everard, at the request of his own brother Arthur, 
made Richard de Bellofago Archdeacon of Suffolk, 
and that when the archdeaconry was divided on 
Richard's promotion to the see of Avranches, he 
gave the Suffolk portion to his own nephew Wal- 
cheline. Now it is certain that Everard de Mont- 
gomery had no brother named Arthur, and there 
is no trace of any nephew named Walcheline in 
the pedigree. 

This evidence taken cumulatively is so strong 
against the identity of the two Everards, that I 
almost venture to think it will induce Mr. Eyton 
to reconsider his decision. TEWAKS. 

nexed copy of a letter from Collins, the author of 
a Baronetage, may be interesting to some of your 
readers. I have no papers here which show the 
nature of the " Discouragements and the unpre- 
sidented usuage " which he complains of, but only 
a printed circular of Wotton's with a prospectus 
of a Baronetage, dated " London, June22 d , 1725," 
the month only being written. 



" Copy November 25, 1725. 

" S r , I lately received your Letter, directed ,to me 
at .Mr. Taylor's, in answer to which I must say, that the 
Discouragements and unpresidented usuage 1 have met 
with has made me lay aside all thoughts of giving any 
further Account of the Families of Baronets. 

"But I will S r (if you please) communicate what I 
have collected of vour Family, to M r . Wotton, who in- 
tends to set forth a short Ace 4 of the Families of the 
present Baronets. If you have any Commands, be 
pleas'd to direct for me at M r Gosling's, Bookseller in 
Fleet-street, who am S r , 

" Your most obedient 

" Humble Serv*, 


" For S r John Trevylian, Bar*, 
at Nettlecombe, 

Sommersetshire." .- 

"LA BELLE SATJVAGE." The subjoined cutting 
from The Standard of June 10, 1872, is deserving 
of preservation in the columns of " N. & Q.": 

vage' of The Spectator, it appears, was onlv a myth after 
all. Messrs. Cassell, Fetter, & Galpin, in raking over their 
title-deeds, have discovered that the name of the inn 
upon which their premises stand was formerly the ' Bell 



S. X. JCLY 13, 72. 

on the Hoop,' or Savage's Inn,' and eventually became 
contracted to ' Bell Savage's Inn,' or, shorter still, BelL 


never look at my copy of this book (London : 
John Russell Smith, 4, Old Compton Street, Soho 
Square, 1849) without wondering whether Mr. 
Halliwell [now Phillipps] intends to give the 
world a new enlarged edition of what is to me, 
and I doubt not to many others of the " N. & Q." 
fraternity, a singularly interesting compilation. 
In my humble opinion, however, its bulk is scarcely 
worthy of a country so rich in popular rhymes as 
is our own. We want a collection as exhaustive 
as may be ; one that should include within two 
covers all that could be gathered either orally or 
from books, and have no room in it for such a 
remark as that at p. 188, sub " Places and Fami- 
lies," " This division, like the last, might be greatly 
extended by references to Ray and Grose." All 
the divisions indeed might be greatly extended by 
references to " N. & Q." ; and Mr. Halliwell would 
find many correspondents to send him valuable 
contributions if he would re-announce his desire 
to receive local and other popular rhymes, and 
promise to make use of them pro bono pnblico. 
Of course no one else can undertake the work in 
the face of Mr. HalliwelFs little book during the 
lifetime of its able author. 

Mr. Halliwell has excited such interest by his 
labours in the field of Popular Rhymes and Nur- 
sery Tales that it will be a matter for regret if he 
will not put forth his hand to garner the result. 


Sibree in his work, Madagascar and its People, 
1870, at p. 205, says of the Malagasy: 

" Before the introduction of clocks and watches, which 
are still rare except amongst wealthy people, time was 
marked by a kind of natural dial, made by the points 
reached by the sun's rays in different parts of the house 
throughout the day." 

He then gives a list of their twenty-four divi- 
sions of the day of twenty-four hours, furnished 
him by an intelligent Malagasy. They consist 
either of natural phenomena or of necessary acts 
recurring at fixed times daily, and of the former 
chiefly of the progress of the sun's rays e, g. 

7 o'clock, Maim-bohon-dravina, dry back of the 
leaf (i. e. when the dew is dried from the surface); 

8 o'clock, Mamoak-omby, driving out the cattle 
(to be fed) ; 11 o'clock, Vahavahana, when the sun 
comes to the step ; 12 o'clock, Mitatoa-vovonana, 
to come above the ridge (i. e, vertically over the 
house) ; 2 o'clock, Ampitotoam-bary , at the place 
of pounding rice*, e. the rays reach further into 
the building, and touch the part where the rice- 
mortar usually stands. JOSIAH MILLEK. 


REALISM OF THE STAGE. A reference to the 
weekly periodical, The World, of Feb. 8, 1753 
which number, by the way, was written by Horace 
Walpole will furnish another proof to the many 
that have gone before, that " there is nothing new 
under the sun," and that there is a tendency in 
nature, human as well as inanimate, to reproduce 
itself. It has generally been supposed that the 
realism of the stage, which has met with such 
severe condemnation on all hands during the past 
few years, is a modern innovation. That such is 
not the case, let the following extract from the 
foregoing fly-sheet bear witness : 

" The improvement of nature which I had in view- 
alluded to those excellent exhibitions of the animal or 
\_sic, ? and] inanimate parts of the creation which are 
furnished by the worthy philosophers Rich and Garrick : 
the latter of whom has refined on his competitor ; and, 
having perceived that art was become so perfect that it 
was necessary to mimic it by nature, he has happily in- 
troduced a cascade of real water. I know that there are 
persons of a systematic turn who affirm that the audi- 
ence are not delighted with this beautiful waterfall from 
the reality of the element, but merely because they are 
pleased with the novelty of anything that is out of its 
proper place. Thus they tell you that the town is charmed 
with a genuine cascade upon the stage, and was in raptures 
last year with one of tin at Vauxhall. But this is cer- 
tainly prejudice. The world, though never sated with 
show, is sick of fiction ; and I foresee the time when 
delusion [illusion] will not be suffered in any part of the 

Then come a series of ludicrous instances illus- 
trating, in a vein of excellent raillery, the neces- 
sity of a stricter adherence to nature (realism) on 
the stage : such as the brick-kiln, which did not 
smell like one ; the introduction of very personable 
geese by Mr. Gibber; the impersonator of Alex- 
ander, who forgot himself in the heat of conquest 
so far as to stick his sword in one of the paste- 
board stones of the wall of the town, and bore it 
in triumph before him ; the performer who was 
injured by the edge of a wave running into his 
side on his falling, whereas "the worst that could 
happen to him in the present state of things would 
be drowning." 

The essay concludes with a good story of a 
" celebrated confectioner who, having prepared a 
middle dish of gods and goddesses eighteen feet 
high, complained of his lord. " Imaginez-vous," 
said he, " que milord n'a pas voulu faire oter le 
plafond " " Figure to yourself my lord's refusal 
to demolish the ceiling." J. S. DK. 

speare's King John, Act V. Sc. 4, the Count Melun, 
wounded to death, exhorts the English to fly, in- 
forming them of the treachery of Lewis, and when 
Salisbury doubtingly asks 

" May this be possible ? may this be true ? " 

Melun refers to his approaching death as a reason 
why he should speak the truth, saying 

S. X. JULY 13, '72.] 



" Have I not hideous death within my view, 
Retaining but a quantity of life, 
Which bleeds away, even as a form of wax 
Resolveth from his ligure 'gainst the tire V 
What in the world should make me now deceive, 
Since 1 must lose the use of all deceit ? 
Why should I then be false, since it is true 
That I must die here and live hence by truth ? 

Shakespeare may have taken this sentiment from 
the following passage in the Euphues of Lyly : 

" When my lady came, and saw me so altered in a 
moneth, wasted to the harde bones, more lyke a ghoast 
then a ly ving creature, after many words of comfort (as 
women want none about sicke persons) when she saw 
opportunitie, she asked me whether the Italian were my 
messenger, or if be were, whether his embassage were 
true, which question I thus answered 

" Lady, to dissemble with the worlde, when I am de- 
parting from it, woulde profite me nothing with man, 
and hinder me much with God ; to make my deathbed 
the place of deceipt, might hasten my death, and encrease 
my daunger." 

In these passages Shakespeare and Lyly express 
the same sentiment in similar language. 


CHURCHWARDENS." The following is an extract 
from the Sunderland Times of May 18, 1872. Is 
the " ancient and dangerous custom " observed at 
any other town, and what is the origin of it ? 


" At the County Police-court, Huddersfield, on Tues- 
day, Mr. R. Durrans, brewer, Lascelles Hall ; Mr. George 
Fleetwood, blacksmith, Whitley Upper ; Mr. Joseph Lit- 
tlewood, cabinet maker and farmer, Hopton ; and Mr. 
Benjamin Fearnley, steward to a county magistrate, 
were charged with having, on the 28th of April, aided 
and abetted Richard Thornton, landlord of the Beaumont 
Arms Inn, Kirkheaton, with keeping open his house 
during prohibited hours. It appeared from the state- 
ment of the superintendent of police that, on the day in 
question, an officer went to the house, and there found 
the defendants, who were churchwardens and officials at 
the Kirkheaton parish church. It appeared to have been 
the custom of the churchwardens from time immemorial 
to go to service and remain in the church until the 
clergyman commenced reading the second lesson, and 
then 'leave the church and walk a short distance to the 
public-house in question, and stay there until the church 
had ' loosed.' On the day in question the first-named 
defendant said, ' We are fairly caught ; we might as well 
have another glass,' and he called for one, and paid for 
it in the presence of the police-officer. Thornton was 
-ordered to pay the expenses when the case was heard, his 
solicitor pleading guilty for him ; and a point was raised 
whether the payment of costs could be held to mean a 
conviction. The Bench, advised by their Clerk, held 
that it did, but recommended that the payment of costs 
would meet the ends of justice. The defendants agreed 
to this." 

" AURELIO AND ISABELL." I have a little book, 
16mo, going to signature P (6) ; title-page want- 
ing : " Approbatio," by Laur. Beyerlinck, " Ant- 
uerp, 7 April, 1607." Polyglot, four columns in 

an opening, French, Italian, Spanish, English. 
The English is evidently " Foreigners' English." 
I give the beginning (1) and ending (2) 

(1.) " Here beginneth the historic of Aurelio and of 
Isabell. In the realme of the He of Scotland, there was 
one excellote kinge, a frende of all vertues, seJfe lyke of 
iustice, and was so righteous, that he was al mooste 
estemed to be the selfe iustice. This king in his latter 
age had a doughter/without more, the whiche aftir the 
death of hir father ought (like as ayre) [como legitima 
heredera] to succede in the gouerning of the realme. This 
doughter was named of all persons Isabell." 

(2.) "Eynde of the storey of Aurelio and of Isabell, in 
the whiche is disputede the whiche geues more occasion 
of sinninge, the man vnto the woman, or the woman vnto 
the man." 

I wish to know more of the book and the story. 

W. C. B. 

[This slight and meagre fiction is by Juan de Flores, 
a Spanish writer, which dates as far back as 1521, and 
which, in an early English translation, was at one time 
thought to have furnished hints for Shakspeare's Tem- 
pest. (Malone's Shakspeare, xv. 2.) The discussions 
between Aurelio and Isabell are on the inquiry whether 
man gives more occasion for sin to woman, or woman to 
man. Five editions of this work are in the British 
Museum : Paris, 1546, 1547 ; Venice, 1548 ; Antwerp, 
1556 ; Brussels, 1608. Consult Nouvelle Biographic 
Generate, ed. 1853-7, xvii. 950 ; Brunet, ed. 1861, ii. 
1302 ; and Ticknor, History of Spanish Literature, iii. 

seller's catalogue I recently met with an Elegy on 
the Death of Shelley by the above. Who was Mr. 
Brooke ? A literary friend says that he knows 
the elegy, and that it is in the same stanza as 
Adonais, and contains some very good poetry. 

VIATOR (1). 

CAT. Would you allow me to renew my in- 
quiry respecting this word? Is it of Eastern 
origin, and introduced into the European lan- 
guages at a comparatively late period ? It appears 
in all these languages, as far as I have been able 
to discover. Adelung, in his Dictionary, says : 

" Tlie name of this animal is very ancient and common. 
In Lower Saxon it is Katte ; in Anglo-Saxon, English, 
and Danish, Cat ; in Italian, Gatta, Gatto ; in French, 
Chat; in Low Latin, Catta, Cattus, Gatus ; in Welsh, 
Cath ; in Breton, Caz ; in Russian, Kote; in Polish, 
Kat ; in Turkish, Kady ; in Armenian, Citto ; in Lap- 
land, Gato ; in Wallachian, Katussa ; in Bohemian, 

How did the word reach us and become so em- 
bedded in all the European languages ? Was it 
known to the Hebrews, and if so, what was the 
word ? C. T. EAMAGE. 

Warrington, in Lancashire, in 1628, there were 
only two pews (pues) in the parish church, one 
" on the south side next the quire," being occupied 
by Kichard Massie, Esq., whose name and coat of 
arms, dated 1617, still remain there, and the other 
by " the parson and his wife for the time being." 



[l th S. X. JI;J.Y 13, '7 z. 

The remainder of the nave was taken up with 
forms or " auntient seats/' the first on the south 
side being known as the " bryde's form." The 
other forms were known as twelve long forms and 
five short forms. I shall be glad to know the 
difference between these, for in an allotment of 
the sittings in Stoke Old Church, Staffordshire, in 
1668 we find it ordered that " the young maids 
are to kneel in the short forms." M. D. 

origin of this title, and to which of our kings was 
it given ? G. G. 

JEWISH ERA. Will you kindly inform me 
how the year 1872 is "the year 5633 of the 
Jewish era," as stated in the almanac ? It is 5876 
years since the Creation, from which I believe 
the Jews reckon. How is it, then, they make it 
only 5633 ? W. WHITEACRE. 

[Till the fifteenth century the Jews usually followed 
the era of the Seleucidye or of Contracts. Since that time 
they generally employ a mundane era, and date from the 
creation of the world, which, according to their compu- 
tation, took place 3760 years and about three months 
before the commencement of our era. Consult " N. & Q." 
> S. x. 90, 136, 190.] 

" THE JUDGMENT OF SOLOMON" (1 Kings, iii. 
16, 28.) Can any reader of " N. & Q." furnish 
me with the remaining portion of the above in 
blank verse ? I believe it appeared in a monthly 
magazine in or before the year 1843, but I have 
been unable to trace it. It commences 

*i ,Gaze on that picture ; 'tis a shadowing forth 

Of fine maternal tenderness " 


Longton, Staffordshire. 

KINLOSS BARONY. What is the date of the 
creation of the barony of Kinloss ? Is it not in 
remainder to the heirs general without division r 1 
and through whom has it descended to the Duke 
of Buckingham ? II. PASSINGHAM. 


[The Committee for Privileges decided that the duke 
had made out his claim to the Barony of Kinloss under 
the Charter of Feb. 2, 1G01, bat not" to the Barony of 
Bruce of Kinloss.] 

SHERIDAN KNOWLES, ETC. 1. Where did the 
following tales or novelettes of Sheridan Knowles 
first appear? "The Wreckers," "The Widowed 
Bride," " The Blacksmith of Clonmel," " Jessie 
Halliday." 2. Where can I see a little 12mo 
volume" of poems entitled Fugitive Pieces, pub- 
lished at Waterford in 1810 ? F. H. 

should be thankful for a reference to good his- 
tories of the 'parish churches at Leyland and Pern - 
wortham, near Preston, Lancashire. YLLTJT. 

what authority does Dean Hook say (Life, p. 75) 
that Archbishop Parker introduced the 'pink and 

the tuberose into his garden at Stoke-next-Clare, 
and that the apricot had then lately, between 
1559 and 1575, been brought from Epirus? If 
the latter is a suggestion of its etymology, is it 
the correct one ? C. W. BINGHAM. 

MARIA DEL OCCTDENTE. Can any of your 
readers inform me who she is or was, and what 
she has written ? Mr. Longfellow quotes from a 
poem of hers in "Kavanagh." PERSHORE. 

M.P.s OF CASTLE RISING. I am anxious to 
ascertain the names of the members of parliament 
for Castle Rising, Norfolk, in the various par- 
liaments between 1783 and 1832, when that 
borough was disfranchised. Failing the names 
I should be glad to know the dates when new 
parliaments were called between the years above 
specified. F. E. PAGET. 

Elford, Tarn worth. 

[The names of the Members for Castle Rising, from 
1783 to 1807, will be found in Beatson's Parliamentary 
Register (ii. 163), and from that time in Hansard or the 
Imperial Calendar. New parliaments met in Nov. 1812 ; 
Aug. 1818; April, 1820; November, 1826; Oct. 1830 ; 
June, 1831; and Jan. 1833.] 

SAMUEL STJTTON. I shall be glad to know 
where I can find particulars of Samuel Sutton, of 
Alfreton, Derbyshire, said to have died in 1752 ? 

1, Windsor Street, Hull. 

THE BATTLE OF WATERLOO. I recollect visiting 
the plain of Waterloo on a very cold day in De- 
cember, 1845 the ground covered with snow in 
company with the late Sergeant Cotton as guide, 
who was present at the battle and acquainted, 
apparently, with its various details. He stated, 
amongst other facts, what seemed to me then, as 
it does still, an improbable circumstance, namely, 
that at a certain place a Belgian regiment ran 
away, panic-struck, and that the Duke of Wel- 
lington rode after it and said, "As you must now 
be blown, my men, take your breath, and try your 
luck again," or words to this effect. It is pos- 
sible that the flight occurred, but improbable that 
the Duke, even in the early part of the day, would 
have had time or inclination to act as whipper-in 
as alleged. Is the anecdote true or not ? 


ANN WOOD. I have seen to-day a full-sized 
portrait of a lady with the name painted on 
"Ann Wood, wife of John Boult, 1687." Can 
any of your readers give any information who wa 
John Boult and Ann Wood his wife ? 



WORMS IN WOOD. What is the best remedy 
for worms in wood, on which is a painting ? 

P. R. 



(4 th S. ix. 356, 431, 434, 508.) 

The censor who would carry public opinion 
with him should not be hypercritical, still less 
should he venture to indulge in indiscriminate 
denunciations and sweeping assertions. The sur- 
geon operating with skilful knife wounds but to 
heal, and is a benefactor to humanity ; whilst the 
Malay, running a muck with poisoned kriess, 
seeks but to destroy ; and dodge, double and stab 
spitefully as he may, is hunted down as a common 
enemy. The uncourteous knight who pricks with 
hasty heat into the lists, who rails at the good 
old Lord of the Tournament, on whose broad 
lands the joyous jousts are held; who laughs 
scornfully at dames, nobles, knights, and squires 
of high degree ; who vilifies dead and scoffs at 
living heralds ; and who, because forsooth they 
tilt not after his fashion, instead of striving to 
instruct, incontinently falls foul of three young 
knights jousting a plaisance, with blunted lances, 
showering on them insults the while ; must not 
expect much sympathy should he get unhorsed for 
his pains. Shall the warder be cast into the lists, 
shall the trumpets sound a truce, shall the heralds 
cry Ployez vos bannieres, shall the lieges plead for 
mercy for such an one if he be worsted ? I trow not. 
Or turning to the animal kingdom for an illus- 
tration, are not all our sympathies and affections 
enlisted against the overbearing aggressor in the 
following extract from a clever notice of the 
Crystal Palace Aquarium, which appeared in a 
recent number of the Spectator, and which con- 
veys a very perfect picture of a crabbed critic 
seeking to tyrannize over his literary brethren ? 
Describing the Crustacea, the amusing writer of 
the article, after telling us of the combativeness 
and magnificently absurd pretentiousness of some 
of these crabs and cray-tisb, and of the extra- 
ordinary assumption of 'grandeur, dignity, super- 
ciliousness, fastidiousness, and tip-toey carefulness, 
which they combine with their aggressiveness, 
calls our special attention to an exceptionally spi- 
nous spider-crab in the following happy manner: 
"Here is another, much larger, who looks elderly, 
overbearing, and gouty ; his preposterously lengthy and 
curly limbs have knuckles knobblier than his fellows, his 
claws look vicious ; he sends the little pebbles flying as 
he advances with a rearing action, hugely ridiculous, to 
dispute a scrap of floating dinner with a mild little crab, 
who snaps up the menaced morsel in a hurry, and shuts 
his claws and limbs all round his body, like blades of a 
self-acting pen-knife. The larger and spikier crab re- 
tires, really, it would seem, prancing with rage." 

Not to quote further, it strikes me that the 
example is apt, and that, submitting ourselves to 
Nature's teaching, we can learn not a little ; as 
well on critics as on other matters, in an hour at 
an aquarium." 

If, however, the above observations may be 
considered applicable to the irrepressible censor 
who subscribes his own name, with how much 
greater force do they bear relation to one who 
may choose to write under a fictitious signature ? 
Not that pseudonyms are objectionable in journals 
of approved reputation ; their use is obvious and 
their abuse is rare ; yet still the usage cuts both 
ways, having its drawbacks as well as its advan- 
tages. The veil may hide the dazzling brow of a 
Moses, or may conceal the loathsome horrors of a 
Mokanna ; it may serve to overspread elephant- 
headed Ganesh, Hindu-worshipped god of Wis- 
dom, or it may cover nothing better than a char- 
latan like Paracelsus, boasting that his very beard 
had more learning in it than Galen or Avicenna. 
The utterances behind the veil are received by the 
initiated for just so much as they are worth and 
the ignorant alone are imposed upon. Within 
due bounds, however, pseudonyms have to a great 
extent the merit of depriving of personality a 
literary passage at arms and the incognito of those 
who employ them should within very wide limits 
be entirely respected, and descending from the 
general to the particular, I rejoice that both H. H. 
and TEWARS have adopted pseudonyms, since it 
enables me to follow their example and to notice 
with freedom from the suspicion of personality, 
the far-reaching aggression on the part of TEWAKS, 
which, if it fail to do aught further, serves to 
point a moral. 

The counter-buff (ix. 508) which H. H. has 
administered to TEWARS in return for his share of 
the wild blows so indiscriminately showered by 
the latter (ix. 356), leaves but little to be said or 
implied on his part, regarding a communication 
which reconsideration may lead TEWARS to regret; 
still the general public cannot but feel sensible of 
the unsupported nature of his charges, and as one 
of the admirers of " N. & Q.," I raise my voice 
against the abuse of criticism of which TEWARS 
has been guilty. 

In spite of kis relationship to a nobleman who 
died a very long time ago, TEWARS obtrudes upon 
us the impression that he is an intensely red 
revolutionist, for no leader of sansculottes could 
with greater gusto deny the claim to gentle blood 
of whole sections of the Peerage and of the Landed 
Gentry ; no Communist could make shorter work 
of Heralds' College ; still in one instance only does 
this veiled prophet, denouncing loftily ex cathedra, 
condescend to give some proof of his accuracy, 
when in ascribing a comparatively modern origin 
;o the ancestors of Richard Wesfon, first Earl of 
Portland and Lord High Treasurer of England in 
the reign of Charles I., he speaks of that noble- 
man as "my relation." This appals us ! here we 
lave something tangible, and we are now for the 
irst time impressed with the full measure of his 
infallibility j for although he may know but little 



[4 th S. X. JULY 13, 72. 

of the De Burghs and the Baliols, TEWAES as an 
expert genealogist ought surely to know some- 
thing about his own relations. Pausing awhile to 
reflect with admiration at the self-sacrifice which 
induced him to commence his purgations of apo- 
cryphal genealogy by squirting at his ancestral 
mummies, we refer, in spite of his denunciations, 
to our old friend Sir Bernard Burke ; and turning 
to page 581 of his Dormant and Extinct Peerages 
(London, 1866) one of the works which TEWAES 
does not hesitate to pronounce to be compilations 
of genealogical mythology abounding in fabrica- 
tions we find that the Richard Weston above- 
named died on March 13, 1634, and that on the 
decease without issue, about 1688, of Thomas 
Weston, fourth Earl of Portland, his estates 
passed to his nieces (the children of the second 
Earl) as co-heirs, whilst the honours became 

I am aware that there are descendants of a col- 
lateral branch of the family, but even if TEWAES 
be one of them, which has yet to be asserted, how 
can he possibly affirm supposing Sir Bernard 
Burke be correct that a man who died 238 years 
ago, was his " relation " ? 

This then is evidently a case of TEWAES v. 
BUEKE, and it is incumbent on a genealogist so 
severely accurate as the former ought to be, to 
favour us with his new theory of consanguinity, 
&s a spice of the quality. Ex pede Herculem. 
We are all aware that in everyday converse the 
relationship which we bear to our fellows is very 
loosely defined ; from a missionary point of view 
a cannibal or a troglodyte is a man and a brother ; 
few of us would resent the accusation of having 
fallen sisters ; and it cannot be denied that our 
simian kinsman, the primeval ape, is a biped dear 
to his children, the most advanced of our thinkers; 
but assuredly a genealogist of such exactness and 
so exacting of exactitude in others, could never 
have been betrayed into a similar laxity of ex- 
pression, whilst inveighing so bitterly against 
apocryphal genealogy. 

Peradventure, however, he has only paraded 
his august relative in sackcloth and ashes, to 
manifest more perfectly that he scruples not to 
pluck out his right eye in the cause of accuracy ; 
but apart from the promptings of good taste, the 
policy of such self-inflicted mutilation is question- 
able, for it is apt to induce a one-sided view of 
matters, and to blind to the prudential considera- 
tion that one living in a glass house had better 
not set the example of throwing stones at it. 

Perhaps, too, after all, he has given this ter- 
rible proof of his sincerity without due necessity ; 
for I really believe him to be a mistaken enthusiast, 
and fear that he has disquieted himself in vain. 

I am not a professed pedigree-hunter, and have 
not the very slightest intention of entering into a 
genealogical discussion with TEWAES, or with any 

other learned critic, [being desirous that my re- 
marks should pass beyond his orbit, and should 
cover a wider field than that embraced by the 
question of descent of any particular nobleman ; 
still as one who has had occasion to acquire some 
knowledge of the history of the old families in 
Staffordshire, Shropshire, and the neighbouring 
counties, I consider that, unless we are prepared 
to reject a singularly abundant mass of evidence 
contained not only in the Record Office, the Col- 
lege of Arms, and the British Museum, but also 
in the charter-chests, muniment-rooms, and libra- 
ries of several distinguished houses, we must 
believe with Sir William Segar, Garter King-at- 
Arrns, that the Westous of Weston-under-Lyzard 
were one of the most ancient families in Stafford- 
shire ; that the manor passed into the female line 
of the eldest branch, the males having died out ; 
that the branch next in seniority flourished with 
its offshoots at Rugeley, Lichfield, and other 
localities, for many generations after the estate of 
Weston-under-Lyzard had passed away ; that 
members of the Weston family represented both 
shire and city in Parliament; and that they con- 
tinued to enjoy consideration in the county to a 
period subsequent to that which the " relation " 
of TEWAES lived to honour. 

From the same sources we learn that the Wes- 
tons of Lincolnshire, Surrey, and Essex, &c. &c., 
derived their origin from the Staffordshire family ; 
but my notes do not enable me to give TEWAES 
particulars regarding the various ramifications. 
As to the Baliols, it is not unknown that Reginald 
de Baliol held of the Conqueror in capite the 
estate of Weston-under-Lyzard and three other 
manors named in Doomsday Book ; and that this 
estate in Staffordshire was entirely distinct from 
the many other manors in Shropshire and else- 
where held by him by virtue of his office as Vice- 
comes of Shropshire under Earl Roger de Mont- 
gomery, whose niece Aimeria he espoused. When 
Hugh Fitz-Warin (son of Warin the Bald, the 
first Norman Sheriff of Shropshire and Reginald's 
predecessor) attained his majority, he was in- 
vested with the office of Vice-comes, and of a 
consequence with the estates held ex officio in 
Shropshire for the support of that dignity ; whilst 
Hugh, son of Reginald de Baliol, succeeded his 
father in the estates of Weston-uuder-Lyzard, &c. 
held in capite in Staffordshire, which were handed 
down to and were retained by his descendants. 

The families of Vernon, Holgreve, and Erdes- 
wick, not to go further, were connected by mar- 
riage with these Baliols, whom Kelham, endorsed 
by Sir Henry Ellis, believes to have been con- 
sanguineous with those who settled in Durham, 
and gave eventually a king to Scotland. Thus 
there is balm in Gilead even for the bone-breakers. 
TEWAES has the consolation at least of knowing 
that, in the opinion of others, the descent of his 

. X. JULY 13, 72.] 



noblerelative is not altogethe r despised, and that 
the knightly old family with which ^he claims 
relationship is not without its champions. The 
manly and excellent article by W.M. H. C. (N. & Q. 
4 th S. ix. 509) has prompted me to write to you ; 
and, animated by the same spirit, I likewise raise 
my voice against that form of scepticism which, 
because it itself doubts, thinks itself privileged to 
denounce and to defame. 

Like the sneer levelled against a woman's chas- 
tity, or a foul charge preferred against an honour- 
able man, the assertion that a pedigree, supported 
by abundant documentary evidence, is apocryphal, 
be it ever so incapable of proof, is sure to be re- 
membered disadvantageously by many, and to be 
made base use of by the meaner few j and it is 
not fair to adopt the mildest form of words 
available, although one which goes straight home 
to the heart of every Englishman that a writer 
in a public journal should have made sweeping and 
injurious accusations, striving to impose upon his 
victims the onus of proving a negative. And 
since imputations of fabricating false pedigrees, of 
manufacturing fictitious records and compilations 
of genealogical mythology, of repeating fables, 
and of publishing idle traditions, knowing them to 
be mendacious, are not usually considered to be 
flattering, it would appear to be necessary to re- 
mind TEWARS, that in accepting an honourable 
and responsible public office a herald does not 
cease to be a gentleman. PHEON. 


(4 th S. ix. 485.) 

It is to be doubted that E. D. is correct in ask- 
ing only those contributors who are skilled in the 
Scandinavian and Gothic to afford him an expla- 
nation of the origin of these place names, as their 
roots (if one be not the source of the whole) are 
more probably to be found in the Celtic in the 
Irish or Scottish dialects thereof. 

The more ancient forms of the name Largs in 
Cuninghame's Ayrshire (and there is a Largs also 
in Carrick), to be discovered in authentic writs of 
the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, are Lerghes, 
Larghys, and Largys ; and for a long time it has 
been very generally spoken of as "The Largs," 
showing apparently a plurality of the same na- 
tural feature, whatever that was. (Orig. Par. 
Scotie, i. 89 ; and .Registers of Glas. and Paisley.) 
This Largs is an extensive parish, and originally 
was much more so than at present ; indeed it was 
one ^ of the divisions of Ayrshire, recognised as 
distinct from Cuningham, and known as the tene- 
ment or lordship of Largs (Reg.Mag.Sig., printed). 
To enable the origin and meaning of the name to 
be better understood, it seems only proper to say 
that the locality (the parish) has been correctly 
described by the writer of the Orig. Par. (supra) 

as consisting of a narrow margin of level land, 
nine miles in length, along the Firth of Clyde, 
from which the hills rise abruptly to a moun- 
tainous ridge, which is broken by several val- 
leys or gaps, many of them deep, and in which 
waters run from east and south towards the Firth. 
The original vill of Largs arose around its ancient 
chapel or kirk, planted on the shore, and upon a 
little level plain, lying between the mouths of the 
Noddle and Gogo waters. Close by the kirk, on the 
shore, and west side of former is the large interest- 
ing barrow of the Norwegians who fell in 1263 ; and 
it was on this little plain, and chiefly by the shore, 
near the stranded transports, that the fierce con- 
flict between a part of King Haco's armament 
and the Scots, led by the barons of the district, 
took place. (Worsaae's Danes and None.} This 
onset, momentous in its consequences, has been 
ever since called " the battle of The Largs." 

The origin of the name has been invariably, 
at least by Scotch writers, traced to a Celtic 
source the Irish or Scots-Gaelic ; but opinions as 
to its true root and meaning have not been uni- 
form. George Chalmers (Caledonia, iii.) would 
derive it from learg, which in Scoto-Irish, as he 
alleges, signifies a plain; but his authority for 
attaching this meaning to learg has not been dis- 
covered. Another writer (A CELT: Northern 
N. & Q." p. 375, Glasgow, 1853) says this name 
is common everywhere, that it is descriptive of 
the nature of the locality, and is applied where, 
" in a hollow or glen, between two opposite heights 
or hills, a footpath or road passes from one place 
to another," tha intervening space being fre- 
quently called " lar-uig " or " lar-ruig." A third 
writer, of weight, Mr. Joyce, in his Irish Place 
Names (p. 390), says, contradictory of Chalmers, 
that learg (pr. Idrg) signifies the " side or slope of a 
hill"; and if the final s in Lerghes, &c., should 
denote, as Chalmers thinks, a duplication of the 
same physical feature, the meaning- will be " the 
hill sides " or lt slopes," or a locality abounding 
in these, which Largs does. Lar-ruig is equally 
descriptive of The Largs as regards the various 
mountain passes or ways leading to the village 
from east and south ; only lar-ruig has in use 
more commonly resulted in the form of larig than 
of Largs; and learg, Idrg by pronunciation, is 
much nearer Largs in sound than either lar-ruig 
or larig. Learg, if in meaning a plain, is no doubt 
also descriptive, but evidence is desiderated of 
that being its true, or more general signification. 

Then, as to Largo in Fife, laergaidh (pr. largy\ 
is, as Joyce explains, a derivative of learg, having 
the same meaning, and ia a very common place- 
name in Ireland, as it is in Scotland, singly or 
compounded. And thus Largo may be a varied 
form of Largy, exhibiting a use of o, adopted 
from the local pronunciation, instead of y, the 
more usual terminating letter. ESPEDA.RE. 



S. X. JULY 13, 72. 


(4 th S. ix. 505.) 

It is inquired by P. A. L. whether the birth of 
this great poet and statesman is to be placed in 
1527 or 1536. The contracted space afforded for 
the biographical notices which 1 wrote in 1829 
for Mr. Charles John Smith's very accurate fac- 
similes of Autographs of Royal, Noble, Learned, 
and Remarkable Personages conspicuous in English 
History, prevented my adding authorities j and it 
might not be thought wonderful if, after the lapse 
of forty-three years, I were unable to recover the 
grounds upon which 1 stated that Thomas Sack- 
ville the poet, afterwards the first Earl of Dor- 
set, was born in 1527, instead of 1536, which is 
the year usually assigned for his birth. I re- 
member, of course, that the memoirs in Lodge's 
Illustrious Portraits, and those in Granger's Bio- 
graphical History of England were the main sources 
for my compendious notices in the case of persons 
of the greatest eminence ; but Granger does not 
date the Earl of Dorset's birth, and Lodge states 
positively "He was born in 1536 at Buckhurst, 
in the parish of Withiam, in Sussex." I have 
however, I believe, traced the authority upon 
which I relied for my own statement. In Sir 
Egerton Brydges' Memoirs of the Peers of England 
during the Reign of James the First, at p. 443, it is 
said he was " born about 1527 " ; and this foot- 
note is appended, " So it seems by the inquisition 
on his father's death 1556 [an error for 1566] ; 
by which correct the mistake in Theatr. Poet. 
i. 66" meaning Phillips's Theatrum Poetarum 
as edited by Sir Egerton Brydges in 1800. I find, 
however, that a more recent biographer, Mr. Wm. 
Durrant Cooper, in his Life of Sackville prefixed 
to the play of Gorbodoc (Shakespeare Soc. 1843) 
reverses the decision of Sir Egerton Brydges, and 
upon the like authority. "Sackville (says Mr. 
Cooper) was born at Buckhurst, at the close of 
1536 " : citing in a note, " Mt. 29 et amplius, in 
inquisition taken at Southwark, 10th May, 1566, 
on his father's death ; and 72 on his own in 1608 : 
see Abbot's Sermon. This proves Chalmers's date 
of 1527 to be wrong." 1 now find that Alex. 
Chalmers, in the General Biographical Dictionary, 
directly says 1527. But there has been a still 
later biography of this distinguished man in 0. H. 
Cooper's Athena Cantabrigienses, 1861, ii. 484. 
Mr. C. H. Cooper is less decisive than all the pre- 
ceding authorities. He says that Sackville was 
born at Buckhurst, "and as is supposed in the 
year 1536 " ; but he adds this statement 

" In 37 Hen. VIII. it is recorded that Thomas Sack- 
ville was incumbent of the chantry in the church of Sul- 
lington in Sussex, he being then a" student at the gram- 
mar-school of the age of thirteen years, and having the 
profits amounting to 3 16s. per annum towards his 
exhibition. We consider it not unlikely that the person 

whose name occurs in this record was the subject of this 
notice, his age, perhaps being somewhat incorrectly re- 

The 37th Hen. VIII. was in the years 1545-46, 
so that if born in 1536 he was then only ten. 
Thus we only proceed from one doubt to another. 
But it will be remembered that the age of " thir- 
teen " was at that time considered a proper one 
for an exhibition to the university. I find the 
record quoted by Mr. C. H. Cooper in Cart- 
wright's Rape of Bramber, p. 125, under " Sul- 
lington " : " Thomas Sackville, incumbent, being 
a student at the gramer scole of th'age of xiii, 
hath the premises towards his exhibition, iij li xvj s . 
Return in Augm. Office 37 Hen. VIII." It re- 
mains still to be discovered at what " grammar- 
school," if any, Thomas Sackville was placed, for 
there was none at Sullington. It is not impos- 
sible both the " gramer scole " and " the age of 
xiii years " were alike imaginary or prospective 
on the part of his wily and calculating lather, who 
during his long and successful financial career 
earned so well the sobriquet of old "Fill-Sack." 


(4 th S. v. vi. passim."} 

There are one or two queries put by ESPEDARE 
in regard to my (I confess) imperfect paper (4 th 
S. v. 562) on this barony, which I ought to have 
answered long ago. The witnesses to the charter 
of 1232 by Alexander II. are the same in the 
copy of Rae as in that by Sibbald, and any differ- 
ence arose from my mistake. The cumulus lapidum 
versus Auchinleck of the charter was evidently 
in the direction of Auchinleck Hill, which is in 
the northern part of Dalgarnock parish, and be- 
longed, as I showed lately, to Tybaris barony. I 
believe it to be Garrock Cairn, though it is of 
small dimensions ; being only 17g ft. in circum- 
ference and 5^ ft. high, of a conical form. There 
is no other cairn in that direction to which the 
cumulus of the charter could apply. The cairns 
mentioned by Black, to which ESPEDARE refers, 
are on Auchencairn farm in the southern part of 
the parish, some four or five miles from Auchin- 
leck. There are upwards of sixty within the 
bounds of the farm, fifty-five on the Lowlands or 
Infield, and seven on the hill, or Moorfield as 
Black calls it. Many .of them are, of course, 
small; but some of them are of enormous size, 
and must be monumental stone-heaps over the 
burial places of some of the earliest of the Gael 
who had entered Caledonia. I have caused the 
largest of them to b measured, and it may be 
interesting to some of your readers to have their 
size recorded. What is called Mid Cairn is 217 ft. 
in circumference, and 13 ft. in height ; Pottis 
Shank, 220 ft. in circumference, and 9 ft. high ; 

4 th S. X. JULY 13, '72.] 



White Hill, 182 ft. in circumference, and 60 ft. in 
diameter; Topach Cairn, 143ft. in circumference 
(1) Pottis (Potuisso of the charter) Cairn, 153 ft 
in circumference, and 6 ft. high ; (2) Pottis Cairn 
72 ft. in circumference. I do not know if such a 
collection of large cairns can be found in any othei 
part of Scotland. Yet in size they are surpassec 
by the White Cairn upon the farm of Holmheac 
in the parish of Dairy, on the confines of Dum- 
friesshire and Galloway. A' friend has kindly sem 
me the precise dimensions, and I find tl its original 
circumference was 360 ft., and diameter 120 ft 
Its present circumference is 268 ft., diameter 89 ft., 
height from the ground 14 ft." The Poldune oi 
the charter is neither the Cample nor the Ae. It 
is the small stream, now called Poldivan, which 
falls eventually into the Ae, and the boundaries of 
Kylosbern in this part of the barony agree pre- 
cisely with its position. 

Garrock is still a farm, now included in the 
Queensberry estate, of old forming part of Tybaris 
barony. It belongs to the old parish of Dalgar- 
nock, which extends in this direction as far as 
Queensberry Hill. 

The charter, though it gives certain limits to- 
wards the north, does not enable us to determine 
its boundaries on all sides. I believe that the 
present boundary between the old Kirkpatrick 
property, now belonging to the co-heiresses of the 
late Douglas Baird, Esq., and the Queensberry 
estate, shows the extent of Kylosbern barony 
towards the north-east. We cannot tell how far 
it extended towards the river Nith, nor can we 
separate it from Briddeburg barony towards the 
south. I showed in a former paper (4 th S. ix. 
214) the parts of Dalgarnock parish which be- 
longed to Tybaris barony, and that is probably 
the only way by which we can approximate to its 

In regard to Macricem Sicherium, of which it is 
said u qui se extendit per medium Musse ascen- 
dendo," there is no doubt of the correctness of the 
reading, as I have before me a lithograph of the 
old charter made by the late Mr. C. Kirkpatrick 
Sharpe of Hoddom ; and though I do not pretend 
to be an expert in old handwriting, in this case it 
is sufficiently plain to leave no doubt on my mind 
that we have got the words of the charter. There 
is, where this landmark must have been, a very 
remarkable subsidence of the ground, which is 
known to the inhabitants. as the " Dry Gill "; and 
the Norman lawyer who drew up the document 
may have^ so designated it. The great Moss re- 
ferred to in the charter has been much curtailed 
by drainage and other agricultural improvements, 
but in early times must have come down far 
below the Dry Gill. This subsidence of the 
ground is a deep gully ; the sides of which are 
nearly perpendicular, sinking to a depth of up- 
wards of forty feet, and extending in length two 

hundred and seventy yards. It is sufficiently re- 
markable to attract attention ; and as it is on the 
borders of a part of Dalgarnock parish belonging 
to Tybaris barony, I think that we have reason to 
believe that we have- here the Macricem Sicherium 
of the Norman lawyer. In my edition of Ducange, 
which however is old (6 vols., Halae, 1772), there 
are no such words j but if ESPEDARE has access 
to some of the later editions, it is possible that 
they may be explained and illustrated. 


SIR HENRY RAEBURN (4 th S. ix. 319, 346.) 
MR. CUNNINGHAM has been misled in consequence 
of relying on literary gossip rather than taking the 
trouble to consult the references which I have 
already given to the Editor of " N. & Q." to 
volume and page of records in the public archives, 
with the object of setting him right. 

I cannot undertake to send the same references 
again, but in a forthcoming work I hope satisfac- 
torily to show the real state of the question by 
producing extracts from the records in question, 
without, however, bringing forward your corre- 
spondent personally, as that would be unnecessary, 
it being evident to me that he is entirely unac- 
quainted with the facts of the case, and is only 
wrong in adopting the errors of others. S. 

DINNERS "A LA RUSSE" (4 th S. ix. 422, 488; 
x. 11.) It is edifying, nay affecting, to see your 
excellent and venerable correspondent F. C. H. 
applying himself to this great subject. 

Like other abstruse questions, it, no doubt, has 
two sides. But I think the main argument has 
not been noticed. It is that this usage saves an 
infinitude of needless trouble and wholly super- 
fluous cceni dubietatem. With it, two entrees are 
abundant for twenty people, who otherwise would 
require eight or nine at least ; and so of other 
dishes. The avoidance of an idle appearance of 
.uxury, and greater simplicity, are alone worth a 
good deal. LYTTELTOX. 

x. 422.) I cannot give the date, but it must have 
)een after 1840, when I witnessed several of the 

performances of the African Roscius. It was at 
;he Britannia Theatre, London. Mr. Aldridge 

appeared in Titus Andronicus, as Aaron ; also as 

Othello, as Hamlet, as Zanga, as Bertram (in the 
ragedy of Maturin), and as Mungo in a farce of 

which the name has escaped me. He was un- 
[uestionably a man of talent, and his acting was 
;ood, though occasionally he was given to rant. 
?rom what I remember of Titus Andronicus, it 

was very much curtailed, but I do not think that 
,ny additions were made to the text. The play- . 
ill had a long paragraph, which defended the 
uthorship of Shakspeare, and threw the gauntlet 
t all doubters. I witnessed Mr. Aldridge at the 



S. X. JULY 13, '72. 

Britannia in Zanga, Aaron, Bertram, and Mungo, 
and I must confess that his talent was more con, 
spicuous as the comic negro butler than in the 
three tragic characters where revenge is the ruling 
passion. He was not a genuine African there 
was white blood in his veins. After leaving 
London he performed in Germany and in Russia. 
He died about ten years ago, at some place on the 
Continent. When he first appeared as an actor, 
he called himself "Kean, the African Roscius." 
When the name of "Kean" was abandoned for 
that of " Aldridge," the play-bills had always a 
few lines of biography, which stated that Mr. A. 
was a prince, and the son of an African king ! 
but the kingdom was not named. 

I should like to see some reliable account of 
Mr. Aldridge. Perhaps Mrs. Lane, a very clever 
actress, and the present proprietress of the Bri- 
tannia, could furnish such. She and her husband, 
the late much-respected Mr. S. Lane, were per-- 
sonal friends of Mr. Aldridge. N. 

IRISH STREET BALLADS (4 th S. ix. 485.) The 
ballad " Sweet Castle Hyde " is given in Evenings 
in the Duffrey, by Patrick Kennedy (Dublin, 
1869). This is a small 8vo book, and with its 
companion book, The Banks of the Boro (Dublin, 
1867), contains between forty and fifty of the bal- 
lads which were current in the co. of Wexford 
forty years ago. Mr. Kennedy's sketches of the 
manners of the wealthy farmers in that part of 
Ireland are very interesting, and he has embalmed 
many little bits of rural folk lore which I have 
not met with elsewhere. W. H. PATTERSOX. 

CATER-COUSINS (4 th S. ix. 331, 396, 456, 517.) 
I have often been struck with the indefiniteness 
of the relationship betokened by the common 
word cousin, even when it is used in the nearest 
degree ; that is, as first cousin. Let me take the 
phrase " Tom is Dick Smith's cousin " to show 
my meaning. Tom may stand in four different 
relationships to Dick Smith : he may be (1) Dick's 
father's brother's son, and in this case his name 
would probably be Smith ; (2) Dick's father's 
sister's son ; (3) Dick's mother's brother's son ; 
(4) Dick's mother's sister's son, and in the last 
three cases Tom's name would be no guide without 
other data. I have often wondered, never having 
heard the true meaning of the word cater-cousin, 
whether that word expressed any of these rela- 
tionships say cousinship on the mother's side 
generally ; and though I must believe that it has 
never been conventionally used in this sense, still 
I cannot help thinking that a word defining more 
closely the relations of cousinhood would be of 
great use in our language, while it would un- 
doubtedly make easier the researches of those 
whose delight is in tracing family connections 
through the medium of wills and other documents. 

Clent, Sto'urbridge. VlGORN. 

" WHAT I SPENT THI.T I HAD," ETC. (1 st S. v, 
179, 452 j viii. 30; xi. 112.) Another anticipa- 
tion of the above occurs in S. Augustine, De 
Civitate Dei, lib. i. cap. x. After quoting 1 Tim. 
vi. 17, 18, 19, he writes : 

<{ HBC qui de suis faciebant divitiis, inagnis sunt lucris 
levia damna soluti; plusque laetati ex his, quae facile 
tribuendo tutius servaverunt, quam coatristati ex his 
quas timide retinendo facilius amiserunt." 


Pear Tree Vicarage, Southampton. 

435,523.) Although the advertisement to which 
MR. SCOTT refers implies, as he says, that the 
" Eidophusikon " was in addition to some other 
exhibition, I think it probable that the doubt- 
arises from the inexact way in which it is worded. 
My reason for coming to this opinion is, that the 
" Eidophusikon " appears, as will be seen in the 
following extract, to have been of sufficient im- 
portance to be, and in fact to have been, an entire 
entertainment : 

" Soon after settling in this country (1771) De Louther- 
bourg took up bis abode at 45, Titchfield Street, Oxford 
Street, and was elected associate (of the Royal Academy) 
in 1780, and R.A. in 1781. He produced in 1782, under 
the title of ' Eidophusikon, or a Representation of Na- 
ture,' a novel and highly interesting exhibition, display- 
ing the changes of the elements and their phenomena 
in a calm, a moonlight, a sunset, and a storm at sea by 
the aid of reflecting transparent gauzes highly illu- 
minated. Gainsborough frequently visited and admired 
this spectacle, which not only anticipated, but in some 
respects surpassed our present dioramas, although upon a 
smaller scale." Sandby's History of the Royal Academy 
of Arts, i. 192. 


SOHO SQUARE (4 th S. ix. 507.) When the city 
magnates hunted in Bayswater Fields and Shep- 
herd's Bush, " Soho ! " was the cry then used, as 
" Tally-ho ! " is now. Hence Soho'Fields was the 
name of the open country immediately after pass- 
ing St. Giles's Pound. JAS. BOHN. 

A statement to the following effect occurs in a 
little book called The Cairn, published several 
years ago : To the north of the Earl of Leices- 
ter's house stood King's Square, on one side of 
which was the Duke of Monmouth's house, after 
whose execution the name was changed to Soho 
Square, " Soho " being his* watchword at the 
fatal battle of Sedgemore. E. N. 

Your correspondent asks "What is the origin of 
Soho ? " Cunningham in his Handbook to London 
states that it was so called before the battle at 
Sedgemoor, and Macaulay (as noticed) does the 
same. If no better explanation can be given for 
the word, allow me to draw attention to the fact 
that, as parts of the original fields were called 
" Dog Fields " and " Doghouse Field,"' which were 
{( since more lately called or known by the names 
of Soho or Soho Fields " (Cunningham), that 

4S.X. JI-LY 19, '72.] 



thence (as he suggests) it derived the name from 
" So-ho or So-how, an old cry in hunting when 
the hare was found " ; and Johnson's Dictionary 
explains ' Soho " as " a form of calling from a 
distant place." Is the following extract admis- 
sible in your journal as a use of the word ? 

" . . . . some vagabond Hector, who throughout the 
nisiht struck right and left at both parties, cr}dng out 
with all his might' Soho! Aubijoux ! thou hast gained 
of me three thousand ducats, there are three thrusts for 
thee. Soho ! La Chapelle ! I will have ten drops of thy 
blood in exchange for my ten pistoles.' " Cinq Mars, by 
A. de Vigny, in " Railway Library " edition, 18G4, p. 137. 

We know how similar suggestive names were 
derived, such as the ditch with a sunken fence in 
it, called a " Ha-ha " fence, simply from the cir- 
cumstance of a person coming suddenly upon it in 
riding, and naturally exclaiming " ha ! ha ! " at 
being so suddenly stopped in his progress. 

DR. RIMBAULT ("N. & Q." I 8t S. ii. 227) has 
added the interesting notice, that "between the 
years 1674 and 1681 the ground was surveyed by 
Gregory King, an eminent architect of those days, 
who projected the square with the adjacent 
streets," and who may have given his name to 
the square, as often done by the surveyors and 
speculative builders of those days, as also of the 
present. King's Street, as it was printed in a 
" Survey of London " of 1742, may also have been 
named from this builder. The same work notices 
" King's Square, but vulgarly Soho Square." 

W. P. 

IOLANTHE (4 th S. ix. 407, 475, 516.) With all 
due deference, which, I believe, is the courteous 
way of expressing a difference of opinion, I doubt 
if lolanthe, &c., are mediaeval variations of the 
Spanish name Violante, as stated by HERMEN- 
TRTJDE. Violante comes direct from the Latin 
viola. lolanthe is clearly of Greek origin. They 
are cognate names j but the latter can hardly be a 

variation of the former. 


I think the lines are translated from Apollonius 
Rhodius's description of Medeia's elopement j if so, 
though the authority would be good for what was 
done " in the Levant from the remotest antiquity," 
cutting off a long lock of hair is hardly equivalent 
to shaving the head : 

8' f6v re Ae'xos ital oiK\i5as 


/caAAwre Trapflevfrjs, y&ivrj 5' oAo^iAaro 

TfVSe roi avr fueflei/ r&vabv ir\6Kov efyu hnrovaa, 

fJ.%Tp e>?/, x'P' s 5 * Kal &vdixa iro\\bv lover). 

Argonautic. lib. iv. vv. 25-31. 

The corresponding passage in Valerius Flaccus is : 
" Ultima virgineis tune flens dedit oscula vittis ; 
Quosque fugit complexa toros, crinemque geuasque 
Ante per antiqui carpsit vestigia somni : 
Atque hajc impresso gemit miseranda cubili : 

mihi si profugze genitor mine ille supremos 
Amplexus ^Eeta dares, fletusque videres, 
Ecce meos! ne crede pater ; non carior ille est, 
Quern sequimur : tumidis utinam simul obruar undis. 
Tu, precor, haec longa placidus mox sceptra senecta, 
Tuta geras, meliorque tibi sit cetera proles.* 5 

Argonaut, lib. vin. vv. 6-15. 

1 quote the latter because it suggests a query. 
Where are the manuscripts of the Rev. J. S. Wat- 
son ? Among those which he described in the 
paper written just before he took the poison, was 
a translation of Valerius Flaccus. If in rhyme it 
is probably worth publishing ; if in blank verse, 
not, as a crib to a book not used in schools is not 

In Smith's Classical Dictionary a translation by 
Nicholas Whyte, 1565, is mentioned. I cannot 
find it in the British Museum. Can any reader of 
u N. & Q." say whether it is worth reprinting, or 
give a short specimen, ex. gr. the version of the 
passage above ? II. B. C. 

U. U. Club. 

MR. KETT OF TRINITY, OXFORD (4 th S. ix. 379, 
448, 517.) I have a copy of the first edition of 
The Examiner Examined, Oxford, 1809. Latet is 
in the motto, but possibly " patet " may have been 
substituted in a later edition. On the fly leaf is 
a MS. note, 

" This quaint title, The Examiner Examined, is not 
new, Webster of Ware published a pamphlet against 
Bishop Hare, which begins with the same words, in 

1 i OZ. 

U. U. Club. 

H. B. C. 

" FETCH A COMPASS " (4 th S. ix. 454.) The 
author of the Book of Mormon, a compilation 
worthy of Munchausen himself, introduces one of 
the ten tribes steering by the mariner's compass ! 
This anachronism, was pointed out to Brigham 
Young (or as the Americans call him Bigamy 
Young) by an episcopalian clergyman. The Mor- 
mon chief told the clergyman that he had for- 
gotten his Testament, and directed him to Acts 
xxviii. 1 3. The- expression " fetch a walk " is 
very common in the west of England. N. 

SIR ROBERT AYTOUN (4 th S. ix. 359, 516.) 
Was not the authenticity of the poems published 
by the Rev. Dr. Rogers (then Mr. C. Roger), and 
ascribed by him to Sir Robert Aytoun, doubted at 
the time of publication ? J. B. 

469, 538.) Many years ago I pasted into a scrap 
book several woodcuts representing scenes and in- 
cidents of the battle of Waterloo, and taken (if I 
remember rightly) from The Pictorial Times. One 
of the largest of these is called " Napoleon's Plat- 
form at Waterloo," and represents the scaffold of 
sixty feet high, divided into three compartments, 
and tapering towards its summit. On each of the 
three floors is a ladder, without a hand rail, giving 



[>> S. X. JULY 13, '72. 

admission to the story above. Could the artist 
have had any authority for the shape, &c., of this 
scaffold ? or did he construct it after the fashion 
of the German's camel ? CUTHBERT BEDE. 

If MR. OAKLET refers to vol. ii. p. 47 of Kelly's 
History of the Wars, ed. 1819, he will find an ac- 
count, and also an engraving, of "this curious 
machine." J. W. FLEMING. 


" ROY'S WIFE OF ALDIVALLOCH: " (4 th S. ix. 
507.) The date is earlier than your correspondent 
A. X. supposes. I intended to have sent the 
words to " N. & Q." some time ago, liut my "books 
were packed up so that I could not get at them. 
The original song/which I transcribe for the sake 
of your readers besouth the Tweed, was by Mrs. 
Grant of Carron, who must not be confounded 
with Mrs. Grant of Laggan. Mrs. Grant was 
born near Aberlourin 1745. Her widowhood she 
bestowed on Dr. Murray of Bath, and died some- 
where about 1814 : 

" Roy's wife of Aldivalloch, 
Roy's wife of Aldivalloch, 
Wat ye how she cheated me 
As I cam o'er the braes of Balloch. 
" She vowed, she swore she wad be mine. 

She said she lo'ed me best of onie ; 
But ah ! the fickle, faithless quean, 

She's ta'en the Carle, and left her Johnnie. 
" she was a cantie quean ! 

Weel could she dance the Highland walloch. 
How happy I, had she been mine, 
Or I'd been Roy of Aldivalloch. 
" Her hair sae fair, her een sae clear, 

Her wee bit rnou' sae sweet and bonnie ; 
To me she ever will be dear, 

Tho' she's for ever left her Johnnie. 

Roy's wife," &c. 

Lindsay Alexander of Edinburgh, than whom, c. 

" Rubri Uxor Aldivallis. 
" Rubri uxor Aldivallis ! 
Rubri uxor Aldivallis ! 
Scisne qua decepit me 

Colles cum transirem Ballis ? 
" Vovit ac juravit ilia 

Meam semper se futuram ; 
Sed VSR rnihi ! virgo levis 

Istum prse me legit furem. 
" Optime saltavit virgo ; 

Laetiorem nunquam malles ; 
O utinam fuisset mea, 

Aut ego Ruber Aldivallis ! 
" Oculos nitentes habet, 

Osque pulchrum ut Diana? ; 
Semper mini cara erit 
Quamvis perfida Joanni." 


I have heard from many independent sources 
that this is a well-recognised national air of 
Northern China under some other name. I my- 
self was struck by the resemblance before I noticed 

a remark on it in Mr. Fleming's work on Chinese 
Tartary. S. 

WILLIAM HALLET (4 th S. v. 247.) The follow- 
ing extract is an interesting addition to the notice 
of this person, and extends to his descendants : 

"William Hallet, Esq., grandson to the purchaser of 
this estate (of Canons), sold it about six years ago (in 
1786) to Mr. Dennis O'Kelly, a successful adventurer on 
the turf, who left it at his death to his nephew. Mr. 
Walpole mentions the sale of this place to a cabinet- 
maker, as ' a mockery of sublunary grandeur.' He might 
now extend his reflections by observing that Mr. Hallett 
has lately purchased the Dunch estate and mansion at 
Wittenham in Berks, which had been more than two 
hundred j'ears in that ancient family. He has likewise 
bought the seat and estate at Farringdon, in Berk?, of 
Henry James Pye, Esq., late M.P. for that county, and 
now poet laureate, whose family were in possession of it 
more than two centuries. Thus ancient families become 
extinct, or fall to decay ; and trade, and the vicissitudes 
of life, have thrown into the hands of one man a pro- 
perty which once supported two families with great in- 
fluence and respectability in their county." The Ambu- 
lator; or, a Tour 'Twenty-Jive Miles Round London, 4th 

W. P. 

IRON SHIPBUILDING (4 th S. ix. 484.) The fol- 
lowing is from Mr. E. J. Reed, late Chief Con- 
structor of the Navy, in reply to your paragraph 
on '-'Iron Shipbuilding": 


"Sir, In your journal of to-day I observe a cutting 
from Notes and Queries, relative to a paragraph descrip- 
tive of the launch of an iron barge in 1788, which ap- 
peared in the Hull Packet of November 11, 1788. As 
the correspondent of your contemporary inquires if earlier 
instances of iron shipbuilding than this are known, it 
may be interesting to mention that an earlier iron boat 
appears to have been built by the same gentleman, Mr. 
Wilkinson, of Bradley Forge, for whereas the Hull Packet 
describes the barge in question as recently launched, 
under the date of November 11, 1788. Mr." Grantham, 
in his book on iron shipbuilding, quotes a publication 
bearing date July 28, 1787, in which is given a descrip- 
tion of an iron canal boat, built by Mr. Wilkinson, which 
arrived at Birmingham a few days before. I may add 
that I had occasion a few years ago to look up the'early 
history of iron shipbuilding, but did not discover any 
earlier instances than this of a really working commercial 
vessel built of iron. Yours obedientlv, 

" June 22, 1872. E. J. REED." 


ECCENTRIC TURNING (4 th S, ix. 532.) Without 
depreciating the merit due to M. Muhle for his 
" eccentric hat," he must not be considered the 
inventor of this sort of turning, because long 
before 1826, in a French 4to work, entitled Recueil 
cTOuvrages curieiix, published at Lyons, 1719, 
there are many engravings of most wonderful 
specimens of such eccentric articles which be- 
longed to the grandfather of the author of the 
volume, viz. M. Grollier de Servieux. Copies of 
the work are not uncommon. It is well worth 
the possession of the curious in such matters. 

4 th S. X. JULY 13, '72.] 



There is also the geat folio by Plumier (L'Art 
de Tourneur) published at Lyons, 1701, with plates 
. of such eccentric turning, but no hats certainly. 

" HISTOIRE DU BATON " (4 th S. ix. 360, 455.) 
MR. SKIPTON, in his learned note on what I in- 
tended as a mere suggestion for inquiry, and not 
as a positive assertion, has, I think, made out a 
strong case in favour of the derivation of skittles 
from skytale or scytale, a " thick staff or cudgel." 
Mr. S. knows, no doubt, the "game of sticks" 
played at country fairs, where sticks are thrown 
at objects placed on upright sticks. Now, have 
we not in this game two sorts of skytales or scy- 
tales ? Is it beyond the bounds of probability to 
suppose that, at some time or other, this game 
may have been known as that of skittles f and that 
the nine pins of the other game may have been 
also called skittles from the uprights of the game of 

"HAND OF GLORY" (4 th S. ix. 238, 289, 376, 
455.) I think I see that this " Hand of Glory " 
is nothing but the "Hand of Elloree," or the 
" Hand of Gilry" a sentence that once meant the 
" Hand of Sorcery." In the " Romance of the 
Seven Sages " (see Promptorium Parvulorum, 
under the word " Gaude ") are the lines 
u ' Ah, dame,' said the emperowre, 
' Thou haues ben a fals gilowre ; 
For thy gaudes and thy gilry.' " 

Gilry meant "jargon" or "wizardy,"and elloree 
means " sorcerer" in the north of England. This 
term belongs to our Celtic mother tongue, the 
Irish, and to the kindred speech of Wales and 
Cornwall as well. In Welsh it is visible in cell- 
wair, " to talk jargon," or "to jest." It is also in 
the gipsy vocabulary, and it may be recognised 
in the word "glarnoury." 

But this is not all, by any means; and the in- 
credible part is to come. The phrase " Hand of 
Glory " is certainly the Celtic " Caint Elloree " or 
" Caint Gilry" so to write the sentence. Caint, 
in Irish, means " speech," and we now write it 
cant. So that " Sorcery-cant " or " Sorcerer's 
jargon " was once the real meaning of that very 
puzzling piece of old Irish, the " Hand of Glory" ! 
But, there is an actual hand in the tradition ? No 
doubt ; and this only shows how ready men were 
once to shape their legends on fragments of the 
elder speech then slipping out of their knowledge, 
and only strange sounds in their ears. 

I cut this note very short, and leave out a 
number of collateral proofs, much more surprising 
than those I mention. Elloree and Caint are 
words with very long biographies, meandering 
through many languages, and very curious in 
them all especially in our own of the Celtic 
family, and in our literature. If I had any busi- 
ness to draw or point morals in "N. & Q." I 

would impress on the lovers of these interesting 
researches the chief duty of looking for the folk- 
lore of Old England in the legends and the lan- 
guage of the sister island. W. D. 
Brooklyn, N.Y. 

AGE OF SHIPS (4 th S. ix. 261, 396, 491.) On 
referring to the Mercantile Navy List, published 
by the Registrar-General of Shipping and Seamen, 
and which is compiled from official documents, I 
find that the " Amphitrite " was built at North 
Shields in 1776, and the "Brotherly Love," 
214 tons, at Ipswich in 1764 ; and the latter 
named vessel would, therefore, have been one 
hundred and eight years old when wrecked. Now 
Capt. Cook sailed on his first voyage of discovery 
in the " Endeavour," 370 tons, from Deptford on 
July 30, 1768; on his second voyage with the 
"Resolution," 462 tons, and "Adventurer," 336 
tons, from Plymouth on July 13, 1772 ; and on 
his third and last voyage with the "Resolution" 
and " Discovery," 300 tons, on July 9, 1776. On 
which voyage did the " Brotherly Love " accom- 
pany Capt. Cook round the world? 

By the Register of Shipping for 1818 the "Betsy 
Cains " (not Cairns) was built in the King's Yard 
in 1690 ; and consequently when lost, in 1824, 
was one hundred and thirty-four years old. She 
is described to be a ship of 176 tons, with two 
decks j to have been rebuilt in 1722, raised, and 
to have a draught of water of twelve feet ; and 
to be employed as a Portsmouth transport, and 
was classified E 1. in the year 1812. As " Wil- 
liam and Mary " landed at Tprbay on November 5, 
1688, they could not possibly have been conveyed 
in the "Betsey Cains," which was not launched 
until two years after. 

71, Brecknock Road, N. 

ix. 536), is the beginning of a song by Charles 
Mackay, Esq. (Collected Songs, edit. 1859, p. 322). 
It was set to music by the late Dr. Chard. 



The Letters and the Life of Francis Bacon, including all 
his Occasional Works, namely, Letters, 'Speeches, Tracts, 
State Papers, Memorials, Devices, and all Authentic 
Writings not already printed among his Philosophical, 
Literary, and Professional Works. Newly collected 
and set forth in Chronological Order, with a Commentary 
Biographical and Historical. By James Spedding, 
Honorary Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. Vol. 
VI. (Longmans.) 

The Letters and Documents to be found in this new 
volume of Mr. Spedding's valuable contribution to the 



S. X. JULY 13, '72. 

life of Bacon, and thereby to the history of his times, 
embrace all that he has been able to discover written by 
Bacon between July 1616 and January 1619 a very 
eventful period in the career of the great Chancellor. 
Not the least important portion of the volume is the 
Introduction, in which Mr. Spedding, in defending his 
work from the objections which have been taken by some 
unfriendly critics to the plan on which it is arranged, 
vindicates, and very successfully, the principles by which 
he has been guided in its preparation, and the "manner 
in which he has carried them out. 

The Clergy Directory and Parish Guide : an Alpha- 
betical List of the Clergy of the Church of England, 
with their Degrees and University, Order and Date of^ 
Ordination, Benefice, and Date of Induction ; a List of 
Benefices, with the Population, Annual Value, and 
Patrons ; an Almanack giving the New and Old Tables 
&f Lessons, and other useful Information. Corrected" to 
June 1872. (Bosworth.) 

This new Clerical Red Book, which is very neatly 
printed, puts forward two claims to the patronage of the 
numerous and influential class to whom it is more par- 
ticularly addressed, namely, that while it is apparently 
very complete, it is assuredly very cheap. We dislike 
party badges in Church matters, and suggest in that 
spirit the omission in the next edition of the f which is 
now placed against the names of those who signed the 
Remonstrance on the Purchas Judgment. 

Memoirs of the Early Life of the Right Hon. Sir W. II. 
Maule. Edited by Emma Leathlev, his Niece. (Bent- 

This unpretending volume does not profess to give us 
the life of the brilliant wit, the accomplished advocate, 
or the learned judge, whose reputation still survives in 
Westminster Hall ; but its interesting and instructive 
pages tell how judicious early training, perseverance, 
and self-reliance made William Henry Maule all these. 
The book is one which may be read with great ad- 
vantage by young men whose advancement in life must 
mainly depend upon their own exertions, as it will be 
read with interest by those who like to study English 
home life. There is in it a pleasant notice of the Judge's 
cousin, William Henry Miller, whose name is familiar to 
many of our readers as the collector of the bibliographical 
treasures now preserved at Britwell. 

The Hawthorn ; a Magazine of Essay's, Sketches, and 
Reviews, is a new Magazine, four numbers of which are 
now before us, the writers of which assume the place of 
Milton's shepherds, and 

" . . . . tell their tale 
Under the Hawthorn in the dale " 
by which latter is to be understood Paternoster Row, and 
the publisher of the Magazine, Mr. Washbourne. 



Particulars of Price, &c.. of the following books to be sent direct to 
the gentlemen by whom they are required, whose names and addresses 
are given for that purpose : 

WILLIAM LONDON'S ditto ditto, with Supplement. 4to, 1658-so. 

Fol. 1680. 
Catalogues of Second-hand Books (any) appreciated. 

Wanted by Mr. John W. Stephenson, Clinton Ris, New Basford, 
near Nottingham. 


Wanted by Mr. John Crtmden Hotten, 74 and 75, Piccadilly, 
London, W. 

bault, with other papers in our next. 

H. PASSINGHAM. Lord Borthwick's claim was for an 
Amendment of the Union Roll by placing the dignity of 
Lord Borthwick immediately after that of Lord Cathcart, 
and before that of Lord Carlyle, Sfc. 

DON GIOVANNI'S query should be addressed to a medical 

H. A. B. (Liverpool.) The engraving of the cobweb 
and font appeared in the European Magazine, for Jan. 
1793, vol. xxiii. p. 47, with some account of them. 

ELIZA MILL (Chelsea). Authorities differ respecting 
the meaning of the term " billion." Some dictionaries 
define it as a thousand millions ; whereas Entick has "Bil- 
lions, two or twice millions." Butler's Tutor's Assistant 
is probably near the mark, which defines a billion a million 
of millions. 

JOHN WARD (Islington"). The Geneva version of the 
Bible (fol. 1562) is notoriously inaccurate, e. g. Mat- 
thew v. 9, reads "Blessed are the place [peace] makers " ; 
and in the contents of Luke xxi. "Christ condemneth the 
poor widow," instead o/"commendeth. 

THOMAS CLAT. " Bubble the Justice " is only another 
name for Dutch pins, ninepins, &c., sagaciously substituted 
for such pastimes as were specified by name in public acts. 

W. "HORACE AND HIS EDITORS " (1 th S. IX. 319.) 
Where will a letter find you ? 

CELTO-BRITON. A reference to our General Indexes 
ivill show how often the origin of the quotation has been 
sought, but in vain. 

S. K. (Blackheath.) We have a letter for you. Send 

E. V. Those members of Convocation who are Doctors 
merely wear the scarlet gowns appertaining to their degrees 
at the universities. 

TEWARS. Next week. Perhaps a PS. to your note 
may now be required. 

F. C. H. will see that he has been anticipated. 

T. S. We shall be glad to have the Lovat papers sub- 
mitted to us. 

J. J. S. If the Irish superstition is suitable, we will 
insert it. 

X. Drydens allusion is to the, famed Act for burial in 
woollen, 30 Charles II. c. 3 (1678). See " N. & Q." 1 st S. 
v. 414, 542; vi. 58, 111. 

GEORGE E. FRERE (Eoydon Hall). Thehymn, "Speak 
gently to tlie Erring," is by Frederick George Lee. See 
Lyra Eucharistica, edit. 1864, p. 54. 

OWEN E. DAVIES (Cheltenham). The ship "The 
Glutton " was so named in compliment to Admiral Wells 
of Holme, the lord of the manor of the adjoining parish of 
Glatton, Hunts. See " N. & Q." 3 rd S. x. 304 ; xi. 285. 

J. BEALK. Tommy is a provincialism for provisions ; 
and a Tommy-shop is a place where ivages are generally 
paid to mechanics, who are expected to take out a portion 
of the money in goods. 

ERRATUM. 4 th S. x. p. 2, col. ii. line 47, for "Hacker" 
read " Axtell." 


To all communications should be affixed the name and 
address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 
as a guarantee of good faith. 

All communications should be addressed to the Editor 
at the Office, 43, Wellington Street, W.C. 

4 th S. X. JULY W), '72.] 





NOTES : Loutherbourg and the Panorama, 41 Pro- 
jrramtnc, 43 Napoleon, Fouche, Ouvrard, and Mr. La- 
boucherc, Ib, The Death Warrant of Charles I. : a 
Supplementary Note Marks of Cadence \illage of 
Dean, and Village of the Water of Leith : Edinburgh 
Early mention of the Morgue -Old Bells - Is ightingale 
and Thorn Napoleon at St. Helena Milton's L Alle- 
gro " Epitaphiana Hamilton's " Silvern," 4k 

QUERIES : Admiral Kempenfeldt, 46 Dryden's Broken 
Head Seventeenth Century Toilet Articles Anony- 
mous Barony of Banff Baver " The Colours of Eng- 
land he nailed to the Mast" Josiah Cunningham 
D: D Edgehill Battle- Liberty of the Press: Acts of 
Parliament Models of Ships at Haarlem Colonel Okey, 
the Regicide Oleographs Blanch Parry Persicaria 
Old Portrait Quotations wanted Line in Shelley 
Surname of Smith Font at Stoke, Staffordshire St. 
Hilda 'and Rock Hall A Vine Pencil A Yard of 
Wine, 47. 

REPLIES: Apocryphal Genealogy, 49 "As Straight as a 
Die," 51 Cater-Cousins, 52 Ar-Nuts, 76. Iceland, 53 

The Paterini, 54 The Earliest Advertisement Mr. 
Grant's " History of the Newspaper Press and Early Ad- 
vertisements " - The bitter Pill - John Dix- Tyke, Tike 

Inigo Jones and the Earl of Pembroke ".Sir John Lub- 
bock on "Felis'Catus" Alexander Pope of Scottish 
Descent Sugar and Water Day Porcelain Figure 
Sir Richard Lee, 1560 Tyddyn Inco "I know a Hawk 
from a Handsaw" Divorce Lee Gibbons Porpoise 
and Salmon Early Recollections The grand Secret 
Error in Oxford Prayer-Books Napoleon on board the 
Northumberland, &c., 54. 

Notes on Books, &c. 


J. P. de Loutherbourg the l( Panoramist," as lie 
is called, was- certainly the first exhibitor of a 
series of paintings on a large scale in which 
particular effects were introduced. We know 
that he was engaged by Garrick, at a salary 
of five hundred pounds per annum, to super- 
intend the scenery of Drury Lane Theatre j and 
that he was the great improver of stage scenery. 
Before his time all scenery was painted on one 
dead flat; but by introducing cottages, mounds, 
&c., before the flat, he gave the whole a greater 
resemblance to nature. When Sheridan became 
manager of the theatre, he attempted to reduce 
Loutherbourg's salary by one half, which, being 
resisted, was the occasion of the painter's invent- 
ing a new species of entertainment for the town 
called the "Eidophusikon" a name as Anthony 
Pasquin says it justly deserved 

" as, with the assistance of reflecting transparent gauzes 
highly illuminated, it rendered the images of nature in 
such an eminent order, as to induce Mr. Gainsborough to 
be constant in his visits to that extraordinary and meri- 
torious spectacle ; and he has been heard to declare, that 
he never went away without receiving instruction as 
well as amusement, from the wonderful ability which 
' Mr. Loutherbourg displayed. The management of the 
lights and machinery were intrusted to some ingenious 
artists who assisted him. This brilliant exhibition was 
sold by the inventor ; but those who did not see it, when 

mder his immediate conduct, could have but an imperfect 
dea of its amazing excellence." Somerset House Gazette, 
. 172. 

The "Eidophusikon" was first exhibited in 
Lisle Street, Leicester Square ; and the following 
.s one of the earliest advertisements as it appeared 
n a London paper of 1781 : 

" At the large house in Lisle Street, fronting Leicester 

Street, Leicester Square, this and every evening till fur- 

her notice, will be exhibited ' Eidophusikon,' or various 

mitations of natural phenomena, represented by moving 

pictures, invented and painted by Mr. De Loutherbourg in 

a manner entirely new." April 3, 1781. 

From other advertisements we learn that the 
xhibition was assisted by vocal and instrumental 
music, and that the performers were Michael 
Arne and his wife, Mrs. Baddeley, Mr. Bumey, 
&c. The entertainments commenced at half-past 
seven in the evening, and the charge for admis- 
sion was five shillings. 

A very graphic description of this exhibition is 
given by W. H. Pyne in his once popular work, 
Wine and Walnuts, a few passages from which 
are worth extracting as explaining fully its pecu- 
liarities .: 

' This original exhibition delighted and astonished the 
public and the artists, who visited it in crowds. Sir 
Joshua Reynolds frequently attended, and strongly re- 
commended it. The stage was little more than six feet 
wide, and about eight feet deep ; yet, such was the 
painter's knowledge of effect and scientific arrangement, 
that the space appeared to recede for many miles ; and 
his horizon seemed as palpably distant from the eye as 
the extreme termination of the view would appear in 
nature. A vieV from One-Tree Hill, Greenwich Park, 
represented on one side Flamstead House, and below 
Greenwich Hospital, cut out of pasteboard and painted 
with architectural correctness. Large groups of trees, 
with painted views of Greenwich and Deptford, with the 
Metropolis beyond, from Chelsea to Poplar. The inter- 
mediate flat space represented the river crowded with 
shipping; each man being cut out in pasteboard, and 
receding in size by the perspective of their distance. A 
heathy foreground was represented by miniature models 
in cork. The whole shown at morning, twilight, and 
under the effect of gradual daybreak, increasing to broad 
sunshine. The clouds in every scene had a natural mo- 
tion, and they were painted in semi-transparent colours ; 
so that they not only received light in front, but, by a 
greater intensity of 'the Argand lamps employed, were 
susceptible of being illuminated from behind. The linen 
on which they were painted was stretched on frames of 
twenty times the surface of the stage, which rose dia- 
gonally by a winding machine. De Loutherbourg ex- 
celled in representing the phenomena of clouds. The 
lamps were above the scene, and hidden from the audi- 
ence a far better plan than the foot-lights of a theatre. 
Before the line of brilliant lamps on the stage of the 
' Eidophusikon ' were slips of stained glass yellow, red, 
green, purple, and blue ; thereby representing different 
times of the day, and giving a hue of cheerfulness, sub- 
limity, or gloom, to the various scenes. 

" A Storm at Sea, with the loss of the Halsewell In- 
diaman, was awful and astonishing ; for the conflict of 
the raging elements was represented with all the charac- 
teristic horrors of wind, hail, thunder, lightning, and the 
roaring of the waves ; with such a marvellous imitation 



X. JULY 20, '72. 

of nature that mariners have declared, whilst viewing 
the scene, that it seemed a reality. 

" Gainsborough was so delighted with the exhibition 
that he could talk of nothing else, and passed many even 
ings in witnessing it. De Loutherbourg tried many plan: 
of imitating the firing of a signal of distress at sea with 
out success. At length he had a large piece of parch 
ment fastened to a circular frame, forming a vast tarn 
bourine : to this was attached a compact sponge that weni 
upon a whalebone spring, and could be regulated to 
produce an apparently near or distant sound, with ex- 
traordinary effect. Thunder and lightning were also 
marvellously imitated the former by shaking a sus- 
pended sheet of thin copper. 

" The waves of the sea were carved in soft wood from 
models made in clay: they were coloured with great 
skill, and, being highly varnished, reflected the lightning 
Each turned on its own axis towards the other in a 
contrary direction, throwing up the foam, now at one 
spot, now at another; and, diminishing in altitude as 
they receded in distance, were subdued by corresponding 
tints. One machine, of simple construction, turned the 
whole ; and the motion was regulated according to the 
progress of the storm. The vessels went over the waves 
with a natural undulation, their sizes and motion being 
proportioned to their apparent distances and bulk ; they 
were all correctly rigged, and carried only such sail as 
their situation would demand. The rush of the waves, 
loud gusts of wind, rain and hail, were imitated to per- 
fection by mechanical means. One of the most interest- 
ing scenes was an Italian Seaport, with a calm sea. 
Here also shipping were seen in motion, and the rising of 
the moon contrasted admirably with the red light of a 
lofty lighthouse. The clouds were admirably painted, 
and, as they rolled on, the moon tinged their edges. The 
most impressive scene was Satan and the Fallen Angels 
in the Fiery Lake, and the rising of the Palace of Pande- 
monium. Between mountains ignited from base to sum- 
mit with many-coloured flame, rose a mass which 
gradually assumed the form of a vast temple, seemingly 
composed of unconsuming and unquenchable fire : by 
coloured glasses, the light changed from sulphureous blue 
to a lurid red, or a livid light, and ultimately to a com- 
bination such as a furnace exhibits in fusing metals. To 
peals of thunder, and all the other noises of his hollow 
machinery, Loutherbourg here added sounds produced 
by an expert assistant, who swept his thumb over the 
surface of the tambourine, producing groans which might 
easily be imagined to issue from infernal spirits." 

This exhibition -was only a concentration and 
amplification of the various effects the artist had 
before produced in the theatre. Angelo, the 
fencing-master, has left the following account of 
some of these in his amusing Reminiscences (ii. 
326) : 

' Loutherbourg's first debut, I think, was in a dramatic 
piece which Garrick wrote for the occasion, The Christ- 
mas Tale, where he astonished the audience, not merely 
by the beautiful colouring and designs, far superior to 
what they had been accustomed to, but by a sudden 
transition in a forest scene, where the foliage varies from 
green to blood colour. This contrivance was entirely 
new; and the effect was produced by placing different 
coloured silks in the flies or side scenes, which turned on 
a pivot, and with lights behind, which so illumined the 
stage as to give the effect of enchantment. This idea 
probably was taken from the magical delusions as repre- 
sented in the story and print of the Enchanted Forest, 
where Rinaldo meets with his frightful adventures. His 
second display was the pantomime called The Wonders 

of Derbyshire. Here he had full scope for his pencil ; 
and I may venture to say, never were such romantic and 
picturesque paintings exhibited in that theatre before." 

Our modern scene-painters may hide their 
diminished heads, for much that they have put 
forth as new had evidently been done long before 
by the great scenic artist J. P. de Loutherbourg. 

After the " Eidophusikon " had been exhibited 
a few years, the scenes and machines were pur- 
chased by Mr. Chapman (the husband of a well- 
known actress), who removed the exhibition to a 
small theatre in Panton Street. Haymarket. He 
added to the scenery, and introduced three or 
four other objects calculated to amuse the public. 
A learned dog, musical glasses, and a Monologue 
written and performed by the late John Britton 
(author of the Cathedral Antiquities), were among 
" the heterogeneous parts of this divertisement." 
In the Autobiography of the latter gentleman, he 
says (i. 99) : 

" On the first night of my appearance, my courage and 
vanity were not a little damped and daunted by a vehe- 
ment volley of hisses and groans from one of the boxes, 
which I found proceeded from a noted roue lord, who 
was in the habit of frequenting the minor theatres for 
the express purpose of annoying performers, and disturb- 
ing audiences, by vulgar and disgusting conduct. Mr. 
Chapman's theatre, with its contents, was consumed by 
fire in March, 1800." 

From what we can learn by the description of 
the " Eidophusicon " handed down to us, it is 
evident that it was a moving picture, assisted by 
portions of set scenery the whole augmented by 
coloured lights and other effects to imitate nature. 
It was certainly not a Panorama a circular paint- 
ing exhibited on the walls of a building of the 
same form, so that a spectator appears to be 
looking round him at a real view ; nor was it a 
Diorama a picture painted on a flat surface, and 
exhibited under two aspects by changing the rays 
of light. It more closely resembled the Cyclo- 
rama of the "Earthquake at Lisbon," exhibited 
for many years at the Colosseum in the Regent's 
Park; in which moving scenery, set pieces, and 
imitations of atmospheric and other phenomena, 
were the prominent features. 

Mr. Timbs, in his Curiosities of London (edition 
1868, p. 283), describing the theatre added to this 
stablishment in 1848, says : 

" Upon the stage passed the Cyclorama of Lisbon, 
depicting in ten scenes the terrific spectacle of the 
earthquake of 1755 the uplifting sea and o'ertopping 
city, and all the frightful devastation of flood and fire ; 
accompanied by characteristic performances upon Bev- 
Ington's Apollonicon. The scenes are painted by Danson, 
in the manner of Loutherbourg's ' Eidophusicon,' which 
not only anticipated, but in fact surpassed, our present 
Dioramas. The entire exhibition has long been closed." 

Robert Barker was, in all probability, the first 

o invent " a bird's-eye view painted round the 

wall of a circular building "; at least, nothing is 

mown to the contrary. The date of his first 

V* S. X. JULY 20, '72.] 



exhibition is not clear. Timbs says the building 
at the north-east corner of Leicester Square "was 
erected in 1783 by a number of patrons of the 
art, who were afterwards repaid their capital." 
Stanley in his edition of Bryan's Diet, of Painters, 
$c., on the contrary, says (after calling Barker 
the " inventor of Panoramic " views) : 

" The first picture of this kind waa a view of Edin- 
burgh, exhibited by him in that city in 1788, and in 
London in 1789, where it did not attract much attention." 

The building in Leicester Square was designed by 
Robert Mitchell of Newman Street, who published 
delineations and an account of the building in 
1800. An examination of this work would throw 
some light on the matter, but I have not been 
fortunate enough to see a copy. 



This French word, although comparatively re- 
cent among us, seems already to have usurped the 
place of our own English program, which is a 
better guide to our usual pronunciation, and also 
more according to our spelling of other words from 
the same root -anagram, epigram, monogram, tele- 
gram. The lexicographical history of the word is 
noteworthy. Johnson (2 vols., 1755) knows it 
not: his editor, Todd (3 vols., 1827), gives pro- 
gramma only, as then in use, and marks it [Latin ; 
programme, Fr.], and so Rees (Cyclopadia, 1819) ; 
Crabbe (Technological Diet., 1823 J, and others 
have programma only. Smart, in his 2nd edition 
of Walker's Pron. Diet, 1846, says, under "Pro- 
gramma," "the bill of the outline of an enter- 
tainment, often written as an English word, pr6- 
gram, sometimes in the French form programme." 
So program and programma are given in Web- 
ster's Diet., edition by E. H. Barker, 1832 ; but 
in a later edition of Webster, programme also is 
given. The latter, however, when first naturalised 
among us, was distinguished from programma and 
program. Andrews (Lat.-Eng. Diet.} renders 
programma, a proclamation; but libellus, a pro- 
gramme. Similarly Smith and Hall, in their 
valuable Eng.-Lat. Diet.-, but not Riddle, who 
makes programma the Latin for programme. 
Among foreign writers, we find programma only 
in the earlier, as in the Diet, of the Spanish Aca- 
demy, 1737; and in the Span.-Engl. Diet, of 
Connelly and Higgins, Madrid, 1798, is : 

" Progrdma, el papel de convite a una arenga 6 dis- 
curso ; program, a bill of invitation to an oration, 
harangue, or to some dramatic performance." 

Programma only in Vieyra's Portuguese Diet. 
by Da Cunha (1840), and in Chambaud's French 
D^ct., 1805 ; while program is also given, but not 
jirogramme, as an English word, in Flemming and 
Tibbins' French Diet., 1846. Hilpert also (Germ.- 
Engl. Diet, 1845) distinguishes programma and 

program from programme, although both mean- 
ings are expressed by the German programm; 
but Fliigel (edition by Foiling Heimann and 
Oxenford, 1849) gives programme only as the 
English of programm. Coinelati and Davenport 
{Italian- Engl. Diet., 2 vols., 1854) also distinguish 
between programma and programme. Wright, 
however (Univer. Pron. Diet., 6 vols., 1854), 
brackets together the three forms program, pro- 
gramma, programme as having each and all the 
same various meanings, following Ogilvie (Imper. 
Diet., 1850). Programma and programme are 
regarded as one word in the Span.-Engl. Diet, of 
Velasquez de la Cadena, 1863. Program only, as 
an English word, is in the valuable Etymological 
Engl. Diet, of N. Bailey, edition by E. Harwood, 
D.D., 1782 ; while neither form is to be found in 
Lemon's Engl. Etymology, 1783 ; nor in Richard- 
son's Diet, in 2 vols., 1844; nor in the Encyclop. 
Metrop. -, nor in the English Cyclop. ; nor in the 
Grammar School Diet. In Barclay's Univ. Diet., 
revised by Woodward, I find programme only 
with the different meanings of the three forms ; 
and the same in the latest dictionary I have seen 
the Library Diet, of the English Language, pub- 
lished by Collins & Co., 1871 ; and if we do not 
jealously guard our own, program will soon be 
obsolete. FRANCIS J. LEACHMAN, M.A. 

20, Compton Terrace, Highbury. 


The important negotiations opened in 1809-10 
between England and France towards a conclu- 
sion of peace are very erroneously stated in Sir 
Walter Scott's Life of^ Napoleon. It was not 
Fouche, the wily Minister of Police, who first 
conceived the idea of sending an agent to feel the 
pulse of the British Government, but Napoleon 
himself; nor was that agent Ouvrard, but Mr. P. 
C. Labouchere (the purest type of honour and 
delicacy of feeling), a Dutch gentleman of Hugue- 
not origin ; head partner of the high-standing 
house of Hope & Co., Amsterdam ; son-in-law of 
the first Sir Francis Baring, Bart, (that other 
model of mercantile shrewdness and honesty). 
Louis Bonaparte, then King of Holland, having, 
in various circumstances, had occasion to fully ap- 
preciate Mr. Labouchere's inestimable qualities, 
strongly recommended him to the Emperor as the 
fittest person to send over on so delicate an errand, 
the rather that he could do so from Helvoetsluys 
to Harwich, on the plea of commercial or family 
affairs, without attracting the attention of the 
argus-eyed police of both countries. Mr. L. was 
accordingly dispatched with full instructions from 
the Emperor. He had been intimately connected 
from his youth, at Nantes, with M. Ouvrard (who 
later became so notorious by his wide and wild 



[4 th S. X. JULY 20, '72. 

financial schemes connected with the King of 
Spain). Ouvrard somehow got wind of Mr. La 5 
bouchere's going to England to negotiate for an 
interchange of prisoners, after the disastrous Wal- 
cheren affair. He at once communicated the fact 
to Fouche (likewise of Nantes), who was not a 
man to let slip so good an opportunity of meddling 
with the affairs of state, with a view to increase 
his own influence, and forthwith sent an intriguing 

Znt of his, Fagan, to make proposals of peace to 
British Government. The Marquis of Wel- 
lesley was naturally surprised to see two French 
agents, seemingly on the same errand, yet having 
no connexion with each other. He was personally 
acquainted with Mr. Labouchere, and well satisfied 
that he was not playing false, but not being able to 
unriddle the mystery as regarded the other agent, 
and determined not to be duped, he abruptly 
broke off the negotiations with Mr. L., which were 
in so fair a way of adjustment, and gave the two 
agents order to leave England in twenty-four 
hours ! 

On Mr. Labouchere's return to Paris, the Em- 
peror said to the Due de Cadore (Champagny) 
"Faites a M. Labouchere 1'accueil le plus dis- 
tingue ; il s'est conduit dans toute cette affaire en 
homme d'esprit et de tacte. Vous pouvez lui dire 
que le due d'Otrante (Fouche) est destitue pour 
s'y etre mele et 1'avoir fait echouer." Without 
this nefarious interference of Fouche's, the world 
would, in all probability, have been at peace four 
years sooner, and what dire calamities would have 
been thus avoided ! 

These details, which coincide with Thiers, Bo- 
vigo, &c., I gathered from the mouths of the 
Comte de St. Leu (Louis Bonaparte) at Florence 
in 1838, from his brother Joseph (Comte de Sur- 
villier) in London a few months later, and from 
Mr. Labouchere himself. 

In these negotiations, Napoleon, I suppose, was 
duly considered by the English Government as 
Emperor of the French. P. A. L. 

PLEMENTARY NOTE. I find that in my desire to 
be brief I have omitted to notice one important 
point in my argument, that it was intended the 
execution of the King should have taken place 
sooner than it did, and that the Warrant was 
signed on the day of sentence. 

On reference to the Warrant (anti, p. 21) it 
will be seen that it states that sentence was passed 
on the preceding Saturday, the words written on 
the erasure being " uppon Saturday last was" the 
word " was " being carried up in consequence of 
there not being room for it in the spase originally 
occupied by the words erased. The words so 
erased being, as I believe, in addition t " uppon " 
(which was re-written, the trace of the original 

"u" being still visible) "this day was." This 
consists of ten letters and two spaces, which are 
now occupied by " Saturday last " which consists 
of twelve letters and one space, and hence the 
necessity of carrying up the word " ivas " in the 
manner in which it now appears in the Warrant. 

MARKS OF CADENCE. There was recently a 
discussion on this subject in "N. & Q.," to which 
the following may be appended : Nisbet of Dean 
states that the junior branch of Nisbet "laid aside 
the cheveron " on coming to the representation of 
the family. SP. 

OF LEITH : EDINBURGH. The other day I copied 
from some old houses in the village below the 
Dean Bridge some curious sculptured stones, the 
devices on which, resembling the ordinary bats 
with which ball is played, I take to represent the 
peel or implement used by bakers for firing loaves 
and removing them from the oven. The legends 
are much like those found in old houses j.n other 
parts of Scotland, and are especially like one over 
the doorway at Peffermilln, near Duddingston : 

1. Within a border two peels crossed, each 

charged with three roses ;* date 1643 j legend 

2. Within a wreath (?) surrounded by the le- 



and surmounted by a garb between two cherubs' 
winged heads. Between two peels crossed per 
saltire, the dexter charged with two (roses ?), and 
the sinister with a cross (or a fer de Moline), a 
pair of scales adjusted. Underneath this device is 
the inscription 


3. On a human heart the initials P.M.S. as a 
monogram, and below 

" VIDES . SED . XE . NVIDEAS . 1671." 

I have looked through Maitland, Chambers, &c. ? 
but cannot find any description of these curious- 
old houses. 

It occurs to me that, although some people 
now call the houses below the Dean Bridge " the 
Water of Leith Village," the real village or hamlet 
of that name was formerly situated close to Hill- 
housefield, and that the site of it is now occupied 
by a manufactory. I am, however, doubtful on 
this point. 

* These seeming roses on the assumed bakers' peels., 
may perhaps be meant to represent merely fancy bread 
just as a full cake of " petticoat tails " represents a flower 
with its disc and petals, 

f Either 3 or 5 ; the previous figure merely a line. 

4 th S.X. JULY 20,72.] 



The baker's peel is not, I believe, borne as a 
charge in the arms of tho Baxters' (bakers') guild. 


just met with an early mention of this ghastly 
place in a curious catch-penny book, not apparently 
entirely unauthentic /. e. Lucas's Memoirs of 
Gamesters, &c., 1714 (Queen Anne). The chapter 
from which I quote refers to an early lover of the 
Duchess of Mazarine, M. Evremont's patroness at 
the congenial court of Charles II. : 

"Three days after their arrival," says Lucas, "her 
lover being gone from their lodgings, which were in the 
suburbs of St. Germains, she stayed up for him till one of 
the clock at night, with incredible fears ; and so many 
dismal thoughts came into her head, that that night 
seemed the longest she had ever known. An old maid 
whom she had taken into her service did all she could to 
divert her melancholy, but to no manner of purpose. As 
soon as it was light, she sent her out to enquire for her 
master at the likeliest places she could go to ; the first 
visit she made was to the little chatelet, where, seeing a 
crowd got together before the incur trier e or little cham- 
ber into which they throw the dead bodies -of the unfor- 
tunate wretches they find murdered, she got in and 
quickly perceived her master in his gore." 


OLD BELLS. Inscriptions on old bells, as is 
well known, are commonly indicative of a reli- 
gious or superstitious sentiment. I met with one 
on a bell in the tower of the church of Bex, in the 
Canton de Vaud, which clearly chronicles a his- 
torical fact. It runs thus : " + + . mentem . sanc- 
tam . spontaneam . honorem . Deo . et . patriae . 
liberationem . Amen + ." In 1476, after the deci- 
sive battle of Morat, the Bernese seized and defi- 
nitely incorporated the four mandemants of Aigle, 
Bex, Ollon, and Les Ormonts. It is to this 
conquest that the words " patriae liberationem " 
allude. The legend is Gothic of 1450-1500. 


Risely, Beds. 

S. iv. 175) a correspondent asks : 

" Where is the earliest notice of the fable of the night- 
ingale and the thorn : that she sings because she has a 
thorn in her breast ? " 

This called forth a number of quotations from 
the _ Elizabethan and subsequent poets, but the 
origin of this curious notion remains to be settled. 
One remarkable reply appeared in l ft S. v. 475, 
in which the writer makes it a matter of fact, not 
of fable, << that the nightingale, when she builds 
her nest, inserts a thorn about an inch long in the 
centre of it, probably to lean her breast against." 
This statement received no notice at the time, and 
remains to be dealt with. 

^Shakspeare and other poets suggest that the 
nightingale uses the thorn to keep herself awake j 
a learned and quaint old writer, Thomas Adams 
of Wellington, gives another explanation : 

" They say the nightingale sleeps with her breast 
against a thorn to avoid the serpent." The End of 

This sermon and the above passage will be 
found in his Works, Edinburgh, 1862, ii. 485. 
Ward of Ipswich, whose works are appended to 
this edition of Adams, in his Peace Offering, 
says : 

" David, the nightingale of Israel, sets many a thorn 
to his breast, as if he found some oblivion there or un- 
willingness." Vol. iii. pp. 135, 148. 

Sir Thos. Browne, at the end of his third book 
of Vulgar Errors, queries 

" Whether the nightingale's sitting with her breast 
against a thorn be any more than that she placeth some 
prickles on the outside of her nest, or roosteth in thorny 
prickly places, where serpents may least approach her ? " 


NAPOLEON AT ST. HELENA. Apropos of Lord 
Lyttelton's curious reminiscences of Napoleon on 
board the Northumberland, I am reminded of an 
old soldier called Tom Wheaton, who died at 
Ottery St. Mary, in October, 1871. He had formed 
one of the guard over the emperor at St. Helena, 
and (when he could be caught sober) was willing 
enough to speak of him. I am sorry I did not 
extract more from him, as I had many opportuni- 
ties of doing so, and indeed was about to pay him 
a visit, note-book in hand, to obtain all his remi- 
niscences, when I heard that death had been 
beforehand with me. The last time I saw him 
(a year before he died) I asked if he remembered 
seeing Napoleon? whereupon he replied, " Have 
I seen Napoleon? I have seen him inside and 
outside. When he was dead Dr. O'Meara called 
me, and said, ' Did you ever see a man's heart ? ' 
'No, sir,' says I. ' Well, come and see one.' 
So I sees the heart of Napoleon in sperrits. He 
used to ride and drive by us very often where I 
was on guard. Many's the time I have presented 
arms to him. General Bertrand was usually with 
him. He never spoke to us or took any other 
notice of us than touching his hat. I fired over 
him at the grave. He was buried under the willow 
tree with a salute of eleven guns." PELAGIUS. 

MILTON'S " L'ALLEGRO." There is a passage in 
Milton's IJ 'Allegro which has always seemed to 
me incapable of being " construed " as it stands. 
It is thus printed in Newton's edition : 
" Then to the spicy nut-brown ale, 
With stories told of many a feat, 
How faery Mab the junkets eat, 
She was pincht and pull'd she said, 
And he by frier's lanthom led 
Tells how the drudging goblin swet 
To earn his creanirbowl duly set," &c. 

I suppose this must mean that u he, who by the 
way has been also led by a Will o' the Wisp, tells 
how, &c." But I cannot think that Milton in- 
tended such a clumsy construction. Is not the 



^ S. X. JULY 20, '72. 

word tells in the sixth line a misprint for tales 
one of those errors in which the ear of the com- 
positor or copyist misleads his hand ? In that 
case the fourth and fifth lines would come in 
parenthetically, and the word tales brings us back 
to the original construction depending on the word 
stories in the second line. The passage would 
then run thus (said in the fourth line should be 
sed } a provincial form of saith, as in the old edi- 

" With stories told of many a feat, 
How faery Mab the junkets eat 
She was pincht and pull'd she sed, 
And he by frier's lanthorn led 
Tales how the drudging goblin swet," &c. 
Garrick Club. C. G. PROWETT. 

EpiTAPHiAisrA. In " Sir Dominick's Bargain, a 
Legend of Dunuan," in All the Year Hound of 
July, one of the characters is made to say 
' If death was a thing that money could buy, 
The rich they would live, and the poor they would 

I remember many years ago, passing through 
some town, in Kent I think, observing the fol- 
lowing epitaph in a churchyard. The church 
itself was a ruin, but not of any remarkable 
antiquity : 
" Life is a city full of crooked streets, 

And death's the market-place where people meets ; 

If life were merchandise that folks could buy, 

The rich would live, and none but the poor would die." 

Its quaintness, characteristic of a bygone cen- 
tury, struck me at the time. I have never seen 
it in print, and thought perhaps it might interest 
some readers. RD. HILL SANDYS. 

HAMILTON'S " SUVERN." I have recently been 
fortunate enough to obtain copies of the essays on 
the Clouds and the Birds, for the latter of which 
I inquired in " N. & Q." A friend tells me that, 
though the German original of the essay on the 
Birds is in the British Museum, the translation is 

I have just laid my hands upon a leaflet con- 
taining the order of divine service, with appro- 
priate hymns, arranged and selected by the Rev. 
Charles Bayley, the first incumbent of St. George's 
Church, Manchester, for the use of the congrega- 
tion on the occasion of a general fast. The date 
of the fast is not given, but the leaflet bears the 
date of 1789, a few years after the foundering of 
the " Royal George " at Spithead. Amongst the 
hymns to be sung is the following, with the prefix 
which I have bracketed, to be sung to the tune of 
" God save the King." I do not remember to 
have seen the hymn before, and probably most of 
your readers are in the same position as myself. 

It may, therefore, be deemed worthy of a more 
extended circulation through the medium of the 
columns of " N. & Q." I beg to ask if the sup- 
position of the authorship of the hymn has ever 
been authenticated, and also what other literary 
fragments of the ill-fated admiral are known to be 
extant? C. BARKER. 

11, Derby Street, Hulme, Manchester. 


[Said to have been written during a storm at sea, by 
the Blue.] 

" Hark ! 'tis the trump of God 
Sounds thro' the realms abroad, 

' Time is no more ; ' 
Horrors invest the skies, 
Graves burst and myriads rise ; 
Nature, in agonies, 

Yields up her store. 
" Chang'd in a moment's space, 
Lo, the affrighted race 

Shriek and despair ; 
Now they attempt to fly, 
Curse immortality, 
And eye their misery 
Dreadfully near. 
" Quick reels the bursting earth, 
Rock'd by a storm of wrath, 
Hurl'd from her sphere ; 
Heart-rending thunders roll, 
Daemons tormented howl, 
Great God! support my soul, 

Yielding to fear. 
" my Redeemer, come, 
And thro' the frightful gloom 

Brighten thy way ; 
How would our souls arise, 
Soar thro' the flaming skies, 
Join the solemnities 

Of the great day. 
" See, see, the incarnate God 
Swiftly emits abroad 

Glories benign ; 

Lo ! lo ! he comes, he's here ! 
Angels and saints appear, 
Fled is my ev'ry fear, 

Jesus is mine! 
" High on a flaming throne 
Rides the eternal Son, 
Sovereign august ! 
Worlds from his presence fly, 
Shrink at his Majesty, 
Stars dasht along the sky 

Awfully burst. 

" Thousands of thousands wait 
Round the judicial seat, 

Glorified there ; 
Prostrate the Elders fall, 
Wing'd is my raptur'd soul, 
Nigh to the Judge of All, 

Lo ! I draw near. 
" my approving God, 
Was'h'd in thy precious blood, 

Bold I advance ; 
Fearless we wing along, 
Join the triumphant throng, 
Shout in ecstatic song 

Through the expanse." 

4'hS. X. JULY 20, 72.] 



DRYDEN'S BROKEN HEAD. Is there any cir- 
cumstantial account preserved of this event, and 
where ? I find a passing allusion to it in " Vtile 
Dulce," in the volume of MS. poems referred to in 
"N. & Q." (4 th S. ix. 531 ; x. 14), thus : 

" Some lines for being praised, when they were read, 
Was once a cause of Dryden's broken head." 

And that the word "broken" is not used as a 
synonym, but literally, is evident from lines pre- 
ceding this quotation. 0. B. B. 

"History repeats itself," and I quote the following 
lines in defence of the ladies of our own day : 
" Methinks I see you, newly rissen, 

With studdied meen and much grimace, 
Present your self before the glass, 
To varnish and rubb ore those graces. 

To set your hair, your eyes, your teeth, 
And all the powers you conquer with, 
Lay trains of love and State entrigues, 
In powders, trimings, curls, and wiggs, 
And nicely choose, and nicely spread, 
Upon your cheeks the best French red : 
Indeed for white none can compare 
With that you naturally wear." 
The quotation is from lt The Looking Glass," 
another of the same volume of MS. poems, and 
will, I hope, with previous quotations, facilitate 
replies to my inquiries about the volume itself. 

Would it not be interesting to have recorded 
in if N. & Q." some definite information as to the 
periods and sources of introduction to the English 
toilet of these several fashions including false 
teeth, specific mention of which is made else- 
where in the volume ? What says HERMEN- 

TRTJDE ? O. B. B. 

ANONYMOUS. Life of William III., late King 
of England and Prince of Orange. Published in 
thick octavo with prints of medals, &c. by S. and 
J. Sprint and others in 1703. Who was the 
author ? GORT. 

BARONY OF BANFF. When did Sir George (?) 
Ogilvie of Curncusbie, " the undoubted heir to 
the barony of Banff," die ? when was the barony 
created, and who (if there be any such person) is 
entitled to it ? W. PASSINGHAM. 


BAVER. -During a recent visit to the vale of 
Aylesbury I remarked that the bold peasantry 

, , . 

any reader kindly tell me the origin of the word ? 
Has it any affinity with beverage? H. H, W. 

THE MAST " (4 th S. ix. 426.) Can the KNIGHT OF 
MORAR or other correspondent kindly inform, me 
"where I can see an engraving or drawing of the 

gold medal and chain presented by the inhabitants 
of Sunderland to John Crawford for his heroic 
conduct ? The original medal is in the possession 
of the present Earl of Camperdown. 

3, St. Michael's Place, Brighton. 

JOSIAS CUNNINGHAM is author of The Royal 
Shepherds, a pastoral of three acts, 8vo, 1765. 
This drama seems to be very scarce, and I rather 
think it is not in the British Museum. If any 
reader of "N. & Q." has a copy, I would be 
obliged by receiving any information regarding 
the play (as to the subject of the piece, the place 
where printed, &c. &c.) Is anything known re- 
garding the author ? R. INGLIS. 

D : D. What is the difference between D and 
D ? I have frequently met both letters in several 
of our Roman milestones and inscriptions along 
our coast. MENTONIA. 

EDGEHILL BATTLE. The Lysons, in their 
Magna Britannia, Cumberland, p. 136, say that 
William Huddleston of Milloni was made Knight 
Banneret at Edgehill for recovering the royal 
standard. Collier (Dictionary, s. v. " Edgehill ") 
says that John Smith recovered it, and was made 
Knight Banneret after the battle. Which is 
right ? E. H. KNOWLES. 

St. Bees. 

MENT. The Rev. Arthur O'Leary, a Roman 
Catholic clergyman, who laboured with great zeal 
and efficiency in putting down Whiteboy outrages, 
makes, as it will be seen by the following extract, 
a complaint as to the manner in which the liberty 
of the press was interfered with in his day : 

" It is the opinion of a great. and humane writer (Bec- 
caria) that every member of society should know when he 
is criminal, and when innocent. This cannot be done 
without a knowledge of the laws which affect the lives 
and liberties of the subject. This knowledge is never 
sufficiently communicated in this kingdom to the multi- 
tude at large, few of whom can purchase the ordinary 
vehicles of information, the Acts ; and even newspapers 
are prohibited ever inserting abstracts under the penalty 
of a prosecution from the King's Printer." Second Ad- 
dress to the Common People of Ireland, dated Cork, 
Feb. 21, 1786. 

I should like to know if the press in England 
was, at any time, in the same state of thraldom as 
that of Ireland ? Were English newspapers pro- 
hibited from giving abstracts of Acts of Parlia- 
ment ? Is there any record in either country of a 
prosecution instituted by the King's Printers 
against a newspaper for publishing an abstract of 
an Act of Parliament ? WM. B. MAC CASE. 

Scart House, near Waterford. 

other day hanging up in the great church of St. 
Bavon, at Haarlem, three models of ships which 
I, entirely unlearned in nautical phraseology, 



[4> S. X. JULY 20, 72. 

should describe as a three-decker, a two-decker, 
and a ten-gun sloop. They are evidently objects 
of considerable antiquity. I am anxious to know 
what event they commemorate ? A. 0. V. P. 

concerning this person, beyond what is to be 
found in Noble's Lives, Carlyle's Cromwell, and 
Peacock's Army List of 1642, will greatly oblige. 


[Consult the Memoirs of Edmund Ludlow, edit. 1771, 
passim; Cobbett's Collection of State Trials, edit. 1810, 
v. 13021335 ; European Mag. lix. 415 ; Lysons' Envi- 
rons, ii. 460 ; Lysons' Bedfordshire, p. 160 ; Lewis's His- 
tory of Islington, pp. 29, 30 ; and the Gent. Mag. Ixxiii. 
923, 1225.] 

OLEOGRAPHS. In that most picturesque of com- 
mercial thoroughfares, to wit, High Street, South- 
ampton, I lately saw in a printseller's window 
what I thought to be a very valuable oil-painting. 
On inquiry, however, I was informed that it was 
an oleograph. It afterwards occurred to me that an 
invention, which so marvellously copies at a 
moderate cost first-rate pictures, is a very great 
boon to those who, like myself, wish to encourage 
home-adornment, but cannot afford to spend a 
small fortune on the purchase of one or two 
originals. Will some courteous correspondent 
kindly initiate your uninformed readers in the 
mysteries of the new invention, or name an easily- 
accessible authority whence the information can 
be obtained ? CHIEF ERMINE. 

[The basis of the process is lithography, but we are 
not aware that any details have been published. If our 
correspondent should be in the neighbourhood of Fleet 
Street, he will find at No. 22 an Exhibition, free, of up- 
wards of two hundred of these reproductions, which has 
been opened by Messrs. Sampson Low, & Co. ; one of the 
last being that of the "Madonna di San Sisto," of which 
some of our Fine Art contemporaries speak very warmly. ] 


" Blanch, daughter of Henry Miles Parry, Esquire, of 
Xewcourt, Herefordshire, by Alicia, daughter of Simon 
Milborn, Esquire, chief-gentlewoman of Queen Eliza- 
beth's privy chamber, whom she faithfully served from 
her Highnesses birth, dving at court on the 12 th of Feb., 
1589, aged 82 ; entombe'd at Westminster, her bowels at 
Bacton, in the county of Hereford." 

To her memory there is a window in the church 
at Atcham, near Shrewsbury, having the above 
inscription. Will anyone tell me the position of 
her tomb at Westminster ? Indeed, for any in- 
formation respecting her I shall be thankful. 


[Blanche Parry, Queen Elizabeth's old maid of honour, 
was one of the learned women of the day. She was born 
in 1508, and died blind in 1589. She was an alchymist, 
astrologer, antiquary, and herald, and a great crony of 
Dr. Dee, the conjuror, for whom she obtained the master- 
ship of St. Cross hospital ; and, it is probable, kept up 
his connection with the Queen. Consult George Ballard's 
Memoirs of several Ladies of Great Britain, edit. 1775, 
p. 124. Ballard says that her body was buried in West- 
minster Abbev, and her bowels in'the church at Bacton, 

Herefordshire, and that in both places monuments were 
erected to her memory, the one at Westminster, the in- 
scription on which is given by Ballard, being " on the 
south wall of the chancel." Of the latter monument 
there is no vestige whatever, and, as the Abbey register 
does not commence till 1601, there is no clue to the burial. 
The monument at Bacton bears a rhyming inscription of 
twenty-eight lines, terminating as follows : 
" So that my tyme I thus did passe awaye 
A maed in court, and never no man's wyfe, 
Sworne of Queene Ellsbeth's bedd chamber allwaye 
Wyth maeden Queene a mayde did end my lyfe." 

The communion cloth at Bacton is an ancient piece of 
tapestry worked by her. Lists of jewels, &c., delivered 
to Mary Radclyffe, Gentlewoman of the Queen's Privy 
Chamber, formerly in charge of Mrs. Blanche Parry 
1585, 1587, are in the British Museum, Addit. MSS. 5751, 
p. 222, and 6412. J 

PERSICARIA. In deep clear pools we often find 
a thick assemblage of weeds, which considerably 
annoy and often endanger bathers and swimmers. 
I wish to inquire of some botanist whether this 
weed is Persicaria, wholly or in part. The stems 
under water are of a reddish brown colour, and of 
a tough wiry texture. I have often observed the 
Persicaria flowering and flourishing in great abun- 
dance on the top of the water in these ponds, which 
are usually very clear and dark. I remember that 
in my juvenile days a party of us schoolboys had 
heard of a fine secluded pool, where we much 
wished to go for a swim. On arriving at the 
pool, however, we found it deep, and dark, and 
very full of weeds, as above described. Upon 
consulting an old cottager who lived close by the 
pond, we received the following account and cau- 
tion, in the genuine Staffordshire tongue of more 
than half a century ago : " Whoy, you seen, it 
war thray soommer 'sizes ago, or seven, the wan 
(one) and a mon cam here to swim. Hay (he) 
war a capital swimmer : he could swim all ways 
back , bally and all ; but howsomever he got 
tethered o' the ruckles, and war drowned." I 
need not add that the horror of getting " tethered 
o' the ruckles " put an end to our desire to try the 
pond, and we sadly trudged three miles home. 
But what is this dangerous weed ? 

F. C. H. (Murithian.) 

OLD PORTRAIT. I have a picture on oak panel 
upright, 19 x 14, bought at Lord Northwick's 
sale, and called "by Hans Schauflein." It repre- 
sents a man in furred robe and flat black cloth cap of 
the time of Henry VIII. In the north-east corner 
of the picture is a banner with " Ii. W." on it, 
in a kind of double heart, and a double cross on 
top. In the north-west corner is another banner, 
with the picture of a lady in a red field, wearing 
what I am told is a " Catherine Parr cap," and 
two necklaces, and issuing ont of four waving 
Lines, two black and two white. On the back of 
the picture is pasted a paper with the following 
writing, in a fine Italian hand : 

4* S. X. JULY 20, '72.] 



" This Richard Wellsborn was the fifth son of Symon 
Montfort, Earl of Leicester, who married Eleanor, second 
daughterof King John. He was slain,with eldest sonHenry, 
at the battle of Evisham in the reign of Henry 3 d , 1239.* 
Almaric, the second son, was a monk, and afterwards fell 
valiantly in the Holy Wars. Symon and Guy, two more 
of his sons, fled witli their mother into France ; and this 
Richard, the fifth son, remained in England concealed 
under the name of Wellsborn, and gave rise to this 
ffamily here mentioned. For a more particular account 
of this ffamily, vide Cambdeu. 

" John Lattoir of Kingston Bagpuze, in Com. Berks, 
who was High Sherrif of that county temp. Elizabeth, 
married Dorothy, eldest daughter of Oliver Wellsborn of 
East Hanny in Com. Berks, a descendant of this Richard 
Wellsborn. For a more particular account, vide Anti- 
quities of Berkshire, vol. iii." 

And in another and very different hand- 
writing : 

" Given to Mr. Horace Walpole by the Earl of Exeter 
in 1771." 

" This cannot be a son of Montfort, but a descendant 
in the time of Henry 8th, as appears by the painting and 

Whom does the picture represent, and when 
did Hans Schauflein live ?f The painting is quite 
in the Holbein style. J, R. HAIG. 

Highfields Park, Tunbridge Wells. 
QUOTATIONS WANTED. Where shall I find ? 
" All the glory that was Greece, 

All the empire that was Rome." 
Also (speaking of a sword) 

" Ornament it carried none, 
Save the notches on its blade." 

In one of Lord Elgin's letters (just published) 
he speaks of Heber having compared men to 
travellers in a forest full of winding paths meet- 
ing now and then, and again losing one another 
in the intricacies of the wood. Where does this 
comparison occur ? H. A. B. 

" Is this improvement ? where the human breed 
Degenerate as they swarm and overflow, 
Till toil grows cheaper than the trodden weed, 
While man competes with man, like foe with foe, 
Till death that thins them scarce seems public woe." 


Who originated the proverbial saying 
" Go to bed, says Sleepy-head ; 

Stay awhile, says Slow ; 
Put on the pot, says Greedy 
Supper before we go." 


LINE IN SHELLEY. In Shelley's " Dream of 
the Unknown,' 7 second stanza, what is the flower 
alluded to as 

" . . . . that tall flower that wets 
Its mother's face with heaven-collected tears, 
When the low wind its playmate's voice it hears." 
Is it the anemone ? PELAGITTS. 

* The date of the battle of Evesham is wrong, but has 
evidently been altered, and wrongly altered too. 
[t A.D. 1487-1539.] 

SUBNAME OF SMITH. What are the French 
and German equivalents of the name of Smith? 
and are they as common and as numerous in their 
respective countries as the Smiths are in ours ? 

Was there ever, as asserted in Berry's Encydo- 
pccdia, a baronial family of the name of Schmidt 
von Hartenstein, Counts Palatine of the Rhine ? 


[The Lefevres in France and Schmidts in Germany are 
as numerous as the Smiths in England. Our corre- 
spondent should consult The Heraldry of Smith, by Mr. 
H. Sydney Grazebrook (published by Russell Smith), 
and noticed by us in " N. & Q." 4 th S. vi. 04.] 

Shaw, in his History of the Staffordshire Potteries, 
says, that in the old church here there is 
" A massive font, a rude block of granite, sculptured for 
the reception of water, in which, during many genera- 
tions, infants were by immersion or sprinkling (at the 
discretion of the priests) initiated into the visible Church 
of Christ ; or the vessel of consecrated water was placed 
for the devout to dip the finger and sprinkle the brow, 
prior to prostration before the altar. But we favour the 
former suggestion, because it can be filled with water by 
a tube from the roof through the canopy over it, and by 
another beneath it can be cleaned and emptied into a 
subterraneous channel." 

Does this font, with its curious fixings, still 
exist at Stoke ? M. D. 

ST. KILDA AND ROCK HALL. To whom do the 
islands or rocks of St. Kilda and Rock Hall 
belong ? what was the population of the former 
at the last census, and where can an account of 
the latter be found ? R. PASSINGHAM. 

Avon House, Tiverton, Bath. 

A VINE PENCIL. Why do the people of Dur- 
ham (city and county) call a lead pencil a " vine 
pencil"? N. 

A YABD OF WINE. At the annual Vims, or. 
feast, of the mock corporation of Hanley (Stafford- 
shire) the initiation of each member, in 1783, 
consisted in his swearing fealty to the body, and 
drinking a yard of wine, i. e. a pint of port or 
sherry, out of a glass one yard in length. I have 
heard of a *' yard of ale," and indeed possess one 
myself, but I never before heard of a yard of 
wine. M. D. 

(4 th S. ix. 356, 431, 434, 508 j x. 31.) 

If it could be supposed that a voice from 
" N. & Q." could reach dead flies in the world of 
shades, I should express my regrets to that witty 
little fly H. H. for any unnecessary cruelty in the 
manner of his death. But I must say that " nothing 
in his life became him like the leaving of it," for 
this variety of fly resembles the swans of old, 
whose dying notes far excelled their living utter- 



* S. X. JULY 20, 72. 

ances. His plaintive protest will excite sympathy 
against his destroyer from those who would rather 
be amused than convinced, but I must contend 
that he provoked his fate, and that, like Caesar, 
lie " was righteously slain." 

I must point out, too, that his remonstrance 
leaves the real question untouched, for he does not 
attempt to vindicate Segar from the charge of 
certifying a fictitious genealogy for his patron, and 
he completely misapprehends the grounds of com- 
plaint against himself. No one ever supposed that 
he would have collated Segar's extracts with the 
original records, but it might have been reason- 
ably expected that before he sat down to write an 
elaborate paper in a literary journal, he would 
have exercised his judgment whether the evi- 
dence according to Segar's own statement of it 
justified the pedigree which he professed to de- 
duce from it. The derivation of the Westons 
from a Domesday baron was sufficient of itself to 
have put him on his guard, for there are not a 
score of families in England who have any pre- 
tension to such a distinction, and they are all 
recorded in the first volume of Dugdale's Baron- 
age. Besides, this pedigree of Weston is not a 
solitary specimen of Segar's loose notions of gene- 
alogical veracity, for in the same year (1632) he 
compiled a genealogy of much the same kind for 
the Caves of Stanford, which has found its way 
into two county histories, and is annually re- 
printed in the Baronetage, although the first 
twelve generations are neither proved nor pro- 

I mentioned my connection with Sir Richard 
Weston simply as a guarantee that I had no motive 
to disparage the family, and some interest in their 
history ; but I cannot think that he who disclaims 
for his kindred a fictitious pedigree can fairly be 
compared with " the bird which befouls its own 
nest." Such a comparison is quite inconsistent 
with any real " hatred of shams," for it directly 
suggests that truth is to be sacrificed whenever 
the honour and glory of the family seem to re- 
quire its suppression, if those who have the best 
means of detecting unfounded pretensions are to 
be precluded from disclaiming them by consider- 
ations of family pride. This notion has been the 
root of many absurd genealogies, and cannot be 
too emphatically condemned. 

Also, I must disclaim the charge of indis- 
criminately discrediting all heralds past and pre- 
sent, for no one appreciates more highly the 
labours of Glover, Dugdale, and others, whose 
achievements are marvellous considering the diffi- 
culties under which they worked. I know, too, 
that of late years the most conscientious vigilance 
has been exercised at the College of Arms both 
in certifying and registering pedigrees. But it 
was not always so, and when a Garter King-at- 
Arms abuses the authority of his high office, as 

t Segar did, to bolster up with pretended proofs 
what was at the best an idle family tradition, so 
far from being protected by his tabard, he de- 
serves doubly to be exposed as a traitor who 
betrays the post which he was specially engaged 
to defend. TEWAES. 

It would scarcely be fair to my well-bred op- 
ponent H. H. to mention him in the same note 
with PHEON, whose attack on me is a deplorable 
specimen of genealogical blundering expressed in 
very discourteous language. His long note, apart 
from mere vapouring, contains only two definite 
statements, which can be tested by evidence, and 
I proceed to show that both of them are demon- 
strably wrong. 

PHEON asserts that Reginald de Baliol's Staf- 
fordshire estate in capita, which consisted cf 
Weston-under-Lyzard, Newton, Brocton, &c., 
was entirely distinct from the manors held by 
him as vicecomes of Shropshire, in which he was 
succeeded by Hugh Fitz-Warin, the son of his 
official predecessor : and also, that " Hugh, son 
of Reginald de Baliol, succeeded his father in the 
estates of Weston, Newton, Brocton, &c., held in 
capite, which were handed down to, and were 
retained by, his descendants." 

Now, these are simple questions of fact, which 
can be easily proved or disproved without any 
researches in <( charter chests or muniment rooms," 
by anyone who possesses the rudiments of gene- 
alogical learning. 

1. It is certain that Weston-under-Lyzard and 
Newton, two of the Domesday manors of Reginald 
de Baliol in Staffordshire, were not distinct from 
the official fee of the sheriff of Shropshire, be- 
cause Reginald's predecessor, Warin the sheriff, 
granted inter alia to the monks of St. Evroult the 
manor of Newton and the tithes of Weston-under- 
Lyzard, which grants are recited and confirmed 
by the charter of William the Conqueror dated 
at Winchester in 1081. (Ord. Vitalis, p. 602.) 

2. It is also certain that the manors of Weston, 
Newton, and Brocton passed with the rest of the 
sheriff's fee to the house of Fitz-Alan, because 
they are reckoned amongst the fees of Fitz-Alan's- 
barony in all the lists in the Testa de Nevill 
(pp. 45, 47, 49, &c.), when Hugh the tenant of 
Fitz-Alan in Weston and Newton bore the local 
name of Weston. We have it therefore on the 
clearest evidence, that the capital manors of Re- 
ginald de Baliol were not inherited by his descend- 
ants or by the Westons; for in two of them 
neither one nor the other had any interest what- 
ever, and in the other two the Westons were 
merely tenants of the Fitz-Alans, the subsequent 
owners of the sheriff of Shropshire's fee. 

It is to be deplored that PHEON did not acquaint 
himself with this evidence, which is within every- 
one's reach, before he ventured to pronounce judg- 

fr e w A R s 

73 . 

4 th S. X. JULY 20, 72.] 



ment; but it enables the judicious reader to rate 
his hostile criticism at its true value. 

It is remarkable, too, that PHEON, " who has 
had occasion to acquire so much knowledge of the 
history of the families in Staffordshire and Shrop- 
shire," should not have known that I do not stand 
alone in my estimate of this pedigree of Weston. 
For one of the best living authorities (Mr. Eyton, 
the historian of Shropshire) mentions this very- 
pedigree in a note, and says in his text (vii. 
206) : 

" Certain less wary and more ignorant Heralds, intent 
upon heading a genealogy with a good name, have fixed 
upon his [Reginald de Baliol's] without any apparent 
fear of detection. I cannot regret being able to expose 
their presumption." 

I observe also that it is plausibly maintained 
in the Herald and Genealogist (vi. 288) that the 
Earls of Portland were descended from a Lincoln- 
shire family of Weston, who had been settled 
near Boston from the reign of Edward II. 

I will only add that, in protesting against such 
notes as PHEON'S, I have no wish to shirk intelli- 
gent criticism, however severe it may be. The sole 
object of my papers is to serve the cause of truth, 
by hacking away at the jungle of fiction, which 
stifles the growth of true genealogy ; and there- 
fore I am sincerely obliged to those who convict 
me of error, provided that they add to my know- 
ledge by pointing out the evidence which I have 
mistaken or overlooked. TEWARS. 

The ancient spelling " Buquhannan " precisely 
tallies with the latter. Again, the district of 
" Annandale " is called by the common people 
" Annanefcrdale," which turns out to be its spel- 
ling in the days of Robert the Bruce. 

TEWARS is very well able to hold his own, but 
I am tempted to ask H. H., who (on p. 508) lauds 
the " high authority " of Sir William Segar, if 
he knows the real history of that worthy and 
some of his exploits in heraldry, which he will 
find mentioned in Mark Noble's History of the 
College of Arms (pp. 230-2) ? If Segar knew so 
little of his especial business as to " bestow the 
royal arms of Arragon and Brabant on the Hang- 
man of London," as there stated, he was not 
likely to be a valuable guide in the mazes of 
Domesday. ANGLO-SCOTUS. 

P.S. MR. FOWKE, who (p. 434) cites Edmon- 
son as an authority, may also be unaware that 
this person stands on a par with Segar. He was 
originally a cheese vender in Leith, and is styled 
by an eminent writer " an obscure and illiterate 
person." So much for some eminent manufac- 
turers of pedigrees ! 

[This correspondence must end here. ED.] 

The remarks of your able correspondent TEWARS, 
particularly his last paragraph, are so much to 
the point that I am tempted to supplement them 
by giving an abstract of the opinions of a great 
lawyer * regarding the advantages of true and 
correct genealogy or family history, which, to the 
uninitiated, seems merely a hobby without any 
definite end or aim : 

1. It illustrates and explains general history by 
accounting for human actions, which originate 
frequently from private bias, descent, family aspi- 
rations and connections, and likewise helps to fix 
important dates in the memory. 

2. More especially in Scotland, where the re- 
cords of the great sees, in judicial matters, have 
so lamentably perished, saving a few trifling relics, 
it develops and explains our ancient consistorial 
law as brought out in the hereditary succession 
of some historic family. 

3. Such researches aid materially in fixing 
with accuracy the ancient names of persons and 
places, which singularly enough are often pre- 
served in their integrity by the vulgar. Two 
instances which occur will illustrate this. The 
modern spelling, ^ Buchanan," of this ancient 
Scottish surname is disregarded in pronunciation 
by the common people, who say "Bowhanan." 

* Riddell, Stewartiana, pp. 118-19. 

(4 th S. ix. 119, 185, 249, 345, 448, 520.) 

MR. WALLIS courts " complaint " when he 
rushes from mechanics, and consorts with " the 
ferrets of an index," to swell the unmerciful volumes 
of Shaksperiana "that demolish one another." 
He says that my explanation is " a little too far- 
fetched," and then proceeds to quote from the 
most fanciful of poets for a better one. He first 
misquotes my explanation, and concludes with 
"I want to get the true one." His words are, 
"MR. C. insists that it should be as level as a die, 
because he has only heard it in that form, but 
surely those who have not only heard but used," 
&c. My words were, tf I have used it myself for 
thirty years; I caught it from a relative born 
1777, who had it from his father," &c. And I 
may add that 1 took the trouble to ask what it 
meant, whereas he has used it without knowing 
its meaning, and now sets up as an interpreter ; 
and, having shifted his ground, his replies are but 
semi-queries after all. When Shakspeare meant to 
describe anything as done or to be done quickly 
he used that word, as MR. WALLIS will find if he 
refers again to his concordance. 

The senses in which the word straight (in the 
far-fetched cases quoted by him) are used do not 
necessarily imply quickness, but may (and I be- 
lieve do) simply mean, do this or that before any 
thing else, or such a temperature or temper occurs 
before any other. In neither case is the word quickly 
absolutely implied. It is used now in this sense, and 


S. X. JULY 20, 72. 

has been so used ever since the time of " the great 
dramatist " ; for instance, " He proceeded straight 
to business." That is, he suffered nothing irre- 
levant to take precedence of or interrupt the busi- 
ness in hand; and straight here is perfectly correct 
even if the business was transacted as slowly as 
possible. The casting or throwing of the die can 
no more be said to be quick than many other 
affairs of chance. It may. be done very slowly, 
too, and the result is not generally until after 
three, and at hazard many more throws. Every- 
one knows that coin is stamped with a die, and 
everyone ought to know that if the die is not 
level in the stamping-machine, the coin will not 
be stamped at all or unevenly stamped. And 
what is so natural, on the appearance of a new 
coinage, as an exclamation of delight by the in- 
telligent at the levelness of the die used in stamp- 
ing it ? ME. WALLIS is quite safe in smashing 
the " straight die " or cube of W. (1), for the term 
is simply tautologous. MB. BLENKINSOPP'S " As 
true as a die " is not true at all, for however 
well or badly the matrix may be sunk, if the die 
is not level in the stamping-machine, the impres- 
sion will be the exact reverse of true. 

Castle Bromwich. 

(4 th S. ix. 331, 396, 456, 517.) 

I have not the pleasure of knowing P. P., nor 
am I aware in what part of Lancashire he may 
reside; but it is quite possible for words and 
phrases to be in use in one portion of our county 
which are never heard in another. In North 
East Lancashire there is more of the Danish and 
Norwegian element than there is in the North- 
west. There the colonists of Northmen were 
more numerous, and longer settled, than in the 
north-west, where the Keltic element more largely 
prevails, by reason that the Britons retained pos- 
session of the sea coasts, and the mountainous 
districts bordering upon Cumberland, for several 
centuries after other parts of the county had been 
conquered and colonised. The dialect, again, 
varies in the south-east and south-west portions 
of the county, owing to the settling of colonists 
from different tribes of Germany, whose speech 
mixed somewhat with that of the Saxons and 
Welsh, who were not always at peace with their 
neighbours the Northumbrians. There are many 
dialectical words in Collier's Tim Bobbin which 
are not understood in any part of North Lanca- 
shire. There is a valley running up from below 
Colne, through Trawden, Wyecoller, and on to 
Lothersdale in Yorkshire, which was occupied by 
a colony of Norwegians from an early period of 
the Danish invasions ; and the inhabitants of this 
district retain the use of many words which are 

not heard in any other part of the county. They 
are a short thick-set race, with broad features, 
ruddy complexions, and sandy hair. Their pro- 
nunciation is also peculiar, and is not found 
within a mile of some sides of that locality. They 
say sail for shall; SMC? for should ; shuyn or suyn for 
shoes ; buyts for boots. They still lig (lie) in bed, 
and big (build) themselves bit/gins (buildings) 
with rude stone riggins (ridgings). They live, or 
work, bayne (bifna near) to each other ; and 
by, beck, gill, and syke are still in their midst. 
Fifty years ago their characteristics were much 
more marked than they are now. Then " Cown- 
wayter-siders " were known at once both from 
their personal appearance and their language. 
Much of these are now disappearing, for the in- 
crease of manufactories has brought an influx of 
population from other districts'; and there is in 
consequence a mixture of families and a gradual 
softening down of their dialect. The national 
schoolmaster is also abroad. 

When I wrote my note on tl Cater-cousins " I 
had just asked a native of Downham what she 
understood by the word. She laughed and re- 
plied, " Why, persons who are no cousins at all 
so far removed." I have since put the question 
to others, some of whom had never heard the 
word, and others understood the relationship to 
be only a pretended one. I now find that the 
glossaries will bear out this meaning. H alii well 
has, <l Cater-cousins = good friends. ( Various 
Dialects.*)" The Rev. Thomas Carr, in his Craven 
Glossary j has, " Cater, or Quatre-Cousins = quatre- 
cousins, or intimate friends, or near relatives 
within the first four degrees of kinship." The 
word occurs in both Danish and Dutch diction- 
aries, where the ideas conveyed include both re- 
lationship and friendship, but under a parasitical 
form. In the German we have " Cater-cousin = 
weitldujiger = one whose relationship is remote, 
loose, wild, or widespread." This agrees with 
the use of the word, at present, in North-east 
Lancashire. T. T. W. 


(4 th S. ix. 534.) 

This is the Bunium bulbocastamim ; called 
Bunium, from &ouv6s, a little hill, owing to its 
tuberous root; and bulbocastamim , from its taste 
being somewhat like that of a chestnut, but in 
my opinion very inferior. This root has a great 
variety of names, Hawk-nut, Kipper-nut, Pig-nut, 
Earth-nut, and Ground-nut, besides the Scotch 
name, properly written, I believe, Arnot. It is 
called in Burgundy Arnotta, whence probably 
the Scotch name. It has also the Latin names 
of Agriocastanum, Nucula terrestris, and ul- 
bocastaneum. The Germans call it Erdnuss. It 
is found almost everywhere, in woods and grassy 

4S.X. JULY 20, '72.] 



E laces; and known by its slender stem, leaves 
ie those of wild-parsley, with white flowers at 
the top. It is not easy, however, to secure the 
root, as that part of the stem in the ground is 
very slender, and liable to break off, leaving the 
digger but a poor chance of finding the root, 
which is pretty deep in the earth, and the clue 
to which is lost when the stem breaks. The 
nut is nearly as large as a nutmeg, and has a 
brown coating, which easily peels oil' and encloses 
a yellowish nut, the flavour of which is rather 
sweet, but at the same time pungent, and not very 
pleasant. F. C. H. (Murithian.) 

These are also known as ground-nuts. F. M. S. 
would be doing a charitable work if he could 
inform me of any place near London where these 
nuts are to be found. They have been prescribed 
medically for a friend of mine, and it appears im- 
possible to procure them fresh. Applications at 
Covent Garden produce no satisfactory result, and 
if imported from a distance, they wither and dry 
up before any quantity worth carriage can be used. 


When I was a school- girl some sixty- five years 
ago, a band of us, all let loose on Saturday to 
amuse ourselves, found great pleasure in digging 
in Glen Huntley Wood above Port Glasgow 
(Renfrewshire) for ar-nuts, which we found in 
abundance and ate with relish. I wish I could 
with as much certainty throw any light on the 
botanical name. The nut was not large, covered 
with a thin film easily rubbed off ; the flavour 
very pleasant 5 always found at the root of trees. 

C. C. L. 

The Keltic word ar was used for "land," 
if earth." It is, however, more probable that ar- 
nut is of Saxon or Scandinavian origin. Cohf. 
the A.-S. eard, Sco. erd, yerd, yerth, earth; Dan. 
jord-nodj earth-nut. In my school-days we used 
to dig up ar-nuts in Highgate Wood. We called 
them peg-md8j probably for piy-nuts. 

Gray's Inn. 

(4 th S. ix. 535 ; x. 19.) 

In regard to Captain Burton's mission to Ice- 
land, I fancy your correspondent intends to inquire 
whether the yokuls situated in the volcanic re- 
gions around Lake My vatn, that is, Krabla, Lierh- 
nukr, Biarnarflag, and Hitahol, have not already 
been explored by some of our countrymen. It is 
in my power to reply to this so far as to say that 
these were visited within the last two or three 
years by Mr. Watts, a student of the Middle 
Temple, who, with a friend whose name I have 

forgotten, voyaged thither for the purpose of ex- 
ploration. Mr. Watts stated to me that he went 
provided with photographic apparatus, and that he 
brought back with him to England, in the form 
of negatives, interesting representations of the 
varied phenomena with which Iceland abounds. 
Prints from some of these, I understood Mr. Watts 
to say, had been by him presented to the Royal 
Society, or Geographical Society, or some one or 
other of the literary and learned societies of 
London, and that he had also privately distributed 
a number of views. Mr. Watts further stated 
that he had been in communication with Captain 
Burton, and had furnished that gentleman with a 
drawing and plan of his (Mr. Watts') route over 
certain yokuls, and had noted on the chart where 
Captain Burton would find a bottle left by him, 
containing the date of his (Mr. Watts') visit, 
with some information that might be useful to 
Captain Burton. Mr. Watts, as I believe, is the 
first who has applied the photographic process to 
the elucidation of Icelandic phenomena. So far 
as I am aware, his views have not been published, 
nor do I think he has given any public account 
of his visit to Iceland a circumstance to be re- 
gretted, not alone for the pleasure he withholds, 
but that having handed about his photographs, 
these are not unlikely to become the prey of a 
class of persons not always over scrupulous in 
adopting, without acknowledgment, the labours 
of others. 

Mr. Watts mentioned that, at a dreary spot 
among the mountains, the guide whom he had 
employed refused to proceed, save under certain 
new conditions, of which he constituted himself 
sole arbiter, and whose insolence and cupidity he 
restrained by a timely exhibition of physical force. 

J. OK. R. 

Blakesley Hall. 

P.S. I conjectured it to be the volcanic regions 
around Lake Myvatn, about which R. P. desired 
to be informed. - I now find that the mistake is in 
some sort my own, and that the Vatna Jokull 
mentioned by your correspondent MR. S. BARING- 
GOULD is the mountain region ascended by Mr. 
W. L. Watts and his friend, although this fact 
does not appear to be within the knowledge of 

Surely R. P. must be mistaken, when he speaks 
of the " Vatna " in Iceland, as of a mountain. He 
probably means the " Vatne," which is no moun- 
tain, but a lake ; and so far, a more likely object 
for Captain Burton's exploration than a mountain 
would be. The Icelanders are very proud of the 
lake "Vatne"; but it grievously disappointed 
the well-known traveller Madame Ida Pfeiffer, 
who found it a very small lake, and could not help 
wondering when the gentleman who conducted 
the party " began praising the landscape as ex- 



* S. X. JULY 20, 72. 

quisite, and further declaring the effect of the. 
lake to be bewitching." Surely such an object 
could have but small attraction for the African 
adventurer. (See Visit to Iceland, by Madame 
Ida Pfeiffer, chap, iv.) F. C. H. 


(4* S. x. 7.) 

The dark colours under which this sect is re- 
presented may be as much the result of recrimin- 
ation* as desert. Canon Robertson says (History 
of the Christian Church, ii. 602, 1868) : 

" Patarines, a word of disputed etymology and mean- 
ing (see note ), which became significant of parties 
opposed to the clergy, whether their opposition were in 
the interest of the papacy or of sectarianism." . 

This would necessarily bring upon them the 
odium theologicum from all quarters, and all readers 
of history know full well that no hatred is more 
deep and bitter than this. We first hear of the 
Catarines in the troubles of the church of Milan, 
brought about mainly, or at all events greatly 
intensified, by the intrusive interference of Pope 
Nicolas II. ; whose cause they espoused, under 
their leaders Ariald and Landulf, against certain 
alleged abuses in that church, but especially 
against the marriage of the clergy. 

But though first engaged on the side of the 
papacy, it is manifest that they must afterwards 
have turned against it j or they never could, at a 
subsequent period, have met with the rough treat- 
ment they did at the hands of Pope Gregory IX. 
This is contained in a document entitled " Capi- 
tula a Gregorio Papa IX., contra Patarinas Edita," 
put forth in the year 1227 (see Hardouin, Concilia, 
vii. 163, fol., Paris, 1714). In this document the 
Paterines, together with other sectaries, such as the 
Cathari and " the poor men of Lyons," are excom- 
municated and delivered over to the secular 
power, deprived of all their civil and religious 
rights, and denied the privilege of Christian 

Now when we call to mind the horrible charges 

There was abundant ground for this in the case of 
the clergy of the church of Milan. It was hard measure 
to have their people told that " their pastors were Simo- 
niacs and Nicolaitans, blind leaders of the blind ; their 
sacrifices were dog's dung ; their churches, stalls for 
cattle ; their ministry ought to be rejected, their property 
might be seized and'plundered." 

f Nay, as will be seen from the following extract, the 
interment of such persons subjected the agents to the 
severest penalties, and from which only they could gain 
release by exhuming the bodies and casting them forth 
as one would do with the carcase of a dog : " Item qui- 
cunque tales praesumpserint ecclesiastical tradere sepul- 
turae, usque ad satisfactionem idoneam excommunica- 
tionis sentential se noverint subjacere; nee alsolutionis 
beneficium mereantur, nisi propriis manibus publice ex- 
tumulent, et projiciant hujnsmodi corpora damnatorum, et 
locus ille perpetuo careat sepultura." 

which were brought against the poor Albigenses 
and Waldenses, out of sheer malice, and without 
the shadow of a foundation, we should be scru- 
pulously cautious in our acceptance of all such 
charges from any whose interest it is to make 
them. There is an old proverb, " Give a dog a 
bad name and hang him " and we might search 
long before we could light upon a fuller exem- 
plification of its truth than we shall find in the 
annals of the Christian Church. The student of 
ecclesiastical history has no occasion to ask with 
wonder " Tantaene animis coelestibus irce ? " 


I thank your correspondent CORNTJB. for the 
complimentary manner in which he inquires as to 
the authenticity of an opinion promulgated in my 
romance, Bertha, and attributed by me to " the 

I had been for some years a diligent student of 
history ranging from the fifth to the twelfth cen- 
turies. From the abundance of materials thus 
collected originated the idea of writing " a 
romance," in which might be given descriptions 
of customs and manners generally unknown to 
modern society. Thus I came to portray "the 
Paterini." I believe there was nothing said of 
them by writers who were their contemporaries, 
uninvestigated by me ; and I cannot now recollect 
that I stated anything concerning them for which 
I had not an authority, with the exception of 
" the opinion " referred to by your correspondent. 
The notion that, " after what is generally called 
death, there is life in this world," i. e. that in " a 
corpse there is still left the power of thought, 
and even of feeling, although the powers of 
motion and expression have alike departed from 
it," all this is an idea of my own. As your cor- 
respondent accurately surmises, it "owes 'its origin 
to the fancy of the author," and was introduced 
at an early part of the tale for the purpose of 
adding to the horrors of a scene intended to be 
described in the third volume of Bertha. 


Scart House, near Waterford. 

I find on p, 300 of Pitman's Popular Lecturer, 
No. 10, Oct. 1863, from a Lecture on " The News- 
paper Press of England, its Origin and Growth," 
by the Rev. Johnson Barker, LL.B., the fol- 
lowing : 

" It was about this period that there appeared the first 
advertisement. In the Impartial Intelligencer for March, 
1648, a gentleman of Candish, in Suffolk, offers a reward 
for the recovery of two horses of which some rogue had 
robbed him. The first of its class, the hint was soon 
taken by the booksellers, and the venders of quack medi- 
cines, who from that period began by degrees to gather 
into the columns of the newspaper, and therein cry their 
wares; although it was full ten years after this "before 

V* S. X. JULY 20, '72.] 



the general public awoke to the power of the press as an 
organ of commercial publicity." 

emolument as a literary writer. He published 
Lays of Home, Local Legends of Bristol, and other 
works ; also a Treatise on Intemperance. He pro- 
ceeded to America some twenty years ago, leaving 

This appears to be earlier than those quoted 
from the Mercurius Politicus and the Mercurius 
Elencticm. A. B. WILCOCK. 


be good enough to convey, through the medium 
of "N. & Q.," my thanks to MR. JOHN PIGGOT 
for courteously calling my attention to the fact, 
that he has discovered two advertisements of an 
earlier date than that to which (following, as he 
correctly says, the Quarterly Revieiv) I referred 
as being the earliest known, and which appeared 
in the Mercurius Politicus in 1652. The two 
advertisements which he has found, on looking 
over his newspaper files of the seventeenth cen- 
tury, appeared in the Mercurius Elencticus in the 
month of October, 1648. There is a pleasure in 
being historically accurate even in small matters, 

and therefore MR. PIGGOT deserves praise for I The term appears to have been applied to cur or 
his correction of the error ^into which both the | fighting-dogs, as in Lear : " Bob-taile tike?' 

In Zetland, an otter is called a tyke. In Che- 

his young family to be brought up by the rela- 
tions of his wife, traders in Bristol. The family 
are reluctant to refer to him or his writings. His 
son, William Chatterton Dix, is an accomplished 
verse-writer ; he has composed one of our best 
hymns, beginning " As with gladness men of old." 
It is included in Hymns Ancient and Modern, and 
other collections. CHARLES ROGERS. 

Snowdoun Villa, Lewisham, S.E. 

TYKE, TIKE (4 th S. ix. 536.) Burns used the 
word tyke in " The Twa Dogs," though not in a 
contemptuous manner. He describes Luath, the 
sheep-dog, thus : 

" He was a gash, and faithfu' tyke" 
Shakspere wrote it in a depreciatory sense, as in 
Henry V. 

" Base tike, call'st thou me host ? " 

Quarterly Review and myself had fallen. 

JAMES GRANT, Author of " The History 

of the Newspaper Press." 
35, Cornwall Koad, Westbourne Park. 

THE BITTER PILL (4 th S. ix. 504.) The verna- 
cular form of the term peel, as used in South Lan- 
cashire generally, is pill, signifying the skin or 
rind of vegetables, as the pill of an apple, orange 
or potato pillings, &c. JAMES PEARSON. 

JOHN Dix (4 th S. ix. 294, 365, 429.) I knew 
John Dix personally more than twenty years ago, 
as I believe did MR. THORNBURY ; and, pace MR. 
FORMAN, venture to think his curious career is of 
some interest to lovers of literature, apart from 
the Life of Chatterton. 

MR. FORMAN would really oblige me by quoting 
a good stanza from Chatterton : I am open to con- 
viction. If asked for a tl particular instance of 
dramatic power in Shakespeare," I would find one 
on any page of all his plays. Keats has often 
been named with Chatterton : if challenged to 
prove him a poet I could do so by a single line. 

I am not " blind to Wordsworth's honesty," 
but I doubt his critical faculty. Of all our great 
poets he had the least power of self-criticism, or 

shire the word is often given to a headstrong 
termagant woman, or to a tiresome child. 

Perhaps Scott was not correct in coupling the 
word with talbot. That renowned species was a 
milk-white hound. See the Shrewsbury MS. in 
the British Museum, or the copy in Researches 
into the History of the British Dog ; also, consult 
Markham and Christopher Wase. 

Caius does not include the tyke in his Catalogue 
of English Dogs. Some say the word is from the 
Celtic tiack, a ploughman or clown ; and may mean 
a dog of no particular breed, and consequently 
such as a labourer was likely to possess. The 
word also means a sheep or dog-tick, and the 
covering of a bed. In the Dictionary of Country 
Affairs, 1717, and Bailey, tike stands for a small 
bullock or heifer. 

Markham, in describing the perfect greyhound, 
quotes Lady Julyana Berners, but substitutes the 
word tike for greyhound : 

" If you will have a good tike, 
Of "which there are few like." 

This alteration appears to have been made only to 
get a rhyme. I do not think Lady Berners has 
the word tike anywhere in her book on Hunting ; 

friends and contemporaries. MAKROCHEIR. 

In answer to MAKROCHEIR I beg to state that 
John Dix, author of the Life of Chatterton, died 
in America about seven years ago. For some time 
he practised as a surgeon in Bristol, but owino- to 

"UI-. D j j_ _ l 1 *.j _ j_i i . i 

know the earliest use made of the word tyke or 
tike in any English book or manuscript. 

Henbury, Cheshire. 


his unfortunate habits, with very limited success. (4 th S. ix. 535.) Will J. M. oblige me and other 
With more circumspection he might have obtained readers of "N. & Q." by explaining how Philip 



[4 th S. X. JULY 20, 72. 

Earl of Pembroke and Montgomery, who died 
A.D. 1650, came to write notes in a book which 
was not published till five years after his death ? 
The title-page of my copy is 

" The most Notable Antiquity of Great Britain, vul- 
garly called STONE-HENG on Salisbury Plain. Restored 
by Inigo Jones, Esquire, Architect-Generall to the late 
King. London : Printed by James Flesher for Daniel 
Pakeman at the Sign of the Rainbow in Fleet-street, and 
Lawrence Chapman, next door to the Fountain Tavern in 
the Strand. 1655." 


S. ix. 532.) Can there be any doubt as to this 
useful little animal being well known to the 
Greeks and Eomans, though the special word catus 
is not found, as I have shown (4 th S. ix. 266) till 
the fourth century, when it appears for the first 
time, so far as I know, in the passage I quoted 
from Palladius ? Have we not in the following 
passage of Pliny (N. H. x. 94) a precise descrip- 
tion of the habits of our cat ? 

" Feles quidem quo silentio, quam levibus vestigiis 
obrepunt avibus ! Quam occulte speculate in musculos 
exsiliunt ! Excrementa sua effossa obruunt terra, in- 
telligentes ilium indicem sui esse." 

Again I would ask if the animal known to the 
Greeks as alxovpos be not the same, worshipped as 
Herodotus (ii. 66, 67) tells us by the Egyptians ? 


In December last I was at Seville, and visited 
the San Telrno Palace, the occasional residence 
of the Due de Montpensier. I quote the follow- 
ing passage from the notes I made of it in my 
journal : 

" In another room on a pedestal was a fine Roman 
bronze from Italica, representing a cat life size, the lips 
slightly parted as if in the very act of purring some 
favourite perhaps of a Roman household thus immor- 
talized and handed down to posterity." 

The ruins of Italica (which was founded by 
Scipio Africanus, and was the birth-place of 
Trajan, Adrian, and other remote celebrities) are 
situated about five miles from Seville. Under the 
Romans it is said to have been a magnificent city. 
My note, however, is not apropos of Italica, but of 
" poor puss." C. L. 

ix. 502.) Not having access to the Fasti 'Ecclesia 
ScoticancB I will not attempt to prej udge the value 
of any evidence that may be thence derivable, in 
support of MR. ROGERS'S claim of Pope as a Scot 
by descent. But it is clear that the poet himself 
did not know of any such alleged nationality. He 
describes his paternal ancestors as belonging to 
the Popes of Oxfordshire, whose estate at Wrox- 
ton has since passed by inheritance to the North 
family. "Where MR. ROGERS remarks as fol- 
lows, "that Pope the poet, descended from a 
long line of Presbyterian ministers, should have 

embraced the faith of the Pope of Rome, is suffi- 
ciently singular " he not only assumes the au- 
thenticity of the alleged Scottish descent, but 
forgets, first, that Pope was born in the " faith of 
the Pope of Rome " which his father had em- 
braced before his birth; and, secondly, that as 
Alexander Pope the elder was born in 1642, and 
was son of an Anglican clergyman in Hampshire, 
we can hardly find room for t( a long line of Pres- 
byterian ministers " between the days of John 
Knox and the probable birth-date of the poet's 
grandfather. C. G. PROWETT. 

Garrick Club. 

SUGAR AND WATER DAT (4 th S. ix. 447, 523.) 
A similar custom to the one mentioned by R.& M. 
is alluded to by a correspondent in Hones Every 
Day Book, vol. ii. (in a letter too long for reprint- 
ing here), as being prevalent in Derbyshire, under 
the name of " sugar-cupping " Easter Sunday, 
however, being the day selected for the ceremony 
instead of Ascension-Day. In a footnote is the 
following : 

" Further notice of this usage at ' the Peak ' will be ac- 
ceptable to the editor, who is neither acquainted with the 
practice nor its origin." 

I cannot, however, find that anything further 
was ever contributed on the subject, and so the 
matter has probably remained to this day j till an 
enquiry relative to a custom, then fast dying out 
(1826), has been set on foot in the perennial pages 
of N. & Q." J. S. UDAL. 

Junior Athenaeum Club. 

PORCELAIN FIGURE (4 th S. ix. 507.) Probably 
one of the Buddhist saints. It is a very common 
type. S. 

SIR RICHARD LEE, 1560 (4 th S. ix. 427, 494.) 
It is possible some light may be thrown on this 
subject by a little book lately published, Isoult 
Barry, by Miss Holt, though just now I cannot 
refer to it. It is an unusually graphic and good 
picture of the people and events of the period 
portrayed, the reign of Henry VIII., bears espe- 
cially on the family of Lord Lisle, and is stated 
to be drawn from the Lisle Papers. The notes 
too seem extremely valuable. May I suggest 
that at that time the appellation " cousin " was 
often extended to many not so closely connected. 

S. M. S. 

TYDDYN INCO (4 th S. ix. 507.) A query put by 
J. M. (4 th S. ix. 535) relative to INIGO JONES 
reminds me that no one has yet replied to the 
query of X. Y. Z. asking the meaning of Tyddyn 
Inco. When I was writing the Gossiping Guide 
to Wales (the little book that prompted the query), 
I was told by one or two Welsh scholars that the 
only reason that could be suggested why this 
particular tyddyn (farm-house) should be called 
" Inco " was that probably it was built by Inigo 

4*S.X. JULY 20, '72.] 



Jones. This celebrated Welshman was baptised 
Ynyr a name corrupted into Inigo when its 
owner went abroad, and re-translated into Inco 
when it arrived again in Wales ! The age and 
style of the house quite warrants the supposition ; 
and until a better can be given, the people of Bala 
will believe it to be " Inigo's farm-house." 


Croeswylan, Oswestry. 

I have just consulted two Welshmen respecting 
Tyddyn Inco, and find that we agree in our inter- 
pretation. It means, according to them, a " me- 
morial farm." Tyddyn is a farm, co a part of the 
verb cofio, "to remember/' and in the same as 
our preposition in. I trust this hasty explanation 
will satisfy your correspondent X. Y. Z. 



S. ix. 358, 514.) I had thought that to the pre- 
sent generation nothing had been left to say on 
the Hamlet proverb. MR. C. CHATTOCK, how- 
ever, has introduced a pleasant novelty in his de- 
rivation of hernshaw. Surely there can be no 
doubt that hernshaw = " a young heron," and 
nothing else. The ordinary early English form is 
heronsewe (see Gloss, to Babies Book, E. E. T. S., 
and Reliquce Antiques, i. 88), which = French 
heronceau; just as we get the diminutive lionsewe 
from French lionceau. Lionsewe occurs several 
times on p. 413 of the Prose Merlin (E. E. T. S.) 
where its meaning (" whelp) " is clear. Lest 
MR. CHATTOCK should, from my ill-chosen culi- 
nary references above, mistake the meaning of the 
termination " -sewe " in " heronsewe," I quote two 
lines from Chaucer (Squyeres Tale, 1. 60) 
" I wol nat tellen of her straunge sewes, 
Ne of her swannes, ne here heroun-sewes." 

(Aldine Ed., Morris.) 

Rustington, Littlehampton, Sussex. 

DIVORCE (4 th S. ix. 200, 251, 306, 373, 445, 
520.) MR. BROWNING is mistaken in supposing 
that any question was raised by me. Neither do 
I think was it suggested that there is an analogy 
between a " decree of nullity " and a " decree of 
divorce," the former being a deliverance in regard 
to a ceremony void ab initio, negativing the assump- 
tion of a marriage at all, the latter a judicial 
severance of the nuptial tie in respect of a contract 
originally valid. A correspondent of " N. & Q." 
enunciated ex cathedra, as a thing fixed and 
settled, that a woman divorced from a husband 
by a decree of dissolution retains the name she 
acquired by marriage, and I requested to be 
favoured with some authority for a statement 
which I did not find, and do not now. According 
to your last correspondent there is no "rule of 
law " affecting the question, which has not been 
raised before any competent tribunal, and is left 

in the hands of private persons to deal with ac- 
cording to their discretion. MR. BROWNING 
seems to think that ll generally a woman divorced 
does best to retain her marriage name,''' though 
why in so doing she does best I hardly know. A 
woman so placed having lost all social status, it 
matters not, as I think, whether she adhere to 
tlie name of him with whom she was once united, 
or return to her paternal cognomen. The condi- 
tion of a divorced woman, we are told, " has been 
altered ; she has entirely lost her maiden name 
and state, and cannot properly be again a ' Miss.' " 
It is not, however, a question of "Mrs." or 
" Miss," matron or maid, but simply whether a 
woman divorced has a legal title to continue to 
bear the surname of the man from whom she has 
been judicially dissevered. 

Whatever the common law of England may 
permit in regard to the assumption of names 
generally, it becomes a question whether, were a 
man to take action against a woman formerly his 
wife for the purpose of restraining her from con- 
tinuing to use his patronymic, the court, having- 
regard to the exceptional character of the case, 
might not sustain his objection and decree ac- 
cordingly. If the marriage ceremonial first con- 
ferred upon the woman a legal title to use her 
husband's name, by parity of reasoning, the dis- 
solution of the nuptial tie by a competent legal 
tribunal ought de facto to take away that right. 

Library, Middle Temple. 

LEE GIBBONS (4 th S. ix. 232, 374, 522.) I have 
overlooked the first two references to this pseu- 
donym, and I cannot refer to them, as I have sent 
the numbers to a friend at a distance, who is now 
absent from home. I do not, therefore, know who 
is " MR. PICKFORD'S claimant." I do know that 
Mr. William Bennett, solicitor, Chapel-en-le- 
Frith, is the author of The Cavalier, The King 
of the Peak, Malpas, and Owain Goch. I have 
been well acquainted with him for nearly forty 
years, and ha,ve often talked with him about 
them. Not long ago I suggested to him to get 
them reprinted in some railway series. I read 
them when they came out, and was much 
pleased with them. Since I came to know the 
author, I have often tried to procure them, but 
have only succeeded as to The Cavalier. I have 
lately lent it to an accomplished lecturer on Eng- 
lish literature, an Oxford M.A., and he thinks it 
equal to many of Sir Walter Scott's novels. I 
may add that Mr. Bennett is still flourishing, 
honoured and respected, in a green old age. 


The following extract from a letter received 
from my old friend William Bennett, Esq., of 
Chapel-en-le-Frith, will, I think, satisfactorily 



. X. JOLT 20, 72. 

prove his claim to the authorship of the novels 
mentioned, and also show to OLPHAE HAMST thaj; 
my information on the point was accurate : 

" Chapel-en-le-Frith, bv Stockport. 

24th June/1872. 

" My dear Sir, I am much obliged by your letter 
respecting the authorship of The Cavalier, Malpas, The 
King of the Peak, and Oivain Goch, all of which owe their 
pateVnity to me. One reason of my assuming the nom 
deplume of Lee Gibbons was that my mother's maiden 
name was Gibbons. I commenced writing The Cavalier 
when your father and I were together in Mr. Clements's* 
office "in Liverpool ; and your father at first agreed to 
join me in writing it ; but after a few pages he got tired 
and gave it up ; and I continued, and finished it myself; 
and he was very much surprised when it came out 
through Longmans in the year I left Liverpool (1821). 
The three other romances I wrote at Chapel-en-le-Frith. 
They were also published by Longmans, who returned 
the MS. which I now possess. I had no assistance from 
any party ; and I believe I conscientiously put the few 
pages your father had written into the fire. I can in 
some degree account for the books being imputed to one 
of the Roscoes : because they as well as myself were 
residents in Liverpool when I first wrote, and formed a 
portion of that literary coterie of which their father, 
William Roscoe, the author of the Lives of Lorenzo 
de' Medici, Leo the Tenth, and other works, was the 
head. Old Mr. Sheppard, author of The Life of Ben- 
venuto Cellini, and Dr. Currie, author of the Life of Robert 
Burns, and other men of letters, were the members ; but 
I was not personally acquainted with them ; and my 
departure from Liverpool prevented my becoming so. 
One of the younger Roscoes published a Translation of 
the Italian Novelists soon after I left, and has written 
other works with which I am unacquainted. Within 
the last ten years I have written many papers on the 
* Archaeology of Derbyshire,' published in The Reliquary, 
all or most of them under my own name, with the addi- 
tion of Author of The Cavalier, King of the Peak, &c.' 

" Believe me always, my dear Sir, 

" Very sincerely yours, 

" WM. BENNETT." 1 

'' Rev. John Pickford." 

" Hos ego versiculos fed, tulit alter honores," 
as Virgil says, but it is clearly by an accident that 
the authorship of Mr. Bennett's productions has 
been claimed tor T. Roscoe, Jun. 


Hungate Street, Pickering. 

PORPOISE AND SALMON (4 th S. ix. 486, 543.) 
The following is transcribed from Seyer's History 
of Bristol, from which it would appear that the 
porpoise was esteemed a delicacy in the reign of 
Elizabeth : 

"The 16 th Sept', 1592. A great Porpoise Fish was 
caught in the Haven between Bristol Bridge and the 
Castle, brought in by the tide and given to the Mayor." 

I have understood that portions of this fish are 
still eaten by sailors, and that it is very much 
like pork to the taste. E. F. WADE. 


Mr. Clements was an eminent solicitor in Liverpool. 

EARLY RECOLLECTIONS (4 th S. viii. ; ix. passim.) 
A noteworthy instance is given in the very in- 
teresting Life of Thomas Cooper, written by Him- 
self, lately published. He says : 

;< I was born at Leicester on the 20th of March, 1805 ; 
but my father was a wanderer by habit, if not by nature ; 
and so I was removed to Exeter when I was little more 
than twelve months old. I fell into the Leate, a small 
tributary of the Exe, over which there was a little wooden 
bridge that led to my father's dyehouse, on the day that 
I was two years old, and, as my mother always said, at 
the very hour that I was born, two years before. After 
being borne down the stream a considerable way, I was 
taken out and supposed to be dead, but was restored by 
medical skill. It may seem strange to some who read 
this but I remember, most distinctly and clearly, being 
led by the hand of my father, over St. Thomas's Bridge, 
on the afternoon of that day. He bought me ginger- 
bread from one of the stalls on the bridge ; and some of 
the neighbours who knew me came and chucked me 
under the chin, and said, ' How did you like it ? Hovr 
did you fall in ? Where have you been to? ' The cir- 
cumstances are as vivid to my mind as if they only oc- 
curred yesterday." 

To this I may add that my own memory carries 
me back at least to the day of her present Majesty's 
Coronation, June 28, 1838, at which date I was 
one day less than two years and nine months old. 
I perfectly remember being carried by my grand- 
father through the streets of Bath to witness the 
illuminations, and also what some of the par- 
ticular illuminations represented. 


Cheltenham Library. 

THE GRAND SECRET (4 th S. ix. 426, 489.) The 
French litterateur A. F. B. Deslandes, as is pro- 
bably known to many of your readers, published 
a little treatise on what E. S. justly calls the 
"unseasonable jests" of dying men. It is thus, 
and it appears to me not unfairly, characterised in 
the Bioyr. Univ. : 

" C'est surtout dans ce livre que Deslandes affecte de 
se montrer bel esprit et esprit fort ; mais presque tous 
ceux qu'il cite comme grands hommes ne le sont pas ; 
leurs plaisanteries paraissent insipides, et les reflexions 
de 1'auteur sur la mort ne sont que de mauvaises saillies." 

In these " Reflexions sur les grands hommes 
qui sont morts en plaisant," we find the saying 
" Je m'en vais chercher un grand peut-etre," 
attributed to Rabelais, with the following melan- 
choly addition : " Tire le rideau, la farce est 
jouee." C. W. BINGHAM. 

384.) The Guardian (No. 1380, p. 668), after a 
brief notice of the above, adds, 

" We believe other examples of a strict following of the 
text of the 1611 version may be found in the Book of 
Common Prayer, at 1 John v. 12 for instance." 

The reference is to the Epistle for the First Sun- 
day after Easter, where, in the last verse, our 
Prayer Books, both with and without notes, 
printed at Oxford, Cambridge, or London, have, 

4 S. X. JULY 20, '72.] 



like those of 1636,1661, 1662 "He that hath 
not the Son hath not life " ; while the Prayei 
Books of 1549, 1552, 1559, 1604, and our present 
Bible version have, " He that hath not the Son of 
God hath not life," following the best Greek 
MSS. of the N. T. ; and in the German, French, 
and Italian versions of the Common Prayer, the 
words " of God " are retained, but omitted, as in 
the English, in the modern Greek, Spanish, &c. 
The Liber Precum Publicarum also omits them, 
and has a very respectable precedent the Latin 
Testament, "ex celeberrimo codice Amiatino 
omnium et antiquissimoetprrestantissimo," edited 
by Tischendorf, 1850, which gives, " qui non habet 
filium, vitam non habet." Probably several other 
unimportant variations from the Bible version 
might be found in the Epistles or Gospels in the 
20, Compton Terrace, Highbury. 

(4 th S. ix. 50, 123, 541.) G. M. E. C. says: 
" Would there not have been a mockery in giving 
Napoleon Buonaparte, a prisoner, that title of 
which the English Government had known nothing 
when he was sovereign of France ? " Is not this 
carrying "mockery" rather too far? To use 
G. M. E. C.'s own words, allow me to say that 
"those who thus express themselves forget " how 
matters really stood. 

To say nothing of the signing of the Treaty of 
Amiens in 1802, when Buonaparte was recognised 
by England as the head of the French nation, and 
the carriage of Lauriston, the bearer of the treaty, 
was dragged in the streets of London, people 
shouting " Buonaparte for ever ! " 

1. When that high-minded and noble-hearted 
statesman C. J. Fox died September, 1806, being 
then Prime Minister of Great Britain, was he not 
on the eve of signing negotiations of peace with 
France ? Napoleon was then recognised by Eng- 
land as Emperor. 

2. When in September, 1808, the two Empe- 
rors of France and Russia, Napoleon and Alex- 
ander, met at Erfurt, it had been resolved by them 
to offer peace to Great Britain. A letter was ac- 
cordingly dispatched to the King of England, 
signed by both emperors, expressive of their wish 
for a general peace. The official note in which 
the British administration replied to this over- 
ture declared that the King of England was willing 
to treat for peace in conjunction with his allies. 
The negotiation unfortunately broke off, but it had 
been officially begun. 

3. When in 1809-10, Mr. P. C.Labouchere was 
sent by him to negotiate peace with the Marquis 
of Wellesley, it stands to reason that Napoleon 
was then recognised by the British Government as 

4. A further and decisive proof that the English 
Government had well and duly recognised Napo- 

leon I. as Sovereign of France, lies in the fact 
that England, a party to the treaties of Vienna 
October 3, 1814, and June 9, 1815, in no wise 
contested or protested against the title of Ex- 
Emperor given to Napoleon, vanquished by the 
coalition of all the other Powers. 

5. To admit, as G. M. E. C. does, that " So 
long as he remained in Elba the title of Emperor 
was his right," is in manifest contradiction to his 
previous assertion that " the English Government 
had known nothing of it when he was Sovereign 
of France." The " High-Powers " at Vienna did 
not of course give him the title of " Emperor of 
Elba " that indeed would have been " mockery" 
with a vengeance ! Then to add that, " When he 
abandoned Elba he abandoned the right he ac- 
quired therewith," is not more serious, and re- 
minds one of that poor citizen who revenged 
himself, as he thought, upon the cognizance of 
the Earl of Oxford by calling the nobleman's 
swan a goose. P. A. L. 

(4 th S. vii. 301) I mentioned the case of James 
Cavan, then residing near Newtownards, county of 
Down, and stated the grounds on which his claim 
to be a centenarian rested. I now wish to note 
that the old man died on June 28, 1872. He was 
the last survivor of the three persons whose names 
were inserted in the lease of 1775, which I for- 
merly mentioned: the lease, therefore, now ex- 
pires and falls in to the Marquis of Londonderry. 
The letting value of the land is now about double 
the rent payable under the lease. I suppose there 
never was a better life in a lease than Cavan's. 

IMMERMANN : HAUFF (4 th S. ix. 485.) 

Immermann: " Miinchausen "; "Tales from the Ger- 
man"; " The Wonders in the Spessart," translated by 
J. Oxenford and C. A. Feiling. London, 1844. 

W. Hauff: " Lichtenstein ; or, the Swabian League," 
translated by F. Woodley and W. Lander. (J. C. 
James' Library of Foreign Romance, vol. ii. 1846. 

"Lichtenstein ; "or, the Outlaw of Wiirtemburg: a 
Tale of the Sixteenth Century," translated from the Ger- 
man of Hauff by E. M. Swann, London. 


52, Stanley Street, S.W. 

The proverb is not uncommon. "See the close of 
my note in " N. & Q." 4 th S. viii. 335. 


" OPUS INOPEROSUM" (4 th S. x. 9.) Inoperosus 
is good Latin of the mediaeval sort. It is given 
by Du Fresne and glossed Iners, Segnis. 


should purchase Mr. Triibner's edition of the 
Collected Works of Theodore Parker. Mr. Parker 
was one of the most celebrated of American Uni- 
tarians. J. B. 



[4th s. X. JULY 20, '72. 

ix. 317, 416, 475.) Whether old prosy Ponz 
wrote nonsense or sense in using the words I 
quoted, viz. " Son de exquisita tela, y estan bor- 
dados en ella asuntos de Jesu-Christo,y nuestra 
Sehora con bastante arte/' &c., it surely is taking 
a great liberty with the author to make him say 
(as MR. EALPH N. JAMES does) " they are of ex- 
quisite texture, and embroidered with the Ascen- 
sion of Jesus Christ and the Assumption of our 
Lady," our author not alluding to either of such 
subjects. W. D. OLIVER. 

Temple. _ 


The Visitation of the County Palatine of Lancaster made 
in the Year 1664-5. By Sir William Dugdale, Knight. 
Edited by the Rev. F. R. Raines, M.A., F.S.A., Vicar 
of Milnrow, Hon. Canon, of Manchester, and Rural 
Dean. Parts I. and II. (Printed for the Chetham 

The Rev. Canon Rames, to whom the Chetham Society 
is indebted for the admirable collection of Stanley Papers 
noticed by us some time since, and indeed for many of 
its most valuable publications; and who has recently 
edited for the Society the Visitation of Lancaster by 
Flowers, Norroy, in 1567, and that by St. George, Norroy, 
in 1613, has established a fresh claim to the gratitude of 
the Societv by the work before us. The Visitation of 
Lancaster," by Dugdale, in 1664-5, was the last Heraldic 
Visitation held for the County Palatine of Lancaster. 
The book will be very acceptable to genealogists generally, 
but more especially to those interested in the family his- 
tory of the county; and the general reader would be 
amused with Canon Raines' introduction, in which he 
describes Dugdale's journe}' through the district, and his 
reception by and treatment of the several families, which 
varied so much according to their Royalist or Puritan 

Ancient Classics for English Readers: Juvenal. By 
Edward Walford, M.A., late Scholar of Balliol Coll., 
Oxford; Author of "The Handbook of the Greek 
Drama," &c. (Blackwood.) 

We shall be surprised if this is not generally regarded 
as one of the most successful of this useful Series of 
" Classics for English Readers." Mr. Walford's Juvenal 
is one which will be read with pleasure by all admirers 
and students of the great Poet and Satirist. 

been made that archaeological investigations, like charity, 
should begin at home ; and that at least as much attention 
as that which is now being paid to Old Jerusalem should 
be devoted to Old London ; and that the Ordnance Sur- 
vey should be so utilised as to mark the more important 
sites and gradual enlargement of our great Metropolis. 
The plan, if carried out, would be very acceptable to pre- 
sent and future London Topographers, to say nothing of 
Macaulay's New Zealander. 

PLES. \Ve are glad to hear that Dr. Dohrn is most 
effectively assisted in the technical parts of the construc- 
tion of this building by Mr. W. A. Lloyd, of the Crystal 
Palace Aquarium, Sydenham. This gentleman, having 
been in friendly relations to Dr. Dohrn some years ago 
when in Hamburg, has obtained from the Board of the 

Crystal Palace Aquarium permission to render all possi- 
ble help to the Naples Station, as to an institution of a 
purely scientific character. Whoever knows the tech- 
nical difficulties of such a construction will be exceed- 
ingly glad that so experienced a man as Mr. Lloyd lends 
his assistance in so disinterested a way to an establish- 
ment which we trust cannot fail to exert a powerful in- 
fluence on the progress of scientific Biology. 



Particulars of Price, &c., of the following books to be sent direct to 
the gentlemen by whom they are required, whose names and addresses 
are given for that purpose : 


Wanted by William J. Thorns, Esq., 40, St. George's Square, S.W. 

DIAUY OF RECTOU OF SANTOS, near Thetford, temp. Charles I. 
(Camden Society.) 

Wanted by Robert A. Ward, Esq., Maidenhead. 

BRITISH ESSAYISTS, 1822, &c. Vols. I.IV. (Tatten.) 
Wanted by Mr. J. fiouchier, 2, Stanley Villas, Bexley Heath, S.E. 


THE GENERAL INDEX to the last volume will be ready 
for delivery with "N. & Q." of Saturday next. 

COMMANDER, R.N. We do not believe that there exists 
any book on Cockades. Consult our General Indexes on 
the subject. 

SUNDRY QUERIES. We must request our Correspond- 
ents not to mix up several subjects in the same inquiry. 
Each query should be kept separate and distinct. 

H. T. R. We cannot repeat a query which is obviously 
only one of personal interest, nor insert any query respect- 
ing family history, except in cases of families of historical 
importance, unless the Querist adds his name, and the 
address to which Replies may be sent direct. 

J. S. CADDEL. A rare, example of a quarter noble of 
Richard II. sold at Cuffe's sale in 1854 for 31. Is. ; an in- 
ferior copy for II. Our Correspondent' 1 s example, unless a 
rare mint mark, is worth about 15s. 

J. E. PARK (Hedon). The saying, " I am but a gatherer 
and disposer of other men's stuff," occurs in the preface to 
Sir Henry Wottoii's Elements of Architecture. 

X. Y. (Edinburgh.) See p. 486 of our last volume, 
and p. 38 of our last week's number. 

A. H. Seven articles on the saying "Apple-pie order" 
have appeared in " N. & Q." 1" S. iii. 330, 468, 485 ; vi. 
109 ; 3 rd S. vii. 133, 209, 265. 

W. T. M. (Shenfield Grove.) Writing became an ordi- 
nary branch of education during the fourteenth century. 

A LADY. In the Common Place Book of Poetry, 1830, 
the lines 

" Behold this ruin, 'twas a skull, 
Once of etherial spirit full " 
are attributed to Mrs. Niven. 


We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print ; and 
to this rule we can make no exception. 

To all communications should be affixed the name and 
address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 
as a guarantee of good faith. 

All communications should be addressed to the Editor, 
at the Office, 43, Wellington Street, W.C. 

4 th S. X. JULY 27, '72.] 





NOTES : Cagliostro Bibliography, 61 Henry Howard, 
63 Well of Manduria, Ib. Arms assumed by Advertise- 
ment _ Song in Praise of Tobacco Two inedited Poems 
of La Fontaine Copy of a Letter of Joseph Addison to 
Mr. Worsley Canonization Beak : a Magistrate 
Boniface's "Francia" Leodium General Hoche 
" Gangery," a Scotticism Brigg Typography, 64. 

QUERIES : " The Book " : Captain Ashe and Mrs. Serres 

Chinese Vases found in Egypt Church Custom at 
Conistou Cowper's " Expostulation " William de 
Burgh An old Hand-bill Heads on London Bridge 
Curious Mode of Interment "In westering Cadence 
low " Mastiff Poem in Black Letter Offa: Dooms- 
day " Rejected Addresses " " The Seven Wise Masters 
of Rome " Shakspeare and the Dog Old Songs Staf- 
ford Family Sun-dials Countess of Thanet, 66. 

REPLIES : Lord Buckhurst and Sir Thomas Gresham, 70 

Hotchpot, 71 The Tontine of 1789, 72 "La Belle 
Sauvage," 73 Sir John Denham's Death, Ib. Earls of 
Kellie Christian Names Gretna Green Marriages 
The Death Warrant of Charles I. Guinea- Lines Marly 
Horses " When I want to read a Book, I write one " 
Symbolum Marise " Anser, Apis, Vitulus," &c. Lanca- 
shire May Song Worley or Wyrley family Edward 
Underbill, the "Hot Gospeller" Halstead's "Succinct 
Genealogies " Scaligeriana Rev. Thomas Rose Chau- 
cer : " Dethe of Blaunche " Transmutation of Liquids 
" Gutta cayat Lapidem " Burials in Gardens Lloyd of 
Towy Milton Queries "Prosperity gains Friends, and 
Adversity tries them " Bronze Head found at Bath 
Date of the Marriage of Lady Jane Grey Forks Miss 
Anne Steele, &c., 74. 

Notes on Books, &c. 


References to this famous charlatan are to be 
found scattered through the volumes of "N. & Q.' 
Having just finished writing, in the Dublin Uni- 
versity Magazine, a series of papers on his eventfu 
history, containing the result of several years' in- 
quiry and research, I have thought that a collec- 
tion of such titles as have come under my notice 
would not be without interest, and would probably 
form a completer bibliography of Cagliostroana 
than has yet appeared. I have not attempted 
to register the articles which have appeared in 
periodicals, as they would have swelled an already 
lengthy list. 

Aechte Nachrichten von dem Grafen Cagliostro, aui 
der Handschrift seines entflohenden Kammerdieners 
Berlin, 1786. 8vo. 

Arret du Parlement, la Grand' Chambre assemblee 
Du 31 mai 1786. Paris, 1786. 4to, pp. 20. 
* *Ein Paar Tropflein aus der Briinnen der Wahrheit 
ausgegossen vor dem neuen Thaumaturgen Cagliostro 
[Von Hofrath Bode zu Weimar.] Am Vorgebirge, 1781 

*Cagliostro, einer der merkwurdigsten Abentheure 
tmsres Jahrhunderts. Seine Geschichte nebst Raisonne 
ment iiber ihn und den schwarmerischen Unfug seine 
Zeit uberhaupt. II. ed. [Von Ludwig Ernest Borowsky, 
Kbnigsberg, 1790. 8vo, pp. vi. 190. 

II Cagliostro, Commedia di cinque atti in prosa. 179 
8vo, pp. 84. [With portraits of Cagliostro and his wife 
Mdmoire pour le Comte de Cagliostro, accusd; contr 

[. le Procureur-General, accusateur ; . . . . Paris, 1786 
to, pp. 51. 

Memorial or brief, for the Count de Cagliostro defend- 
nt, against the King's Attorney-General, plaintiff; in 
he cause of the Cardinal de Rohan, Comtesse de la Motte, 
nd others. From the French .... with an introduc- 
uctory preface. By Parkyns Macmahon . . . London, 
786. Svo, pp. xiii. 86. 

Memoire pour le Comte de Cagliostro, demandeur ; 
ontre M. Chesnon, le fils . . . et le Sieur de Launay . . . 
"'aris, 1786. 4to, pp. 37. [Another edition, London, 

786. Svo, pp. 61. J 

Requete au Parlement, les Chambres assemblies, par le 
Domte de Cagliostro . . . le 24 fe'vrier 1786. 4to, pp. 7. 

Requete a joindre au Memoire du Comte de Cagliostro, 

ari?, 1786. 4to, pp. 11. 

Requete au Roi, pour le Comte de Cagliostro, centre le 

ieur Chesnon, fils, Commissaire au Chatelet ; et le Sieur 

le Launay, Gouverneur du Chateau de la Bastille. Paris, 

787. 4to, pp. 72. 

Au Roi, et k Nosseigneurs, etc., son Conseil . . . Alex- 
andre, Comte de Cagliostro, contre le Sieur de Launey 
. . et le Sieur Chesnon, fils. Paris, 1787. 4to, pp. 8. 

Reponse & la piece importante du Sieur de Launey, 
ouverneur de la Bastille, pour le Comte de Cagliostro, 
contre le Sieur de Launey . . . et le Sieur Chesnon, fils. 
. . Paris, 1787. 4to, pp. 25. 

Lettre du Comte de Cagliostro au peuple anglois, pour 
servir de suite a ses Memoires. 4to, pp. 79. [Another 
edition, 1786, Svo, pp. 92.] 

Critical and Miscellaneous Essays. By Thomas Car- 
lyle. London, 1847. Svo, 4 vols. "[Vol. iii. contains the 
famous Essays on Cagliostro and the Diamond Necklace.] 

1. Der Betriiger. 2. Der Verblendete. 3. Der Si- 
berische Schaman. Von Catherine II. Berlin, 1786. 
[Cagliostro figures in the first as Kalistalbschersten.] 

Compendio della Vita e della Gesta di Giuseppe Bal- 
samo, denominate il Conte Cagliostro, che si e estratto 
dal Processo contro di lui formato in Roma 1' anno 1790. 
E che pub servire di scorta per conoscere 1' indole della setta 
de' liberi muratori. Roma, 1791. Nella Stamperia della 
Rev. Camera Apostolica. Svo, pp. 216. [Another edition, 
1791, 8vo.] 

[For German translation see Leben, etc.; for French 
translation see " Proes," etc.; for English translation see 
"Life," &c.] 

""Confessions du Comte C . . . ., avec 1'histoire de ses 
voyages en Russie et dans les Pyramides d'Egypte. Au 
Caire, 1787. 4to and Svo. [Not authentic, Querard.] 

Corrispondenza segreta sulla vita pubblica e privata 
del Conte di Caglioslro, con le sue avventure e viaggi in 
diverse parti del mondo, e spezialmente in Roma, con 
1' estratto del suo Processo e sentenza, e gli arcani della 
setta degl' illuminati e liberi muratori. A spese dell' 
autore. Venezia, 1791. Svo, pp. 167-232. 

Memoires inedites, trad, de 1'Italien sur les MSS. ori- 
ginaux ; par un gentilhomme [M. le Comte de Cour- 
champs.] [This appeared in "La Presse" in 1811, and is 
a complicated literary forgery, which forms the subject 
of a long article in Querards " Supercheries."] 

Aventures de Cagliostro. Par [Felix d'Amoureux, 
connu sous le nom de] Jules de Saint-Felix. Paris, 1855. 
12mo, pp. iii. 162. 

La Derniere Piece du fameux Collier, s. 1. e. a. ' 4to, 
pp. 34. (? By De Morande.) 

Memoires "d'un Me'dicin, Joseph Balsamo. Par A. 
Dumas. Paris, 1846-48. Svo, 19 vols. [With continua- 
tions, " Le Collier de la Reine," 1849-50, Svo, 9 vols. ; and 
" Ange Pitou," 1852, 8vo, 8 vols. Many subsequent edi- 
tions and translations.] 

Cagliostro, on les Illumines, opera comique en trois 


. X. JULY 27, 72. 

actes. [Par Emmanuel Dupaty et Jacques- Antoine d 
Revernoi Saint-Cyr.] Paris, 1810. 8vo. 

La France trompee par les Magiciens et Demonolatre 
da dix-huitieme siecle, fait de'montre' par des faits. Pa 
M. l'Abb Fiard .... Paris. L'an dernier du 18 e siecle 
imprime' 1'an 3 du 19 e (1803). 8vo, pp. 200. 

Histoire du Merveilleux dans les Temps modernes 

Par [Guillaume] Louis Figuier. Paris, 1860. 12mo 

4 vols. [Vol. iv. contains a long account of Cagliostro/ 

Goethe's Werke. Stuttgart and Tubingen, 1829. 8vo 

40 vols. [Cagliostro figures as Der Graf in the play o 

"Der Gross-Cophta," in the fourteenth volume. The 

account of his home and relatives at Palermo, in the 

" Italienische Reise," is also an important contribution.] 

Gemischte Gesellschaft. Biographische Skizzen von 

Georg Hesekiel. Berlin, n. d. 8vo. 

Merkwiirdige Abenteuer des Grafen Cagliostro unc 
Anderer. Von Johann Andreas Christoph Hildebrant 
Quedlinburg, 1739, 8vo. 

Georges Bell [Joachim Hounau], Le Miroir de Caglio- 
stro (Hypnotisme). Paris, 1860. 12mo, pp. 100. 

Count Cagliostro, or the Charlatan. [ By T. A. James. J 
London, 1838. 12mo, 3 vols. 

Tales from Blackwood, No. 29 : The Vision of Caglio- 
stro. By W. Charles Kent, Sec. 12mo. 

Sommaire pour la Comtesse de Valois-La Motte, ac- 
cusee centre M. le Procureur-Gcne'ral. 4to, pp. 62. 

Reponse pour la Comtesse de Valois-La Motte, au Me- 

moire du Comte de Cagliostro. Paris, 1786. 4to, pp. 48. 

Sommaire pour la Comtesse de la Valois-La Motte, 

accusee ; contre M. le Procureur-General . . . Paris, 1786. 

4to, pp. 46. 

Memoirs of the Countess de Valois de La Motte. . . . 
Translated from the French, written by herself. .... 
London, 1789. 8vo, pp. viii. 231. 48. [This is the au- 
thorised translation, and has La Motte's autograph on 
p. 231. 

Authentic Adventures of the celebrated Countess Valois 
de La Motte. From her birth to her escape from prison : 
including the whole Transaction with Cardinal de Rohan 
. . . Translated from the French. To which is added a 
Narrative of her Escape to London, as stated by herself, 
and Memoirs of her Sister under the character of Ma- 
rianne. London, 1787. 16mo, pp. xii. 163. 

Cagliostro, ou Tlntrigant et le Cardinal ; par 1'auteur 
des "Memoires de M me Dubarry et de M lle Duthe." 
[E'tienne Leon de La Motte-Lanzon.] Paris, 1834. 8vo, 
2 vols. 

Piece importante dans I'affaire du Marquis de Launay, 
Gouverneur du Chateau de la Bastille. 1787. 4to, pp. 8. 
Leben und Thaten des Joseph Balsamo, sogenannten 
Grafen Cagliostro. Nebst einigen Nachrichten iiber die 
Beschaffenheit und den Zustand der Freymaurersekten. 
Aus . . . dem in der pilbstlichen Kammerdruckerey 
erscheinenen italienischen Originale iibersetzt. Zurich, 
1791, 8vo, pp. 171 ; Frankenthal, 1791, 8vo ; Augsb. 1791, 
von C. J. Jagemann ; Weimar, 1791, 8vo; Mannheim, 
1814, 8vo. 

The Life of the Count Carliostro :. containing an 
authentic relation of the uncommon Incidents that befell 
him during his Residence in England in the years 1776 
and 1777. His arrival in France ; his committal to the 
Bastile; his Trial, Acquittal, and Banishment. His re- 
turn to England in 178G ; particular Anecdotes of him 
till 1787 ; and lastly, a detail of the Circumstances which 
occasioned his Departure for Switzerland. Dedicated to 
Madame la Comtesse de Cagliostro. London, printed for 
the Author, 1787. 8vo, pp. xxxii. 127. 

The Life of Joseph Balsamo, commonly called Count 
Cagliostro: containing the singular and^uncommon ad- 

which are added, the particulars of his Trial before the 
Inquisition, the History of his confessions concerning 
Common and Egyptian Masonry, and a variety of other 
interesting particulars. Translated from the' Original 
Proceedings published at Rome, bj r order of the Apos- 
tolic Chamber. With an engraved Portrait of Cagliostro. 
London, 1791. 8vo, pp. viii. 194. [Another edition, 
Dublin, 1792. 12mo, pp. ix. 262.] 

Memoires authentiques pour servir a 1'histoire du 
Comte de Cagliostro, S. L. [By Jean-Pierre-Louis de 
Laroche de Luchet.] [Cassel] 1785-8. Paris, 1786. 8vo. 

Saggio storico sopra Cagliostro e sua Moglie (Florenzia 
Feliciani). Cosmopoli, 1790, 8vo. [This is an Italian 
translation of De Luchet's "Memoires authentiques."] 

Essai sur la secte des Illumines. [Par De Luchet.] 
Paris, 1789, 8vo ; Gotha, 1790, 8vo. Troisieme Edition 
augmentee [par Mirabeau], 1792. 8vo. 

1st Cagliostro Chef der Illuminaten ? Gotha, 1790. 8vo. 
[Translation of preceding work.] 

Extraordinarv Popular Delusions. 

ventures of that extraordinary personage from his birth 
till his imprisonment in the* Castle of St. Angelo. 


Memoirs of Extraordinarv Popular Delusions. By 
Charles Mackay. Lond. 1841, 8vo, 3 vols. [Vol. iii. 
contains a notice and portrait of Cagliostro.] 

Ma Correspondance avec M. le Comte de Cagliostro. 
A Milan, aux de'pens de la Societe des Cagliostrien, 1786. 
4 to, pp. 38. [Query written by De Morande?] Also, 
Suite de ma Correspondance, 4tb, pp. 16. 

Lettre du Comte de Mirabeau a .... sur MM. de Ca- 
gliostro et Lavater [avec un appendix, ou eclaircissemens 
sur les theistes de Boheme et la perse'cution qu'ils ont 

e'prouve'e en 1783] Berlin, 1786. 8vo. 

Der Grafen von Mirabeau's Schreiben die Herren von 
Cagliostro und Lavater betrefTend. Berlin, 1786, 8vo. 

Cagliostro demasque a Varsovie, ou relation authen- 
tique de ses operations alchimiques et magiques faites 
dans cette capitale en 1780. Par un temoin oculaire. 
[Comte Moczinski.] [Strasburg] 1786. 12mo. Another 
edit. 1789. 

Cagliostro in Warschau, oder Nachricht und Tagebuch 
iiber dessen magische und alchymische Operationen in 
Warschau im Jahre 1780. [Strassburg or Konigsberg,. 
or both.] 1786. 8vo. [This version is by Justin 
Friedrich Bertuch.] 

Cagliostro in Petersbourg. Von Theodor Mundt. 
Leipzig et Prague, 1858. 12mo. 

Memoire pour la demoiselle le Guay D'Oliva .... 
accusee ; contre M. le Procureur-Gene'ral. Paris, 1786, 
Second Memoire pour la demoiselle Le Guay D'Oliva 

. . . accusee contre M. le Procureur-Ge'neral 

malyse et re'sultat des re'colemens et confrontations. 
} aris, 1786. 4to. 

Proces de Joseph Balsamo, surnomme le Comte de 
Cagliostro, commence devant le tribunal de la Sainte- 
nquisition en decembre 1790 et juge definitivement par 
e Pape le 7 avril 1791; avec des eclaircissements sur la 
ie de Cagliostro et sur les differentes sectes des Francs- 
Marons, Lie'ge, 1791. 12mo. [Translated by N. N. 

Nachricht von des beriichtigen Cagliostro Aufenthalte 
in Mitau im Jahre 1779 und von dessen dortigen ma- 
gischen Operationen. Von Charlotta Elizabeth Konstantia 
von der Recke, geb. Grafinn von Medern. Bert, et Stett. 

1787. 8vo, pp. xxxii. 168. 

Russian translation bv Timaph. Sacharin. Petersburg, 

1788. 8vo. 

Dutch translation by Pieter Bodaert. Amst. 1792. 

Swedish translation. Stockholm, 1793, 8vo. 

Requete pour le sieur Marc-Antoine Retaux de Vil- 
lette, ancien gendarme, accuse contre M. le Procureur- 
Ge'n^ral Paris, 1786. 4to, pp. 19. 

Memoire pour Louis-Rene-Edouard de Rohan, Car- 

4* S. X. JULY 27, 72.] 



dinal .... centre M. le Procureur-Gene'ral Paris, 

1786, 4to, pp. 158. 

Pieces justificatives pour M. le Cardinal de Rohan, ac- 
cuse'. Declarations authentiques seloa la forme anglaise. 
4to, pp. 24. 

Requete introductive an Parlement. ..... Par le 

Cardinal de Rohan. Paris, 1786. 4to, pp. 40. 

Requete au Parlement les Chambres assemblies par le 
Cardinal Rohan Paris, 1786, 4to, pp. 8. 

Requete au Parlement les Chambres assemble'es par le 
Cardinal de Rohan, signifiee a M. le Procureur-General. 
Paris, 1786, 4to, pp. 8. 

Reflexions rapides pour M. le Cardinal de Rohan, sur 
le sommaire de ia Dame de La Motte. Paris, 4to, pp. 24. 

Gius. Balsamo, der beriichtigiste Abenteurer und 
Betruger seines Zeitalters, oder der entlarvte Graf Alex, 
von Cagliostro, etc. Von J. C. von Train. Meiss, 1833, 

Unpartheiische Prufung des zu Rom erschienenen 
kurzen Inbegriffs von dem Leben und den Thaten des 
Joseph Balsamo, des sogenannten Grafen Cagliostro. Von 
Cajetan Tschinck. Wien, 1791. 8vo. 

Liber memorialis de Caleostro, quum esset Robereti. 
s. 1. e. a. [Roveredo, 1778.] 8vo, pp. 31. [This tract is 
included in t. vii. of the Opere italiane e latine di C. Van- 
netti. Venezia, 1826-31. 

Memoria sulla dimora del Signer CagJiostro in Rove- 
redo, Italia, 1789. 8vo. 

Denkmal des Cagliostro ; Beitrag zur Geschichte dieses 
beriihmten Mannes. Bregenz, 1791, 8vo. [Translated 
by Johann Heinrich. Haesi.] 

Story of the Diamond Necklace told in detail for the 

first time By Henry Vizitelly. Lond. 1867. 8vo, 

2 vols. 

This list includes such of the law papers in the 
" Affaire de Collier" as refer to Cagliostro's share 
in that transaction. I should feel grateful for any 
additions to or corrections of this list, and any 
one willing to sell or lend the articles marked 
with an asterisk would confer a favour by com- 
municating with me. WILLIAM E. A. AXON. 

4, Victoria Terrace, Rusholme. 


Among the muniments of one branch of the 
family named below is a half sheet of old foreign 
paper which contains two epitaphs. The first is 
as follows : 

" Here lies the Body of HENRY HOWARD, Lord of the 
Manor of Clun, son of S r Rob* Howard, Knight of the 
Bath ; a younger son of Thomas, Earl of Suffolk, Lord 
High Treasurer. He married Mary, eldest Daughter of 
S r Geo. Blount, Baronet, and died without issue, 26 Nov r , 

Beneath this inscription, the words 
" Piis manibus bene precare." 

Under them, a rough sketch of a shield j Howard 
and Blount. Under all, a Maltese cross. 

The other epitaph is "To the Memory of Wil- 
liam Blount, Esq r , 3 d Son of Sir Geo. Blount of 
Sodington, who died in 1671, aged 21," &c. &c. 

1. There is nothing to show where these epi- 
taphs are to be found ; but I am informed that 
neither of them are in the Blount Chantry at 

Mamble (Worcestershire), in which parish Sod- 
ington is situated. I am very anxious to learn 
whether these epitaphs are still in existence, and 
if they are, where. 

2. I may as well mention that the Sir Robert 
Howard spoken of above is not the auditor of the 
exchequer, and the dramatist, &c. of Charles II.' s 
day; he was" the sixth son of Thomas Howard, 
first Earl of Berkshire. The Sir Robert Howard 
of the epitaph was the fifth son of the first Earl 
of Suffolk. 

In the privately-printed Memorials of the Howard 
Family, by the late Henry Howard of Corby (p. 54) 
there is no intimation that Sir Robert Howard 
was ever married. It was clearly unknown to 

In Sir Eger^on Brydges' edition of Collins (iii. 
154), both wife and family are equally ignored. 

Can any of your readers inform me who was the 
wife of this Sir Robert Howard, and whether he 
had any issue by her, besides the Henry of the 
epitaph ? 

3. Sir Robert Howard, the dramatist, had wives 
" as plenty as blackberries "; but only one is cer- 
tainly known, Lady Honora O'Brien, widow, when 
he married her, of Sir Francis Inglefield. Pro- 
bably she was his second wife. His first is sup- 
posed to have been an actress (the Lady Vane, as 
he was the Sir Positive- Atall of Shadwell's play), 
but I cannot ascertain her name. There is reason 
to believe that he was connected with her before 
marriage. Of his third wife nothing as yet has 
been discovered by me. His fourth was Anna- 
bella (Dives ?), the subsequent wife of the Rev. 
Edmund Martin. 

Any information respecting the first, third, and 
fourth wives is much desired by 

Elford Rectory, Tamworth. 


The city where this celebrated well is found is 
in the lapygian peninsula, being remarkable as 
the scene of the death of Archidamus, king of 
Sparta, son of Agesilaus, who had been invited 
by the Tarentines to assist them against their 
neighbours, the Messapians and Salentines. The 
battle took place on the 3rd of August, B.C. 338, on 
the same day with the more celebrated battle of 
Chseronea. (Plut. Ages., iii. ; Diod. xvi. 63, 88.) 
The well to which I have referred is a curious 
natural phenomenon, and remains precisely as it 
was described by Pliny, who died A.D. 79. (Plin. 
N. H. ii. 106, 4) : 

"In Salentino juxta oppidum Manduriam lacus ad 
margines plenus, neque exhaustis aquis rninuitur neque 
infusis augetur." 

I found it situated in a large circular cavern, 
which is approached by a descent of thirty rough 



[4 th S. X. JULY 27, 72. 

steps. Light is admitted partly from the entrance 
and partly from an aperture in the rock which is 
immediately above the well. The rocky stratum 
in which the well is found is a concretion of sea- 
sand and marine shells, the porous nature of the 
soil allowing the water to percolate freely. The 
water is not now drawn by the inhabitants from 
the ancient well, but from a small reservoir, which 
is kept always full by the constant oozing from 
the sides of the cavern, the water being collected 
into an earthen pipe, and thus conveyed into the 
reservoir. It flows thence into the well, which is 
said, exactly as Pliny describes it, never to show 
any change of level. The well gets gradually 
filled up with small stones, and when I saw it, 
was not above a couple of feet deep. It had, 
however, been once cleaned in the memory of the 
present generation, and was found to be of no 
great depth, with a bottom of very hard composi- 
tion. There must of course be some peculiar 
way in which the water passes off, and how it is 
supplied is equally a mystery. It must ooze 
through the joints of the sides of the well, and it 
is curious that it should at all times, whatever be 
the quantity of rain that falls, only receive as 
much as it can throw off. There is a great want 
of water in this peninsula, and such a well is a 
blessing which we can scarcely appreciate in our 
northern climate. The water was pure, pleasant 
to the taste, in no respect mineral, though not 
particularly cool, as if it had come from some in- 
ternal reservoir exposed to the heat of the external 
air. It is interesting to find that this well still 
continues much in the same state as it was in the 
time of Pliny. It is situated at a spot called 
Sceyno, about half a mile from the modern town, 
which does not occupy the site of the ancient city. 
In former times it must have been of consider- 
able strength. The walls, which can be traced 
nearly in their whole circuit, were composed of 
large rectangular stones, in regular courses above 
each other, without mortar,, and what I never 
observed in any of the ancient cities of Italy, it had 
a double wall with a fosse on the outside, while 
there was a wide passage between these walls. 
As far as I could judge, the outer wall, with 
ditch, had a breadth of twenty- three feet, and the 
inner passage, with the inner wall, of about fifty 
feet. The stones of which they were built are 
soft and have been decomposed, so that the highest 
part that now remains is not above seven feet. At 
a short distance from the city is the chapel of S. 
Pietro Mandurino, and beneath it a small chapel, 
the walls of which are covered with paintings of 
saints of the Greek church, but a good deal ob- 
literated by time and damp. 


lowing advertisement appears in the outer sheet of 
The Times of Saturday, July 13, 1872. After so 
complete a publication, there is, I presume, no- 
thing improper in giving to the advertisement a 
further circulation in "N. & Q." : 

" In re the Will of MRS. MAKGARET THOMAS, late of 
Coedhelen, in the county of Carnarvon, and of Trevor 
Hall, in the county of Denbigh, widow, deceased. Change 
of Name. Iremonger Lloyd. Notice is hereby given, 
that in accordance with directions contained in the above 
will, dated 16th November, 1825, and duly proved, we, 
the undersigned, Reverend Frederick Assheton Lloyd, 
Clerk, M. A., of Llangynog, in the county of Montgomery, 
and Vicar of Bullington with Tufton, in the county of 
Plants ; and Pennant Athelwold Llovd, of Pentrehobin, 
in the county of Flint, and of Lime Grove, in the county 
of Carnarvon, Esquire, have, within the period appointed 
for that purpose by the said Will, respectively ASSUMED, 
and that we shall henceforth respectively continue to 
use the SURNAME of LLOYD only, instead of our former 
surname of Iremonger ; and that,'in accordance with such 
directions, I, the said Frederick Assheton Lloyd, do now 
quarter, and shall henceforth continue to quarter, the 
arms of the Lloyds of Llanhafon with my paternal coat ; 
and I, the said Pennant Athelwold Lloyd, do now quar- 
ter, and shall henceforth continue to quarter the arms of 
Lloyd, of Pentrehobin, with my paternal coat. And no- 
tice is hereby given, that the above-mentioned changes 
in surnames and arms are recorded and evidenced by 
deed, under our respective hands and seals, dated the 10th 
clay of July, 1872, and enrolled in Her Majesty's High 
Court of Chancery. And we desire that we may hence- 
forth be respectively addressed and mentioned by the sur- 
name of Lloyd only, instead of b} r our former surname of 
Iremonger. Dated this llth da}* of July, 1872. 

F. A. L; .YD. 

P. A. LLOYD." 

It cannot be repeated too often that all protests 
against persons changing their names by adver- 
tisement, or indeed in any way, are vain. 

The practice will be found at length, I have no 
doubt, inconvenient if not dangerous to society. 
But it is legal now. 

The taking arms by advertisement is quite 
another thing. I will not waste the space of 
" N. & Q." by going over what I have said about 
it long ago. I adduce this advertisement as the 
latest instance of a practice which has had few 
examples. One does not see, at least I do not see, 
what is to be the ultimate effect of such arrange- 
ments. D. P. 

Stuarts Lodge, Malvern Wells. 

lines occur in an exceedingly rare volume entitled : 

" Le Prince d'Amour, or the Prince of Love, with a 
Collection of several Ingenious Poems and Songs by the 
Wits of the Age. London : Printed for William Leake 
at the Crown in Fleet Street, betwixt' the two Temple 
Gates, 1660," p. 137 : 

" To feed on flesh is gluttony, 

It maketh men fat like swine ; 
But is not he a frugal man 
That on a leaf can dine ? 

4* S. X. JULY 27, 72.] 



" He needs no linnen for to foul 

His fingers' ends to wipe, 
That has his kitchin in a box, . 

And roast meat in a pipe. 
" The cause wherefore few rich men's sons 

Prove disputants in schools, 
Is that their fathers fed on flesh, 

And they begat fat fools. 
" This fulsome feeding cloggs the brain 

And doth the stomach choak. 
But he's a brave spark that can dine 
With one light dish of smoak." 

J. M. 


one of the curious catalogues (xci.) issued by S. 
Calvary & Co., the well-known old booksellers of 
Berlin, I find the following article, which I ven- 
ture to ask you to transfer to your pages for the 
benefit of La Fontaine's next editor.: 

" LA FONTAINE, J. de (1621-1695), Zwei bisher unge- 
druckte Gedichte in der OKIGINAL-HANDSCHRIFT. Diese 
beiden Contes : Le Tonnere und Nabucodonoser nach 
bekannten Erzahlungen des Boccaccio und der Contes de 
la Reine de Navarre gehoren zu den freiesten und zugleich 
elegantesten Dichtungen des beriihmten franzosischen 
Classikers. Wahrscheinlich waren sie bestimmt, in dem 
vierten Buche der Contes (1. Ausgabe: Mons, chez Migeon, 
1674) za erscheinen. Diese Ausgabe ist wahrscheinlich 
von Cornelius Zwoll in Amsterdam gedruckt, in dessen 
Nachlasse sich das hier angebotene Exemplar vorfand 
und bis jetzt unbekannt blieb. Der Anfang beider Ge- 
dichte lautefc : 

II est assez d'Amans contens, 

Mais il est peu de fidelles, 

Cela s'est veu dans tous les terns 

Fort frequemment chez nous, un peu moins chez les 

* * 


Jeune fille est un bien friand morceau 
Quand simple esprit, cache sous fine peau 
Conserve encor la premiere innocence 
D'Eve et d'Adain. Les cas lorsque j'y pense, 
En ce tems-ci me parait fort nouveau. 
6 Blatter mit Goldschnitt." 

W. E. A. A. 


"Oct. 8th, 1717. 

" Sir, I must accompany my public letter with a pri- 
vate one of thanks to you for the extraordinary account 
of a late conference at Madrid which His Majesty perused 
with a great deal of pleasure, as it gives a very natural 
picture of the person engaged in that conversation. I 
fancy he now begins to talk in another tone, or will at 
least ere it be long. I fail not to lay all your letters 
before the King in the most punctual manner, and to do 
you justice whenever occasion offers, being with the 
truest esteem and respect, 

" Sir, 
" Your most faithful and 

" Most obedient humble servant, 

" M. Worsley." 

There is in the above autograph letter, signed, 
which I possess, l( more than meets the eye," and 
enough to make me wish to learn something more 

about it. Addison was at the time Minister of 
State, after Queen Anne's death ; Mr. Worsley was 
evidently an important personage and a clever 
one. Where could I get at this "extraordinary 
account of a late conference at Madrid," and at 
the " picture of the person engaged in that con- 
versation " ? If it is the celebrated Cardinal 
Alberoni, of whom I have a portrait, it would add 
much value and interest to my letter. P. A. L. 

P.S. Who and what was this Mr. Worsley ? In 
"N. & Q." 3 rd S. xii.170, inquiry was made about 
another person of that name, holding office under 
George II., but I do not see that any answer was 
given as to the family. 

CANONIZATION. It may perhaps be worth 
while to note that Mr. Lea, in his History of 
Sacerdotal Celibacy (p. 154), states that St. Ulric 
of Augsburg was "the first subject of papal 
canonization, having been enrolled in the calendar 
by the Council of Rome in 993." ANON. 

BEAK: A MAGISTRATE. Mr. W. H. Black, in 
a note to his Ballad of Squire Tempest, says this 
term was derived from the grandfather of his 
friend Dr. Charles Beke (of Bekesborne House, 
Kent), who was formerly a resident magistrate in 
the Tower Hamlets. Hotten, however, in his 
Slang Dictionary, asks if it is not connected with 
the Italian becco, which means a bird's beak, and 
also a blockhead. Sir John Fielding was called 
the u Blind Beak" in the last century. Beag is 
Anglo-Sax, for a gold necklace an emblem of 
authority. JOHN PIGGOT, JTTN. 

BONIFACE'S " FRANCTA." In Mr. H. C. Lea's 
Historical Sketch of Sacerdotal Celibacy (Phila- 
delphia, 1867), there is a singular misrendering 
of a passage in Boniface's Epistles. One would 
naturally expect such a mistake in an ordinary 
English or American writer, but Mr. Lea's book 
is far from ordinary. It is a work showing not 
only great reading, but considerable knowledge 
of the principles of things. The passage, as it 
stands at the bottom of page 169, runs thus : 

" Perpaucse enim sunt civitates in Longobardia vel in 
Francia aut in Gallia, in qua non sit adultera vel mere- 
trix generis Anglorum, quod scandaluui est et turpitude 
totius ecclesiae." Bonifacii Epist. 105. 

In the text, " in Lombardy, France, or the Rhine 
lands," is made to do duty for the words I have 
italicised. It is impossible to say which of the 
two Latin words the translator meant to repre- 
sent by "France," and which by tf Rhinelands "; 
but, take it which way you will, sense cannot be 
made. St. Boniface had no more idea of France 
as we have known it, monarchical, republican, 
or imperial, than he had of the British empire 
or the Belgian kingdom. What he meant by 
" Francia " was the district then possessed by the 
Franks a territory which had its eastern boun- 
dary beyond the Rhine, and extended westward 



X. JULY 27, 72. 

to the Atlantic ; but whose southern limit, as far 
as we can speak of boundaries in that confused 
time, lay on an irregular line extending from 
Strasburg to the mouth of the Loire. By " Gal- 
lia" Boniface may have meant all ancient Gau' 
not included in the territories of the Lombard or 
the Frank ; but what he almost certainly did 
mean was the district known to us as Burgundy 
and Provence. EDWARD PEACOCK. 

LEODITJM. There is a very interesting article 
on the origin of this word and the history of the 
place in the Saturday .Review, July 6, 1872. 
Those who are interested in the investigation can 
pursue the subject by referring to a remarkable 
dissertation, " De nomine et Scriptura Leodici 
Urbis," in the Poliorceticon of Justus Lipsius, lib. i. 
dialog, ii., edit. Vesalise, torn. iii. p. 467. The 
reader may also consult Janus Anglorum ; or, the 
English Janus, by Selden, who says : 

" That which this author of ours calls Leudemen, the 
interpreters of law, both our common and the canon 
law call Laicks or Laymen. For as Aaos, /. e. people, as 
it is derived by Caesar Germanicus, upon Aratus his Phe- 
nomena after Pindar, airb TOV \aos, i. e. from a stone, 
denotes a hard and promiscuous kind of men, so the word 
Leudes imports the illiterate herd, the multitude, or 
rabble, and all those who are not taken into holy orders. 
Justus Lipsius in his Poliorcetics discourses this'at large, 
when he searches out the origination of Leodium or Liege. 
the chief city of the Eburones in the Netherlands." 
Edit. London, 1683, p. 77. 

This translation of Selden's tracts was made by 
Dr. Adam Littleton under the family name of 
Redman Westcot. R. C. 


GENERAL HOCHE. The commemoration dinner 
dished up by the communist convicts and refugees 
in London on the death-day of their compatriot 
General Hoche, who had been despatched with 
25,000 men to invade Ireland in 1797, reminded 
me of my own juvenile threnody on his demise 
in the same year, forming as it did a portion, how- 
ever slight, of her political poetry. I venture to 
ask its admission into a column of " N. & Q.'' : 
When Lucifer heard that great General Hoche 

Was sent to invade the dominions infernal, 
' Keep off! ' cried the monarch, ' nor dare to approach 

With your Frenchified brags and embraces fraternal. 
* My kingdom is quiet, my throne is secure ; 

But, once were the torch of Democracy lighted, 
The roast they would rule, and turn hell out at door, 

With the high rights of devils too closely "united." 
' Then return to the Sambre that mourns for her chief, 1 

Or at Bantry again with your armaments hector ; 
But, good Master Hoche, know this truth to your grief, 

Old Nick will in hell be the only " Director." 

E. L. S. 

" GANGERY," A SCOTTICISM. When a boy of 
fifteen I paid a visit with a relative at the house 
of an Aberdeenshire farmer, who had had a new 
farm-house built for him by the proprietor, and 

which he was desirous to exhibit to my relative, 
whom and the farmer I accompanied from room to 
room as a mute spectator. One room contained 
an antique oaken cupboard or wardrobe, within 
which hung articles of female attire, the cover of 
which he opened in passing with the remark 
"That's far (where) my wife keeps her gangery." 
The last word he pronounced sharply in Aberdeen- 
shire fashion, and in three syllables like gang-ir-ae. 
The farmer, I remember being told, was a native 
of Morayshire. This word has ever since clung 
to my memory, occasionally cropping^ up as an 
inexplicable sound, till the other day, glancing 
down the pages of Cleasby's Icelandic Dictionary, 
I stumbled upon the explanation, in Icelandic 
gang-verja, gang-ari, a suit of clothes ; so that by 
his wife's gangery must evidently have been in- 
tended her wearing apparel. " When found," &c. 


BRIGG TYPOGRAPHY. In the typographical 
gazetteer, to be found in Power's -Handy-Book 
about Books, the year 1804 is given as the date of 
the earliest known book printed at Brigg. This 
seems, however, to be an error, for I have now 
before me an 8vo tract of eight pages entitled 

" Loose Hints arid Propositions upon the Ancholme 
Drainage. Price Three-pence Stitch'd. Brigg : Printed 
by T. Briggs, Bookseller." 

There is no date on the title, but it is dated 
at the end November llth, 1781." 

Bottesford Manor, Brigg. 

SERRES. Will one of your able correspondents, 
MR. BATES or MR. AXON, who seem to be pecu- 
liarly versed in the bibliography of out-of-the- 
way works, tell me something of the literary his- 
tory of a volume often mysteriously alluded to in 
booksellers' catalogues as The Book. I have always 
supposed it to be a surreptitious reprint of the 
Report of the Delicate Investigation into the 
Conduct of Princess, afterwards Queen Caroline. 
The name of a Captain Ashe is sometimes con- 
nected with it, and sometimes that of the no- 
torious soi-disant Princess of Cumberland. Was 
there ever any literary or other alliance between 
these parties ? 

I have looked into Mr. Jesse's amusing Life and 
Reign of George the Third, but find no mention of 
the subject; though he could, I have no doubt, 
Tom his acquaintance with the secret history of 
those days, throw much light upon it. I wish 
either he or MR. THOMS, who has paid so much 
attention to Mrs. Serres, could be induced to do 
so. My impression is, that that lady did not 

4fcS.X. JULY 27,72.] 



bring her peculiar talents for manufacturing his- 
tory into play until about 1816 or 1817. 

E. F. T. 

[Has not our correspondent confounded two distinct 
works The Book and The Spirit of the Book ?"J 

known that Chinese vases have been found in Egyp- 
tian tombs. I find Keil citing this, amongst other 
facts, to prove the early intercourse between East 
India and Africa : 

"... in the graves of the kings of the eighteenth 
dynasty, who ceased to reign in the year 1476 B.C., there 
have been discovered vases of Chinese porcelain." Keil 
and Delitzsch, Commentary (Kings ix. 26-28), Edinburgh, 

The vases of this nature in the British Museum 
are of mediaeval manufacture, and I have heard 
the same statement regarding all the specimens 
so found. Some of these vases are engraved by 
"Wilkinson ; but the inscriptions are in the grass 
character, usually supposed to have been invented 
about A.D. 100. Will some Egyptologist tell me 
whether they furnish any proof of intercourse 
between Egypt and China, or if they are really 
of comparatively modern date ? Have they been 
found in ancient tombs when first opened, or may 
we look upon them as relics of travellers, mediae- 
val or modern perhaps, but certainly not ancient ? 

N. E. A. A. 


at Coniston, near Ulverston, the congregation 
fpllow the clergyman in repeating the " General 
Thanksgiving" with audible voice. The custom is 
both pleasing and proper, and I shall be glad to 
know whether it prevails elsewhere. M. D. 

original lines in Cowper's first edition of Expostu- 
lation, now replaced by those beginning 
" Hast thou when heaven has clothed thee with dis- 
grace ? " 


St. Marychurch, Torquay. 

[The following is the suppressed passage as printed in 
Mr. Broce's edition (1866) of Cowper's Poetical Works, 

" Hast thou admitted with a blind, fond trust, 
The lie that burn'd thy father's bones to dust, 
That first adjudg'd them heretics, then sent 
Their souls to Heav'n, and curs'd them as they went? 
The lie that ScriptureVrips of its disguise, 
And execrates above all other lies, 
The lie that claps a lock on mercy's plan, 
And gives the key to yon infirm old man, 
Who once insconc'd in apostolic chair 
Is deified, and sits omniscient there ; 
The lie that knows no kindred, owns no friend 
But him that makes its progress his chief end, 
That having spilt much blood, makes that a boast, 
And canonizes him that sheds the most ? 
Away with charity that soothes a lie, 
And thrusts the truth with scorn and anger by, 

Shame on the candour and the gracious smile 
Bestow'd on them that light the martyrs' pile, 
While insolent disdain in frowns express'd 
Attends the tenets that endur'd that test : 
Grant them the rights of men, and while they cease 
To vex the peace of others, grant them peace, 
But trusting bigots whose false zeal has made 
Treach'ry their duty, thou art self-betray 'd."] 

WILLIAM DE BURGH. Can any one inform me 
who was William de Burgh, who was summoned 
to Parliament in the 1st and in the 2nd Edw. III. P 
and if he left any issue ? Was William de Burgh; 
who was one of the justices of the Common Pleas 
temp. Rich. II., a descendant of the former ; and if 
so, in what degree ? In what county in England 
did the elder William hold lands ? 



AN OLD HAND-BILL. Last week I had for- 
warded to me for my Kent collections an old sale 
by auction bill. As it is curious for several rea- 
sons I forward you a copy : 

" To be Sold by Auction, on Tuesday the 14th day of 
October, 1794, by Thomas Brewer, at the Bear Inn, 
Crayford, Kent, 'in Five Lots, Three Fowls and Two 
Ducks, unclaimed tithes. The sale to begin at 1 o'clock. 
Dinner on table at two. Gravesend : Printed by R. 

I beg to ask the readers of "N. & Q." if they 
have seen any handbill at all similar ? It is about 
the size of an 8vo demy. The edges on three sides 
show that the paper was made only double the 
size and then long ways not what the printers 
would describe as a 4to. The contents of the 
articles for sale are strange ; and next, the reason 
for their sale speaks of a long since passed-away 
period. The circumstance of a dinner afterwards 
was strange, for it is only now that dinners are 
provided for those who attend large sales, when 
the localities (mostly lonely farms) are far remote 
from villages or towns. 

The auctioneer was a famous man in his day 
the George Robins of the locality around Dartford. 

The printer was R. Pocock, the historian of 
Gravesend; the- author of Memoirs of the Tufton 
Family ; The Earls ofThanet; the earliest Reading 
made Easy, which he printed two years before 
Rusher at Banbury, &c. &c. Pocock was buried 
in the N. E. angle of Wilmington churchyard. 
No mortuary memorial marks his grave. 

Was the bill intended to reflect upon the tithe 
owner or collector ? ALFRED JOHN DUNKIN. 

44, Bessborough Gardens, Belgravia. 

Exhibition at the Royal Academy there is a pic- 
ture called "A Jacobite's Farewell." It is en- 
graved in the Illustrated London Neivs. A gentle- 
man, about to step into a boat at London Bridge, 
takes off his hat to salute the heads which, to tne 
number of five, stand there upon long poles. Now 
in Cunningham's Handbook of London, 1850, 



[4 S. X. JULY 27, '72. 

p. 297, I find the following passage : " The last 
head exhibited on the Bridge was that of Vennor, 
[Venner] the fifth -monarchy zealot, in the reign 
of Charles the Second." Is this statement cor- 
rect ? JATDEE. 

preserved in the parish church of Easingwold a 
curious, old-fashioned, black-painted coffin j which, 
according to the tradition of the place, was for- 
merly used for the conveying of the bodies of the 
departed to the churchyard for interment. The 
legendary lore of the neighbourhood informs us 
that, in case of death, the body was conveyed in 
this coffin to the grave side, where it was care- 
fully taken out and laid in the grave without any 
other covering than a sheet or blanket. The grave 
was then filled up, and the coffin was replaced in 
a dark room beneath the tower of the church. 

Whether such a custom prevailed or not, we 
have no historical record of ancient date. In 
Gill's Vallis JEboracensis, or tlie History and Anti- 
quities of Easingwold and the Neighbourhood, allu- 
sion is made to the reported custom, but no sub- 
stantial evidence is adduced. Of the existence of 
the coffin there can be no doubt, for the writer 
has seen it many times, and knows it for a fact 
that it is still preserved and shown to visitors. 

Query : Are there any similar cases on record, 
or did such kind of interment ever exist ? Perhaps 
seme of the readers of U N: & Q." can answer the 
question. T. E. G. 



W. (10, Fleet Street) kindly inform me whence 
this quotation is taken? C. S. TEKRAM. 

Windlesham, Surrey. 

MASTIFF. What is the true derivation of the 
word mastiff'? I have consulted many diction- 
aries without finding a satisfactory explanation. 
Hobert de Brunne writes 

" Als grehound or mast if." 

In the North-west of England the animal is still 
called "masty." GEORGE H. JESSE. 

Holly Bank/Henbury, Macclesfield. 

[Wedgwood (Dictionary of English Etymology) states 
tli at "The French must once have had the form mastif, 
from whence the English name is taken, as well as 
the old masty, which is our usual way of rendering the 
French adjectival termination if, as in jolly from the old 
jolif; resty from restif. The meaning seems to be a large 

POEM IN BLACK LETTER. Will any one con- 
versant with black-letter literature inform me to 
what volume a leaf is likely to have belonged, 
which I find used by the binder at the end of a 
copy of the Book of Homilies, printed by Richard 
Grafton in 1549. On the recto of a quarto leaf, 
which bears the signature "B. iij.," is the conclu- 
sion of a poem in seven-line stanzas on the vice of 

Ingratitude, and then commences a poem in 
eight-line stanzas on the following Latin text or 
heading : 

" Consulo quisquis eris : qui pacis sidera queris 
Consonus esto lupis : cu quibus esse cupis." 

" I counsell what so euer thou be 
Of polycye I foresyght and prudence 
Yf thou wylte lyue in peas and duyte 
Conforme thyselfe to thynke on this sentence 
Where so euer thou holde resydence 
Amonge wolves | be wolwyffhe of courage. B- iij. 
Lyon with lyons | a lambe for Innocence 
Lyke the audyence [ so vtter thy language." 

On second page three more stanzas and a half. 
The second: 

" With hoh r men speke of holynesse 
And with a glotton j be delycate of thy fare 
With dronken men | do surfettes by excesse 
And amonge wasters no spendynge that thou spare 
With woodcockes | lerne for to dare 
And sharpe thy knyfe | with pyllers for pyllage 
Lyke the market | so preyse thy chaffare 
And lyke the audyence so vttef thy language." 

Should this poem prove to be unknown, I shall 
be happy to communicate what further I have of 
it if required. J. G. N. 

OFFA : DOOMSDAY. 1. What is the present 
equivalent for 100/. in the time of Offa? This 
sum is named as the amount of the property at 
Luton given by Offa to the monastery of St. 

2. What do such figures as the following re- 
present in Doomsday Book : 

u y ti 

Arl 9t xx7n 

7 x LVII 

7 x 

J. W. 

"REJECTED ADDRESSES." Who are represented 
by " S. T. P.," T. II.," * and " Momus Medlar " ? 

Cheltenham Library. 

got lately, at a stationer's shop in a back street in 
Belfast, a small book of 108 pages, in paper cover, 
printed at Dublin, and entitled The History of the 
Seven Wise Masters and Mistresses of Rome, con- 
taining many ingenious and entertaining stories, 
wherein the treachery of evil counsellors is dis- 
covered, innocency cleared, and the wisdom of the 
seven wise masters and mistresses displayed. 
This book would appear to have been very popular, 
as the title-page before me bears u Thirty-ninth 
edition " on it. The book is made up of a number 
of tales of a most romantic and improbable nature, 
strung together on a thread of romance, and re- 

[* Theodore Hook ?] 

4 th S. X. JULY 27, .72.] 



sembling slightly The Thousand and One Nights, 
or Boccacio's Decameron more like the latter, 
from the European and medieval character of the 
stories. Is the author of this book known ? when 
and where was it written ? and in what form did it 
first appear? From peculiarities in the language, 
comprising foreign idioms and quaintness of ex- 
pression, I suspect that the copy I have is an old 
translation from the French or Italian. 


[The romance of TJie Seven Wyse Maysters of Rome is 
one of the most remarkable of the medieval collections of 
stories, and belongs to the same class as the celebrated 
Thousand and One Nights of the Arabians, in which one 
simple story is employed as a means of stringing together 
a multitude of subsidiary tales. An abstract of the ro- 
mance, "so truly delectable, till lately, to everj^ school- 
boy," from two ancient manuscripts, will be found in the 
third volume of Ellis's Specimens of Early English Me- 
trical Romances. For a bibliographical account of this 
popular work, consult Li Romans de Dohpathos, public' 
pour la premiere fois en entier d'apres les deux manuscrits 
de la Bibliotheque Impe'riale, par MM. Charles Brunet et 
Anatole de Montaiglan. Paris, 1856, 18mo; Brunet, 
Manuel, edit. 1864, v. 294-298 ; and Thomas Wright's 
Introduction to The Seven Sages, in English Verse. 
Percy Society, No. 64, 1845. The Seven Wise Mistresses 
is a very paltry imitation of this work.] . 

{Recollections of Past Life, p. 254) tells us that 
Lord Nugent, " the greatest Shakspearian scholar 
of his day," said no passage was to be found in 
Shakspeare "commending, directly or indirectly, 
the moral qualities of the dog." A bet of a guinea 
was made, which Sir Henry, after a year's in- 
quiry, paid. Subsequently, he says, at the Bishop 
of Exeter's dinner-table, Croker suggested a pas- 
sage, which however was " an ingenious sugges- 
tion only, and would not have won me my wager." 
I have, to use a Scotch expression, " searched and 
better searched," only to conclude that Lord Nu- 
gent was right ; but it would be satisfactory to a 
laudable, or at least a pardonable curiosity, to 
know the passage indicated by Croker. Should 
"N. & Q." fail herein, may I respectfully ask Sir 
H. Holland Deus ex machind to oblige 

W. T. M. 

Shinfield Grove. 

OLD SONGS. Can any correspondent supply 
the songs in which the following lines occur, or 
refer to where such may be found ? 

I cannot give the several titles; but if my 
memory serves me rightly, the snatches here quoted 
constitute the chorus (or a portion of the chorus) 
of each song, number 6 excepted : 

1. " I'm the child for mirth and glee, 

Though my name's Variety," &c. 

2. " For there's no rebel Frenchman," &c. 

3. "Butter and cheese, and all." 

4. And she bang'd him with a fireshovel round the 

room at night." 

5. " Heigho Turpin was a hero," &c. 

" Where's the difference to be'setn, 
'Twixt a beggar and a queen ? 
The reason I will tell you why. 
A queen can't swagger, 
Nor get drunk like a beggar, 
Nor be half so happv as I. 
With," & c . 

This latter song was very popular in Snettisham, 
co. Norfolk, upwards of fifty years ago; it being 
the favourite song of a retired actor, well known 
in that locality at that period, and usually given 
" in character." J. PERRY. 

Waltham Abbey. 

STAFFORD FAMILY. Can any of your readers 
state if there are any historical records showing 
who and to what branch of the Stafford family 
the following Stafford belonged, who is thus 
noticed in an old family MS. ? 

" He was possessed of considerable property in lands 
& money, a native of Wales (?), and by religious pro- 
fession a high Churchman (all the Staffords were Roman 
Catholic) in the reign of King Charles I. ; and he, closely 
adhering unto the King's side, when the other party got 
the government, not thinking himself and family safe on 
his own estate, took his wife & young family into Ire- 
land in company with some bishops, who had adhered 
unto their principles. He staid in Ireland till King 
Charles II. came to the throne ; he then looked towards 
government for the recovery of his lands, &c., but being 
unwilling to stir without the said bishops, he waited for 
them, in which time a court of claims had been held, and 
before he got to England some persons had wrongfully 
claimed his property. Thus he lost his estate. When 
he got to court in order to claim it, one of the judges when 
he heard his case said, shaking his head, ' Young man ! 
you have slept too long on your elbows ; your estate has 
been claimed, and is given away.' .... He then considered 
if he engaged in law to regain it he might lose all he had, 
therefore \concluded to return to Ireland, where he had 
settled and prudently left his family." 

Did not the government keep a record of all 
who lost estates in the royal cause ? If so, where 
is such record to be found ? ARMIGER. 

SUN-DIALS. There are seven or eight sun-dials 
upon different parts of Leighton Buzzard church. 
How is ^this to be accounted for ? J. W. 

COUNTESS OF THANET. I have a miniature by 
Isaac Oliver of Margaret Sackville, Countess of 
Thanet (dr. 1639), at the age of twenty-five. 
Wanted, any particulars respecting her ? 


[Lady Margaret Sackville was the daughter and co- 
heir of Richard Sackville, third Earl of Dorset. She was 
born at Dorset House on July 2, 1614; and on April 21, 
1629, married to John Tufton, second Earl of Thanet. 
The countess died on August 14, 1676, aged sixty-two 
years. ] 



[4> S. X. JULY 27, 72. 


(4 th S. ix. 505.) 

It may help P. A. L. in identifying the hand- 
writing of the "political letter" before him, to 
know that Lord Buckhurst wrote a bold dashing 
hand, as unlike as possible to Sir Thomas Gres- 

Profiting by the hint that " a letter wholly in 
Gresham's handwriting would be of sufficient 
value," I take this opportunity of mentioning 
that among the Marquis of Bath's papers at Long- 
leat there are four original letters of Gresham's, 
and one or two of Lord Buckhurst's. The mar- 
quis's ancestor, Sir John Thynne, the builder of 
Longleat House, married Christiana, daughter of 
Sir Richard, and sister by the half-blood, of Sir 
Thomas, Gresham. 

One of the Gresham letters is addressed to 
Queen Elizabeth, and is rather in the style of an 
official document, containing his advice to the 
Crown, how to improve its revenue by abolishing 
the privileges of the Still-yard Company of 
Foreign Merchants, and by favouring English 
merchants. This document may be found (taken 
apparently from some old transcript) in Burgon's 
Life and Times of Sir Thomas Gresham, vol. i. 
Appendix, p. 485. As there printed, it agrees very 
closely with the one at Longleat. I can only 
see two or three slight verbal differences, one of 
which is that the word " fordlle " ought to be 
"fordele" (meaning "advantage.") There is 
therefore no occasion to print that document again : 
but with Lord Bath's kind permission, I send 
copies of the others, because I do not see them in 
Mr. Burgon's work, and feel almost sure that they 
must be new to the public. Sir Thomas Gresham, 
the founder of the Royal Exchange, London, was 
evidently much stronger in national finance than 
in the spelling of his mother tongue. And I can- 
not say much for the orthography of Thomas 
Sackville, Lord Buckhurst. From the first letter 
it will be seen that one of Gresham's various 
commissions abroad was to buy coach-horses and 
silk stockings for Queen Elizabeth. The former 
he obtained and duly despatched. The other 
interesting articles he was unable to procure, even 
in the great city of Antwerp, and so was obliged 
to send for them all the way into Spain ! 

J. E. JACKSON, Hon. Canon of Bristol. 

Leigh Delamere, Chippenham. 

(18 Aug. 1560. From Antwerp.') 

" Right honnorable and my very Singgeular good 
lorde Aftyr my most humble Comendacions It maye 
licke you to understand that as the xvij th dave I sent 
the Quenes Mat ie kuicb [coach'] horsses from 'hens w th 
one of my own servaunts to Donkirk to be conveyed safely 

unto you ; wyche -was the best and the seurest wave 
considering the horsses fote ys -well & yn good licking. 
As lyckwysse I have maid dew serche for sylke howsse 
[hose] for the Quenes Ma tie but here ys nowen to be 
gotten. Therfor I have sent her highnes messeur [ mea- 
sure'] into Spayne and therby to make xx tie payre ac- 
cording toherMaty'comandement in that behalfe. Other 
I have not to molest yo r Lordeshipe wythe all but that It 
may pleasse you to have in re-membrans yo r Lordeshipe 
brother and myfrynde Mr. Appleyard for the pourchasing 
of the Lordshipe of Wynddame* for the stay of his 
Lyving and for the better servyce of the Quene's Matie 
In thosse partes As lyckwysse It maye pleasse you to 
be good lorde and M r to yo r ' servants Will m Hogan and 
my cossyn Marbery and to my cowssynne Ellis his 
j brother, the rather at this my humble sewte And this 
| Resting at yo r lordshipe's Comandement wherin I can 
j doo you anny servyse or pleassnre I comyt you to God 
whoe presserve you with increas of honnor. From And- 
! warpe the xviij th of August A 1560. 

"At yo r Lordships Commandement, 

"To the Right honnorable 
and my very Singgewlar 
good lorde, the lorde Robert 
Duddely M r of th orsses." 

\ Seal : a small oval, a grasshopper, and T. G. Motto f 
! " Fortun AmyT~\ 
2. Tlit same to the same. (17 December, 1560. From 


" Right honnorable and my very singgeular good 
: lorde After my most humble Comendacions to yo r gode 
lordship It may licke you to understand that I have 
resevid yo r lordshipe's letter by yo v servant John Benys- 
sone whome I shall fornysheVyth the creadyt of iij or 
iiij cli according to yo r wrytting. " As lyckewysse I shall 
hellpe him w th as moche secreassie as I can in bying and 
transporttinge of all yo r thinges wythe anny other ser- 
vyce or pleassure I can doo for you dewringe lyffe. Allso^ 
it may lycke you to understood that here ys no nother 
comunycacions, but that the Emperor and Frenche Kinge 
shold be departtid wherby itt ys thought it wold breade 
moche quyettnes thorowe owght all Cristendome, by the 
Reason that the(y) Juge that Maxemallian shalbe Em- 
peror whome ys'a Protesttayer for his lyffe. As lycke 
wysse iff' the Frenche kinge be dead the(y) have no more 
tittell to Schetteland wyche woll be a occassione to kepe 
us in quyettnes As for the Kinge of Spayen It ys thought 
that his handes 3*8 fullanoffe to ressyst the Turcke, and 
that he will notte nowe be so ardent in religious matters 
as yt was thowght here of latte he wolde bey. As lyck- 
wysse the Kinge Phillipe ys of latte enteryd into great 
Jellossye of the greate Amvtte that ys growen between 
the Pope & the Ducke of Floryns, ferfnge that the Ducke 
of Floryns shuld by this maynes growe to great for hym 
in Itallye. The iiij m Spaynnyardes solldyers that were 
shipped for Spayen be dischargyd ageyen and dothe re- 

* Wyndham, county Norfolk. This is the John Apple- 
yard for whom, upon the death of Amye (Robsarf) his 
wife, Lord Robert Dudley sent to attend'the inquest held 
upon Amye's death. " I have sent for my brother Ap- 
pleyarde, because he is her brother." (See the late Mr. 
Pettigrew's Inquiry concerning the Death of Amy JRob- 
sart, p. 28.) The connexion is best shown in tabular 

1st Roger Appleyard = Elizabeth Scot = 2nd husband, Sir 

I John Robsart. 

Amye Robsart = Lord 
Robert Dudlev. 

John Appleyard. 

4* S. X. JULY 27, 72.] 



mayne here in havens & townes till forther the Kinge of 
Spayen pleassure be knowen. Lyckewysse the Inques- 
sissfon of the Order of Spayen ys proclamyd att Lovagen 
And yt ys sayd here that yt shalbe forthe wythe pro- 
clamyd in all other hys Domynyons here, wyche is 
nothing lickycl. The Quenes creaditte dothe ryther aug- 
ment then dymynyshe And so I trust to keppe itt yffe 
my powre and sympell devysse maye be creadytted and 
tacke plasse from tyme to tyme. Lycke wysse itt maye 
pleasse yo r lordshipe to Remember the present of geld- 
inges & grehoundes to the Langgrave to be sent by the 
Quenes Ma tie wherein her highnes shuld doo very hon- 
norable consideringe all thynges. Other I have not to 
molest you with all but I shall most humblie dessyre 
yo r lordship to be good lorde to M r Robert Hugan In 
the optayninge of hym the Quene's Maties pensione 
And the rayther at my humble sewtte for I wyll Inseure 
you he haythe Right well disservyd itt. As knowethe 
the lorde whoe preserve you r Lordshipe withe Increas of 

" From Andwarpe they xvi th Daie of December A 

" At yo r lordeshipes Comandement, 


" At the sealling hereof the letters of Germanny be 
come, but the(y) macke no menssione of the Emperor's 
deathe, wyche is now moche dowghtted. As allso I have 
secreat Intelegens that the Kinge of Spayen mynde ys al- 
teryd for the iiij M Spanyardes that shuld Remayne here, 
for' that now he hayth contremaundyd agayen to shipe 
them for Spayen wythe all the expedyc} T on that maye be. 
Wisshing the(y) were departed for that ther ys "great 
accownt maid of them the(y) be so expart solldyers. 

" To the Right honnorable and my very singgewlar 

good Lorde the lorde Robert Duddeley M r of the 



OF LEICESTER. (29 April, 1572.) 
" Right honnorable and my very Singgeular good Lord. 
Aftyr my most humble comendacions | where as I have 
desfryd M r Horssey to Informe you that the Quen's Ma tie 
haythe geve me to'understond that she haythe corny tted 
the removing of my Ladye Mary Gre [ Grey~\ to y r good 
Lo. and to my lord of Bowrgieye, and that I shulld 
speacke no more unto her but unto your lordships and her 
highenes haithe comandyd me bothe to chide (?) withe 
you and to thinke (?) unekindenes In you yfF that you 
doo not dispache me of her owght of handes. And know- 
ing how carefull bothe you and my lorde of Bowrleye 
haithe bynne for the Ryddens of her so now I trust you 
will tacke pressaunt (?) order for the same wyche wold 
be no small comfort and quyeatnes to my poure wife & 
me whomme as you know" haythe bynne all most a 
pryssoner yn her owen howsse for this thre yeres. 
Other I have not to moleast yo r Lordeshipe wythe all 
but yfF yo r Lo. and my Lorde of Bowrgieye haithe not 
discharged my frynd M r Stingo* (?) I most humblie 
beseche you as to see itt donne for that itt doth not a 
little towche my Creadyt bothe wythe the Mayor and 
Alldermen as allso M r Stringa? (?) | for that they doo 
seeke to displaisse hym contrary to all verrytie right and 
Justyce. Lickewysse I shall most humbly beseche you 
for my sacke as to staye that M r Sargeaunt Mauewood be 
no Juge and that he maye be one of the Q. Maties sar- 
geaunts, wherin yo r Lo. shall resceve moche honnor In 
the doing of itt for his wysdome and lernynge And be- 
syde that my good lorde I doo know and asseure you he 
d'othe honner you above all they men In the Realme 
wherein he maye doo you any servyse for that he ys both 
onneast and favthfull And as I have bynne all weves 

his meynnes to yoMordshipe to exstend y r goodnes unto 
hym so now I shall yeast ones most humblie beseche 
you to see this donne and iff itt be possible wyche I shall 
except all kind of wayes as donne to my selffe wherin I 
have desiryd Mr. Horssey to put you in remembrans 
therof In my abseans As khoweth the" Lorde who preserve 
your Lo. wythe increas of honnor. From Gresham 
Howsse this xxixth of Aprill A 1572. 

"At yo r Lordeshipes Comandement 

" During Lyffe 

(Postscript.) "As I am right glad that yo r booke ys 
under the great seayle so I doobill thanke yo. Lo. for the 
ix 11 that you have put in to yo r booke for me wyche 
shall not be forgotten of my parte wherin I may anny 
| kind of wave doo you sarvyce having apoyntted M r 
Armger to w'ayte upon you for the note for the drawing 
of the booke. 

" To the right honorable, and my verry 
Singgeular good lorde Th erle of 
Leasiter of the Q Ma tie prevey 

(Seal: same as above.) 

EARL OF LEICESTER (26 August, 1588. From Buck- 

" My veary good Lord j Though I know you wilbe 
very hard of belefe in the opinion of my skill in hunting 
yet" I hope your lo. will not reafuse to geve credit unto 
profe by Demonstracion, for that manner of profe was 
never yet reapeld (repelled) by any | And therfore having 
striken a stag w l mine own hand, although I wot well 
your lo. may comaund mainy hundreds, I am bold yet to- 
present him to your good Lo. as a pore token of my 
skillfull Cunning" and if your lo. shold make dout in 
that sort to accept him, yet I trust you will pleas to re- 
ceave him as faithfull testimony of my good will unto 
you | and so I besech your lo. to do, for even such he is 
sent unto you | I wish to your good Lo. increase of all 
honour and happines, even to your own noble hartes 
deasier | And so do recomend your lo. to the protection, 
of the Almighty, from buckhurst this 26 of August 

" Your Lo. most assured 
" to commaund 



" The right honorable 
my good Lord the 
Earle of Leicester." 

(4 th S. ix. 180, 240, 306, 374, 409, 511.) 

My query as to the origin of this phrase and its 
first appearance in our language has not yet been 
answered. It appears from the authorities given 
that Coke considered it an old Saxon word, but 
why I cannot comprehend. As I anticipated, it 
was used as early as the times of Britton, Brae- 
ton, and Littleton, and yet Cowell thinks that it 
was imported from the Low Countries. 

In "N. & Q." 1 st S. ii. 234, it says "Land 
could be devised by will before conquest, but not 
after (except in rare cases, and by a legal fiction) 
until temp. Hen. VIII." How is all this ex- 
plained ? I will put the question " without pre- 



[4 g. x. JULY 27, '72. 

judice as aforesaid," as to whether it is not most 
probable that the custom of lumping realty and. 
personalty, and in some cases both together, for 
equitable distribution by demise did not exist in 
Anglo-Saxon times : that after the Conquest it 
was continued as to personalty only, and the word 
" hotchpot " was applied to it when our law lan- 
guage was the French ; and that it was resumed 
and perpetuated as to realty at the time of Henry 

This, I think, will appear by reference to the 
Anglo-Saxon laws, to which I have not access 
here. My query is a query and not a quibble, 
and like others that I have made and may here- 
after make viz. for special and most interesting 
purposes. C. CHATTOCK. 

Castle Bromwich. 

The following extracts from an old note-book, 
if not too late, may prove useful to MR. CHAT- 

" Such patching maketh Littleton's hotchpot of our 
tongue, and, in effect, brings the same rather to a Babel- 
lish confusion than any one entire language." Camden's 

"A mixture of many disagreeing colours is ever un- 
pleasant to the eye, and" a mixture or hotchpotch of many 
tastes is unpleasant to the taste." Bacon's Natural His- 

" Nor limbs, nor bones, nor carcass would remain ; 
But a mash'd heap, a hotchpotch of the slain." 

Dryd. Jv. 

" Codicil. The Papists can have no claim to Silesia. 

" Quidnunc. Can't they ? 

" Codicil. No, they can set up no claim. If the Queen 
on her marriage had put all her lands into hotchpot, then 
indeed .... and it seemeth, saith Littleton, that this 
word hotchpot is in English a pudding," &c. Murphy's 
Upholsterer; or, What News, p. 20, 3rd edit. MDCCLXIX. 


19, Ampthill Square. 

Assuming the primary meaning to be a medley 
stew, the legal application is obvious. What is 
wanted is an explanation of the origin of the term 
in its culinary sense. I have seen none so simple 
and direct as that which is suggested by the fol- 
lowing paragraph, quoted in The Atlienaum of 
April 13, 1872, from Cummerland Talk : 

"Near to each end of the table was placed a large hot- 
pot, which is a dish consisting of beef or mutton, cut into 
pieces, and put into a large dish along with potatoes, 
onions, pepper, salt, &c., and then baked in the oven, and 
is called in Cumberland a 'taty-pot.'" 

Whether "hot-pot " is a Cumberland term, or 
a term which the author had met with elsewhere, 
or one which he had coined himself, does not, in 
the above sentence, clearly appear ; but as a sug- 
gestion of etymology, it is equally good in either 
case. It is so natural a word that one may be 

sure it has been in common use, and if so, the 

transition would be easy to " hotch-pot " and 
" hodge-podge." G. F. B. 


(4 th S. ix. 486 5 x. 12.) 

If M. H. R. had examined the matter a little 
more carefully, he would have found that the 
" facts " as regarded his two relatives were in full 
accordance with " the tontine theory, supposed to 
be honestly carried out"; and that, consequently, 
the insinuation with which he concludes his note 
is altogether unwarranted. In the first place he 
has made the number of subscribers only one 
thousand, instead of ten thousand. The correction 
of this error at once reduces the amount of interest 
payable to each to one-tenth part of the magnifi- 
cent sum which he imagines they ought to have 
received. Secondly, we learn from the " Carlisle 
Tables " that, out of ten thousand- persons aged 
seventeen (the age of his younger relative at en- 
tering), there were four thousand and sixty sur- 
vivors after the lapse of fifty-two years. The other, 
he tells us, was " about " twenty ; and according to 
the same tables the number Of survivors out of 
ten thousand persons, starting at that age, would 
at the end of the same period be three thousand 
five hundred and thirty ; consequently, in the one 
case the share payable to each in her fifty-second 

OA ()f\r) 

year of membership would be ^ 

30 000 
and in the other "qHofT^ = 8?. 10s. Qcl. : so that, 

assuming, as we ought, a mean age between these 
two, we have as the amount payable to each at 
the end of fifty- two years a sum not less than 
71. Is. 9d, and not more than 8/. 10s. Oe?.; in other 
words, just what M. H. R. tells us they actually 
did receive, viz. " some 71. or 8/." I need scarcely 
trouble your readers with any calculations as to 
the case of the elder, who lived " about " ten 
years longer, and whose last year's income from 
the tontine M. H. R. " believes" was not more 
than 141. ; but it will easily be found, from the 
same tables, that she was probably in her last 
year entitled to " about " 18/. M. H. R. says that 
any actuary can calculate how many persons will 
have died during the periods referred to ; but he 
seems to have quite forgotten the more important 
question, viz. : How many will survive ? F. N. 

P.S. The above remarks are based on the only 
available data as to ages, viz. those furnished by 
M. H. R. I strongly suspect, however, that the 
majority of members of the tontine were under 
the age of seventeen on entering, and in that case 
the number of survivors at the end of a given 
number of years would be greater, and the amount 
payable to each would consequently be less. 

. X. JULY 27, '72.] 


In the Gentleman's Magazine for January, 1791, 
-will be found a paper, by Dr. Samuel Pegge 
(signed "Paul Gemsege, Jun."), on the " Origin 
of Tontines." YLLUT. 

(4 th S. x. 27.) 

The cutting from The Standard with the above 
heading is an example of the proverb that a story 
never loses in the telling. It has gone the round 
of the papers, having, if I do not mistake, first 
appeared in The Bookseller of June 1. It ap- 
parently takes its origin from' an article in a recent 
number of CasselVs Magazine. As I was the 
writer of the article, and as it is strangely misre- 
presented in The Standard note, I must ask your 
leave to correct some statements made in it. It 
was not worth while to do this while the para- 
graph remained in a vagrant condition in our 
ephemeral literature, but as it now aspires to a 
permanent home in the columns of " N. & Q." I 
cannot remain silent. 

The true story of Messrs. Cassell's " raking over 
their title-deeds " is simply this, that some two or 
three years ago I was asked by the editor of the 
magazine for an explanation of the name " La 
Belle Sauvage." I gave it to him in a short paper, 
in which I named as my authority a copy of an 
entry read before the Society of Antiquaries by 
Mr. Lysons, and published in the Archceologia in 
1815. For some reason my essay, although in 
print, never appeared in the magazine until last 
month, when Messrs. Cassell, "raking over," not 
their " title-deeds " but their old proofs, came upon 
it, and published it without my knowledge, sub- 
sequently sending me a cheque for the copyright. 
I have thus nothing to complain of except the 
errors in The Bookseller and Standard paragraph, 
and only trouble you with this letter to point out 
the true source of the story, and to name more 
distinctly the paper of Mr.. Lysons, which may be 
found in Archceologia, xviii. 197, 198. 

I may take this opportunity of making another 
personal statement. A Christmas carol, which 
appeared in The Guardian (Dec. 27, 1871), and 
which was afterwards quoted at some length in 
your columns, was compiled by me from several 
ancient sources, including the carol in Sandys 
" Joseph was an old Man." It will be understood 
by those who are acquainted with Mr. Sandys' 
volume, that the poem as Jie gives it is not ex- 
actly suited to a modern publication; and in 
taking liberties with it I had one or two other 
versions, and the representations on old tapestry 
and illuminations, and in sixteenth century etch- 
ings to guide me. I should certainly have avoided 
publicity for my efforts at adaptation if I had 
known how much controversy would come of 
them. I can now only make the amend of ac- 

knowledging their paternity; and I beg you to 
forgive what seems to be a merely personal expla- 
nation, and therefore of no importance to any one 



(4 th S. ix. 504; x. 13.) 

COL. CHESTER has satisfactorily proved that 
Lord Braybrooke's note was founded on error, but 
in doing so has. himself committed a curious 
double blunder. He states that Pepys must have 
made a special "pilgrimage into the City" to get 
to the New Exchange ; and that the funeral of 
Cowley must have taken place " almost before his 
face." It is plain from this he imagines that the 
" New Exchange " was what we call the Royal 
Exchange, and that the famous old diarist resided 
in the neighbourhood of Whitehall ; whereas in 
fact the house of Pepys was in Seething Lane in 
the very heart of the City, and the New Exchange 
was at the western end of the Strand in close 
proximity to the Court. As COL. CHESTER is 
prosecuting researches regarding the deaths and 
burials of our poets, he may perhaps be able to 
clear ^ away the mystery about the interment of 
Massinger. In the Biographia Dramcttica, vol. i. 
p. 784, we are told that the " entry of his burial 
in St. Saviour's register is as follows ": 

" March the 20 th , 1639-40, buried Philip Massinger a 

While Mr. Collier, in his Memoirs of the Principal 
Actors, &c. p. xiii. states : 

" It appears from the monthly accounts at St. Saviour's, 
that instead of having been buried on 20th March, 1639- 
40, as Gifford states, Massinger's funeral took place on 
the 18th March, 1638-39." 

The entry is precisely as follows : 
"1638. March 18. Philip Masenger, strang r , in the 
Church ____ 2 li." 

Antony a Wood gives yet another version. At 
vol. i. p. 447 he tells us that the register of St. 
Mary's tl saith that Massinger was buried in one 
of the four yards belonging to that church," and 
again at p. 536 of the same volume : 

" His body, being accompanied by Comedians, was 
buried about the middle of that churchyard, belonging to 
S. Saviour's church there, commonly called the Bull-head 
Churchyard, that is, in that which jbyns to the Bull-head 
Tavern (for there are in all four yards belonging to that 
church), on the 18 day of March in sixteen hundred 
thirty and nine." 

And in the margin he inserts " 1639-40." The 
accepted interpretation of the word " stranger" is 
" non-parishioner " ; but how can this be if Wood 
and Langbaine are right in asserting that Mas- 
singer died "in his house on the Bank-side" ? 




[4 th S. X. JULY 27, 72. 

EARLS OF KELLIE. In the article relative to 
the Earls of Kellie (4 th S. ix. 501), there is an 
error requiring correction. The lady mentioned 
as the 1 elder sister of the last Earl of Mar and 
Kelly was Lady Jane Janetta, his lordship's 
youngest sister, who married Edward Wilmot, 
Esq., by whom she has issue ; whereas the Lady 
Frances Jemima, who died in 1842. was the eldest 
sister, and married William James Goodeve, Esq., 
by whom she had four daughters and one son, 
John Francis Goodeve Erskine, Earl of Mar and 
Baron Garioch. J. M. 

CHRISTIAN NAMES (4 th S. ix. 423, 510 ; x. 14.) 
The name Meriel is an eminent one in my family, 
and my eldest daughter is so named. In our old 
letters it is spelt Muriel, Meriel, Maryell j and I 
believe it to be merely a derivative of Mary. Some 
years ago a chemist lived at Brighton called 

Died in 1861 (I have no neaier- date), John 
Murray, of Sark Bar Hotel, Gretna Green, in his 
sixty-third year. John Murray succeeded the 
" original blacksmith " on that worthy's death, j 
and carried on a thriving business for a many 
years, until, to legalise the ceremony, a residence 
in the locality became necessary, when the num- | 
bers of those who sought his kind services became 
fewer. John Murray kept registers of all mar- 
riages performed by him. 

In a recent trial anent a will, at Liverpool, | 
some curious facts concerning Gretna Green mar- 
riages was elicited. The plaintiff, Robert Ker, 
had been twice married at Gretna: to his first 
wife in 1850, to his second in 1853. The first 
ceremony was at a beerhouse in Springfield, and 
the second "at William Blythe's alehouse. | 
Thomas Blythe performed the ceremony, his wife | 
being present." Plaintiff described the ceremony ' 
at the alehouse : 

" I went in and had some conversation, and asked him ! 
(Thomas Blythe) to do this little job. He said he would, 
and he asked me if I was willing to take this ladv as my 
wife, and I said yes. Then he asked her if she was wil- 
ling to take me for her husband, and she said she was ; 
and I got hold of her hand and put the ring on, and we 
were declared as man and wife, and that was how we 
were married. I think that Mrs. Blythe wrote something 
and gave it to my wife, and she kept it/' 

A book containing the entries of the marriages 
performed by the Blythes was produced in the 
evidence. . THOS. RATCLIFFE. 

x. 9.) Not even his Nelsonian death reconciles 
me to my ancestor Richard Deane's regicidal war- 
ranty of his sovereign's murder. Had he con- 
spired to deal with Cromwell as Brutus dealt 
with Caesar, his memory would have stood as 
high in my regard. I turn, however, from his 
Italicized mark in MR. THOMS' black list to the 

name of my other ancestor, John Lenthall ; which 
like that of fifty-six other diluted democrats, 
appears therein without note or number. 

My grandfather's MS. genealogy (penes me), 
dated in 1774, three years before my birth-time, 
traces our descent from Sir Edmund Lenthall, 
"the fifteenth knight" of that ancient family; 
whose grandson, John Lenthall (the regicidal sig- 
nature), was the only child of his first-born, Sir 
John ; and, happily, died without issue. Sir Ed- 
mund's second son, William, was the ancestor of 
the Lenthalls of Burford, and father of Sir Wil- 
liam Lenthall, the Speaker of the House of Com- 
mons temp. Caroli Martyris. His third son was 
Thomas, whose granddaughter, Elizabeth, mar- 
ried in 1704 my great-grandfather the second 
"Deane." The only son of my elder brother, 
" Deane," having died without issue male, I am 
now the representative of our descent from the 
two regicidal families, with (I am sorry to say) 
as little inheritance of their estate as of their 

My grandfather genealogised the Lenthalls con 
amore, tracing them beyond the Conquest into 
the Heptarchy. Shall I be too intrusive asking, a 
corner in " X. & Q." for an epigraph which, many 
years ago, I composed in honour of the dear old 
man P 

Non sibi sed nobis stirpem memorabat avitum, 
Ut proavis (lignum consequeremur iter ; 

Perlege scripta maniis venerandae ! non sine cura 
Eripuit tumulo stremms illc senex, 

Quo tenuere fidem famamque Oblivia nostram, 
Vesper ut occiduus culmina summa tegit. 


GUINEA-LINES (4 th S. x. 8.) There is a list of 
" Technical Terms used in the Art of Bookbind- 
ing " annexed to Billiopegia ; or, the Art of Book- 
binding, by John Andrews Arnett. (London : 
Richard Groombridge, 1835.) Not mentioned in 
Bohn's Lowndes, but the term " Guinea-lines " is 
not mentioned or defined in that rather exhaustive 
table of the technical terms used in the book- 
binding craft. T. S. 

Crieff, N.B. 

MARLY HORSES (4 th S. x. 9.) The horses re- 
ferred to by J. P. B. are the marble groups of 
sculpture by Coustou, jun., in the Place de la 
Concorde, Paris, at the entrance of the Champs 
Elysees. Each represents a restive horse held in 
check by a groom. They were brought to Paris 
from Marly in 1794 j hence the name. T. B, 

ONE " (4 th S. x. 10.) This saying is attributed to 
Mr. Disraeli by the reviewer of Lothair in Black- 
wood's Magazine. J. H. I. OAKLEY. 

SYMBOLTJM MARI^; (4 th S. x. 4.) MR. HODG- 
KIN expresses a doubt whether the text of this 
has been hitherto published in England. I caonot 

. X. JULY 27, '72.] 



answer for the Latin ; but I am pretty sure that 
an English translation was published early in the 
seventeenth century. I possess a small book in 
18mo with this title : 

" The Psalter of the B. Virgin Mary. Conteyning 
many devout Prayers and Petitions. Composed in the 
French Tongue by a Father of the Society of Jesus : and 
translated into English by R. F. Permissu Superiorum. 


The dedication is to the " R* Hon ble and ver- 
tuous Lady, The La. Cecily Compton." Unfor- 
tunately my copy is defective, all beyond p. 308 
having disappeared. It is probable that the Sym- 
bolum Marice was added at the end, as it was 
always published with the Psalter. 

But after all, who wrote this Psalter? MR. 
HODGKIN says its authorship is attributed to St. 
Bernard ; but this is evidently a mistake. It is 
frequently said to have been composed by St. 
Bonaventure, and constantly referred to as his. 
The judicious critic Alban Butler, however, says 
in a note to the Life of that saint : '.' The Psalter 
of the Blessed Virgin is falsely ascribed to St. 
Bonaventure, and unworthy to bear his name"; 
for which he refers to Fabricius, Bellarmin, Labbe, 
and Natalis Alexander. 

I have no copy of the Latin Psalter, and am 
therefore unable to ascertain whether the French 
one, from which my book is translated, is, after 
all, a mere translation from the Latin, or, as it 
professes to be, an original composition. But in 
either case I think it most probable that the 
Symbolum was appended. F. C. H. 

" ANSER, APIS, VTTULTJS," ETC. (4 th S. x. 10.) 
In Howell's Letters (book ii. let. 2) the line is 
quoted at length, and runs thus 

" Anser, apis, vitulus populos et regna gubernant." 

G. F. S. E. 

LANCASHIRE MAT SONG (4 th S. ix. 402.) The 
five verses of this song appear to be taken almost 
literally from several May songs published in 
Ballads and Songs of Lancashire, by John Har- 
land, F.S.A., in 1865. THOS. RATCLIFFE. 

In derivation all the vowels are interchangeable, 
and sometimes y interchanges with them. There 
is a place named Wyrley, in Staffordshire, from 
which I believe this old family took its name ; 
and if MR. A. WORLEY will refer again to the 
earliest mention of the family name I think he 
will find that the confounded (or rather confound- 
ing) little descriptive particle de occurs. The 
origin of the place named Wyrley is most likely 
from Sax. War = weir, a dam, and %, a meadow. 

Castle Bromwich. 

(4 th S. ix. 484: x. 15.) I hope I may venture to 
congratulate MR. UNDERBILL (to whom I beg to 

offer my sincere thanks for his paper) on being a 
veritable descendant of the valiant "Hot Gos- 
peller." If this be the case, and if he is personally 
interested in Edward Underbill, I should have 
much pleasure in sending him the information 
which 1 have collected relative to this redoubtable 
hero, a few weeks hence, when I am a little more 
at liberty than now. 

It is a puzzle to me how Underbill contrived to 
sell Honyngham (I retain his spelling) in 1544, 
and yet to be resident there in 1563. Did he buy 
the manor back ? He returned to London from 
Baginton on the accession of Elizabeth. I venture 
to think that one date in MR. UNDERBILL'S paper 
is a mistake. He gives " about 1520 " as the date 
of birth. The inquisition of Underbill's grand- 
father shows that he was born in 1508. More- 
over, he had either twelve children, or the date 
given in the Herald and Genealogist, (ii. 132) for 
the birth of the youngest is a misprint. Accord- 
ing to that account, taken from the register of 
St. Botolph, Aldgate, Anne and Prudence Under- 
bill were both born in J554. Now Guilford was 
undoubtedly born in May or June, 1553; and 
Underhill himself tells us that in his house in 
Wood Street, Cheapside, to which he removed 
"after Christmas," 1553, he had two children 
born, "a bcye and a whence " (Underbill's "Nar- 
rative," Harl. MS. 425, fol. 97 b). The boy was 
Edward, baptized at St. Botolph's in 1556 ; but 
who was the girl ? Anne and Prudence would have 
been two " whences," not one. I am therefore in- 
clined to think that there was another daughter, 
born in 1555 or 1557, and perhaps baptized at 
some other church than St. Botolph's. What was 
the parish church of Wood Street? Surely not 
St. Botolph's, which was outside the City. Un- 
derbill's language leaves it uncertain when he 
removed to Wood Street, but one sentence may 
intimate that it was not until the time of Wyatt's 
rebellion (Feb. 1554) or later. He certainly came 
back to Wood Street, for he tells us how he built 
up his Protestant books in the wall, and found 
them safe there "after the accession of Elizabeth. 
He was living in 1569 (Rot. Pat. 10 Eliz.) 


ix. 340, 416; x. 18.) Will MR. BOHN kindly 
supply particulars of Sir Simon Taylor's copy, viz. 
date of sale, the cost to Mr. Beriah Botfield, the 
price realised at Messrs. Sotheby's, with the name 
of purchaser and present possessor ? 


SCALIGERIANA (4 th S. x. 6.) "The compiler of 
the volume of 'Table Talk' in Constable's Miscel- 
lany" (vol. x.) was, as I have heard, a remark- 
ably able and very well-informed writer George 
Moir, advocate, Edinburgh, the author of the 
articles "Poetry" and "Modern Romance" in 



* S . X. JULY 27, 72. 

the Encyclopedia Britannica, and republished 
separately (Black, Edinburgh) in 1839. Mr. Moir, 
who for very many years enjoyed an extensive 
and lucrative practice as a lawyer of the very first 
rank, was successively professor of il rhetoric," 
and of the "law of Scotland" in the University 
of Edinburgh, and sheriff of Stirlingshire. A no- 
tice of Mr. Moir, evidently from a friendly hand, 
appeared in Blackwood's Mag., January, 1871. 

T. S. 

REV. THOMAS ROSE (4 th S. ix. 484 ; x. 16.) 
My thanks are due to S. K. for having filled up 
a blank which my researches had hitherto been 
unable to efface. I could not ascertain what be- 
came of Rose between his return on Elizabeth's 
accession and his presentation to Luton by the 
crown in 1563. He died in 1574, certainly at 
"an advanced age," for the lowest number of 
years which he could have attained is seventy-one. 
He was more likely from five to ten years older 
than this. HERMENTRUDE. 

I can supply at this time no further information 
than may be found by reference to the respective 
indexes to the works of Strype, and those of the 
Parker Society, and to a small volume The Days 
of Queen Mary (65, St. Paul's Churchyard, Lon- 
don). This has many references to him and the 
London congregation with which he was con- 
nected, and has been styled, by one well qualified 
to judge on the subject, "an admirable compen- 
dium of information of the period." S. M. S. 

483 ; x. 17.) I thank MR. H. A. KENNEDY for 
his note on 1. 722 

" Thogh ye hadde loste iheferses twelve,'' 
and especially for his reference to the Earl of 
Surrey's poem. My difficulty, however, was not 
ferses, but twelve. I think, on reconsideration, 
that in "ferses twelve" there is a general refer- 
ence to Chaucer's much-loved Good Women. The 
instances of Medea, Phillis, Dydo, &c., in the lines 
immediately following, bear this out. The mean- 
ing is, doubtless " Though you had lost all the 
famous queens of story, yet you would have no 
right to kill yourself." " JOHN ADDIS. 

Rustington, Littlehampton, Sussex. 

TRANSMUTATION OF LIQUIDS (4 th S. ix. passim ; 
x. 18.) J. R. CK. agrees with DR. HTDE CLARKE 
that it is as reasonable to derive Greek rhain from 
English rain, as to do the opposite ; because Eng- 
lish and Greek are alike " descended from some 
dialect nearly related to Sanskrit." Well, the 
wolf accused the lamb of muddying the stream, 
though " stabat superior lupus." It may be hard 
to show that rain comes from rhain ; but on the 
other hand, is it possible that rhain should come 
from rain f If not, it cannot be " as reasonable " 
to say so. Undoubtedly, rhain was used before 

the English rain. If it was " blank assertion " in 
me to say that the Greek root existed long before 
the English equivalent, there is no force in the 
considerations (1) that the stream of etymology 
sets uniformly from the Caucasus across Europe 
to the north-west ; (2) that the invasion of Aryan 
speech, following this course, must have con- 
quered Greece before Britain ; (3) that " Greek " 
is historically older than " English "; (4) that, as 
it is highly improbable that the subdivisions of 
the Indo-European family came into Europe all 
ready defined and distinct, it is almost necessary 
to conclude that the dialects of the south-east are 
centuries older than those of the north-west ; and 
(5) that the soundest etymologists rank as oldest 
those offshoots which are found nearest to the 
parent stem. Where would J. R. CK. propose to 
draw his line, if I suggested the reasonableness of 
deriving a Sanskrit root from the English or 
Greek equivalent ? LEWIS SERGEANT. 

7, St. Mary's Road, W. 

" GUTTA CAVAT LAPiDEM " (4 th S. ix. passim.} 
Cf. Liber Job xiv. 19, "Lapides excavant aquas " 
"The waters wear the stones," Auth. Ver. In a 
Dictionary of Latin and Greek Quotations, edited 
by H. T. Riley (Bolm, 1871), I find on p. 509, 
(l Aquae guttte saxa excavant," without any re- 
ference. W. C. B. 


BURIALS IN GARDENS (4 th S. ix. passim.) At 
Hornsea, a small watering-place on the east coast 
of Yorkshire, in the garden belonging to the " Old 
Hotel," a very old-fashioned house, formerly the 
residence of a Quaker family called Acklorne, are 
six graves of members of the family, with the 
following dates : 1. Name oply legible, stone 
broken; 2. 1667; 3. 1690; 4. 1699; 5. 1700; 
6. 1744. No date beyond the year is in any case 
given. The names and ages are all very clear. 



LLOYD OF TOAVY (4 th S. x. 9.) An account of 
this family is to be found in Jones's History of 
Brecknockshire (ii. 230), and an amplification of 
the pedigree under the head " Lloyd of Rhos- 
fferrey," p. 248, same volume. CYMRO. 


MILTON QUERIES (2) : SONNET xxn. (4 th S. ix. 
445.)" This three' years day " is not likely to 
have been an error of the press ; for in the Milton 
MS. at Trin. Coll. Cambridge, the line runs 

" Cyriack, this three years day these eyes ; though 

where this sonnet is found in the same hand as 
son. xxi., and without erasure in the first line. 
Curiously, however, son. xxii. was not published 

* Clean was evidently a lapsus pluma, of the amanu- 
ensis for clear, as the rhyme sufficiently shows. The 
word clean does not occur in Milton's Poems. 

S. X. JULY 27, 72.] 



with son. xxi. in the edition of 1673. Let me ad 
that I am indebted for these facts to the late Mr 
S. Leigh Sotheby's Ramblinga in the Elucidation o j 
the Autograph of Milton, which gives a fac-simil 
of this sonnet from the Trinity MS., the Penzanc 
Public Library being so fortunate as to possess 
copy of this splendid work. 

The proposed emendation, "Three years thi 
day," would, I conceive, be an exact reckoninj 
more worthy of the diary of some commonplac 
proser than the opening line of a sonnet by 
great master 

." in whose hand 

The thing became a trumpet, whence he blew 
Soul-animating strains : alas ! too few ! " 
And besides, we should have a statement mad 
contrary to the facts of the disease, as minutely 
detailed by Milton himself, in the well-known 
letter to Philaras, showing how very gradually 
the total darkness came on. 

Perhaps by this expression a kind of oxymo 
ron Milton hints at the monotony of " this three 
years," which had been one unbroken period o 
darkness: undoubtedly we commonly use " day' 
in the sense of a particular space of time, when 
we speak of " granting a criminal a long day," or 
of " A.'s being a useful man in his day." Similar 
uses of " day " occur in the English Bible. Bu 
the most important parallel that occurs to mi 

" I saw not better sport these seven years' day" 

2 Hen. VI., Act II. Sc. 1 

which Milton may very well have had in his 
head. I must apologise for being so long ; but I 
assume that everything really connected with the 
great name, even the investigation of a Bentleian 
emendation, has something of interest. 

J. H. I. OAKLEY, M.A. 

TRIES THEM" (4 th S. x. 14.) 0. B. B. seems to 
imply that this saying passed into a proverb sub- 
sequently to its being included in The Speaker 
(October, 1774) amongst " Select Sentences ga- 
thered from the best English Writers." Prior to 
this date, Kay includes it in his selection as a 
distich, edition Cambridge, 1670 : 

" In time of prosperity friends will be plenty, 
In time of adversity not one among twenty." 

Amongst "Los Disticos del juego de la For- 
tuna," to be found at the end of Csesar Oudin's 
volume of Refranes 6 Proverbios Castellanos tradu- 
zidos en lengua Francesa (Paris edit., Marc Orry, 
1609), is one that approximates so closely to the 
distich quoted above, that I cannot resist quot- 
ing it : 

" El prodigo tiene amigos 

Quanto come con testigos." 

Which Oudin, with considerable prolixity, trans- 

" Le prodigue a des amis, autant qu'il mange avec 
tesmoins, ce sont amis de table. Le prodigue sails tes- 
moins, lorsqu'il n'a plus rien." 

Trjis is a cumbersome translation of the neut 
Spanish distich. To quote Ford, proverbs in 
Spain, " from being couched in short, Hudibrastic 
doggrel, are easily remembered, and fall like 
sparks on the prepared mine of the hearers' me- 
mories " (Handbook of Spain, Part I. sect. 2, 
p. 318, edit. 1845). E. W. T. 

BRONZE HEAD FOUND AT BATH (4 th S. ix. 484, 
543.) The bronze head to which I referred is not 
the one now in the Bath Museum, but another 
originally at Brockley Hall, and sold at the sale 
there in 1849. There is a cast of it in the Bath 
Museum ; but no account, that I am aware of, is 
given of its first discovery or of its present locality. 
It is described in the catalogue of the sale, 
lot 354, as 

" THE HEAD OF DIANA, known as one of the finest 
specimens of Grecian Art. It was dug up at Bath, and 
is in a most wonderful state of preservation. It formerly 
belonged to Prince Hoare." 



GREY (4 th S.-ix. 484; x. 11.) I am particularly 
obliged to MR. NICHOLS for his full elucidation of 
this question. I- had already come to the con- 
clusion that the wedding took place in the latter 
fortnight of May, but early in it. Will MR. 
NICHOLS kindly allow me to trouble him with 
two more queries which arise out of his answer ? 

Where and when (if not on the same occasion) 
was Lady Margaret Clifford married to Henry 
Lord Strange? Many writers make this one of 
the three marriages. 

Is Rosso's history published? and if not, can 
the MS. be seen, and what is the reference to it ? 


FORKS (4 tlr S. v. vi. passim.') Some time ago 
there was a discussion in " N. & Q." as to the period 
when forks came into use at meals in this country, 
but I do not remember to have seen quoted the 
xtract given below. It is taken from a list of 
the jewels and other articles belonging to Piers 
Graveston, Edward II. 's favourite, who was seized 
,ud executed by the discontented barons in 1312, 
nd will be found in Rymer's JFcedera, vol. iii. 
i. 392, 6 Ed. II. This is the item 

" Trois furchesces d'argent pur mangier poires." 

It cannot be inferred from this that forks were 
n common use at that time. On the contrary, as 
t was thought necessary in the list to point out 
hat they were intended to eat pears W&N, it may 
ather be inferred that the fork, or at least the 
ilver fork, was an article of luxury and refine- 
nent whose use would not have been recognised 
vithout the explanation. It seems not improbable 



[4* S. X. JULY 27, '72. 

that the fork may, as in fhis instance, have at first 
been only used for fruits, and by the wealthy who 
could afford to have,. it made of silver, and that 
this in later times led to the more general use of 
an article of cheaper material. G. F. L. E. 

Miss ANNE STEELE (4 th S. ix. 476,521; x. 15.) 
The memorials of Miss Steele are very scanty, 
and her name is not even so much as included 
among English authors in any of our biographical 
dictionaries. In a sketch of her life which ap- 
peared in an American religious publication (The 
Presbyterian} some years ago, she is described as 
*' the daughter of an English dissenting minister, 
and a native and resident of the retired village of 
Broughton in Hampshire." The first two volumes 
of her Poems appeared in 1760 and in 1780. After 
her death they were republished, together with 
a third volume of miscellaneous pieces in prose 
and verse, under the editorial supervision of the 
Rev. Caleb Evans of Bristol. By the direction of 
her surviving relatives, the profits arising from this 
posthumous edition were enjoyed by the Bristol 
Education Society. As this institution was under 
the care of the Baptists, it is inferred that she 
belonged to that denomination. 


Barnsley, Yorks. 

SHEEN PRIORY (4 th S. ix. 56.) I hardly ex- 
pected that at the present day any information 
would have been asked for relating to " Sheen 
Priory " but it is pleasing to find a memento of 
it so far off as New South Wales. Your reply 
to DR. BENNETT supplies some information, but is 
in many instances very incorrect. In fact you 
have, as many others have, confused the great 
Carthusian House, one of the two great houses 
(Syon being the other) erected by Henry V., the 

" Two chantries where the sad and solemn priests 
Still sing for Richard's soul " 

for the House for Observant Friars founded by 
Henry VII., which adjoined the palace, and the 
site of which is still known as the " Old Friars." 
The representation of an ecclesiastical building in 
one of Wyngaarde's drawings is clearly part of 
Henry VII. 's building. 

" Sheen Priory" stood full half a mile from the 
palace at West 'Sheen, which gave name to the 
manor and parish, until Henry VII. called it 
Richmond. The best account of Sheen Priory is 
that given in the third volume of Brayley's His- 
tory of Surrey. 

In 1765 the Society of Antiquaries published 
what they called 

" A View of Richmond Palace fronting the Green, as 
built by Henry VII. From an original painting in the 
possession of Lord Viscount Fitzwilliani at Richmond." 

The painting is now in the Fitzwilliam Museum 
at Cambridge. Lysons (vol. i. p. 442) very pro- 
perly doubts this it is not at all like the old 

palace, but I am inclined to think that it repre- 
sents West Sheen, and the greater part of the 
priory buildings there; the largest tower re- 
sembling one shown in Wyngaarde's drawing, as a 
part of his distance, with the word " Cien " over 
it. George III. pulled down early in his reign all 
that remained of West Sheen; the observatory 
built by him being now the only building on its 
site. W. C. 

Richmond, Surrey. 

" Whitleius Heald, Ebor.," was elected a fellow 
of St. John's College, Cambridge, in 1717. See 
Nichols's Literary Anecdotes, iv. 249, 1812. 

W. C. B. 


Calendar of Clarendon State Papers preserved in the 
Bodleian Library. Vol. I. to January, 1649. Edited 
by the Rev. O. Ogle, M.A., and W. H. Bliss, B.C.L., 
under the Direction of the Rev. H. O. Coxe, Bodley's 
Librarian. (Oxford : Clarendon Press.) 
The vast and interesting mass of historical papers calen- 
dered in this and the second volume (which preceeded it 
in date of publication, and was noticed by us as far 
back as January 15, 1870) has been deposited in the 
Bodleian Library at different times, and under very dif- 
ferent circumstances. In 1759, a large collection of 
original State Papers and authentic copies were given to 
the University by the descendants of Lord Clarendon. 
On the publication of the first volume of Clarendon 
Papers, the executors of Dr. Powney presented others 
which had been in his possession. A third portion came 
from the trustees of one of the executors of the third earl, 
and others were presented by Dr. Douglas, Bishop of 
Salisbury, Viscountess Midleton, Mr. Astle, and the Earl 
of Hardwicke. But the largest and most important ad- 
dition was maJe as lately as 1860, when a large collection 
of papers, enclosed in boxes, and in Lord Clarendon's 
private writing chest, was sent by the trustees of the 
the bequest made to the University "by Henry Hyde, Earl 
of Clarendon and Rochester in 1753." Three thousand of 
these papers are calendered in the present volume, and 
as the volume is accompanied by a very full and care- 
fully prepared index, it will be seen how large an amount 
of valuable historical materials is hereby made available 
for students of the eventful period to which the volume 
relates. The period covered by the documents here de- 
scribed terminates .with the death of the king. The 
second volume brings the work down to 1654 ; and the 
third and fourth volumes are in course of preparation. 

CIVIL LIST PENSIONS. The following is a list of all 
these pensions granted during the year ending June 20, 
1872 : Sir W. F. Cooke, for his services in the introduc- 
tion of the telegraphic system, 100/. Mrs. De Morgan, for 
the distinguished merits of her late husband, Augustus 
De Morgan, as a mathematician, 50Z. Miss Marie Fran- 
cois Catherine Doetyer Corbaux, in consideration of her 
researches in sacred" literature and attainments in learned 
languages, 30/. The Rev. F. H. A. Scrivener, for his ser- 
vices in connection with biblical criticism, 100Z. Mrs. 
Stopford, widow of Major George Stopford, 150/., and Miss 
Selina H. Burgoyne, in consideration of the distinguished 
military services of their father, Field Marshal Sir J. Bur- 
goyne, 75/. The Misses Robertson, in addition to the 

4S. X. JULY 27, '72.] 



pensions of 501 each which they already hold in considera- 
tion of the eminent literary "merit, as an historian, of 
their grandfather, 50/. Mrs. Gray, for the services of 
her late husband, Mr. T. Gray, as one of the first pro- 
jectors of railways, 807. Mrs. Helen Lemon, 100/. Mrs. 
Thorpe, for the labours of her late husband in connection 
with Anglo-Saxon literature, 80/. Mrs. Meyer, for the 
services of her late husband, Dr. John Meyer, as Super- 
intendent of the Hospital at Smyrna during the Crimean 
War, and afterwards of the Criminal Lunatic Asylum at 
Broadmoor, GO/. Mr. Joseph Stevenson, in consideration 
of his services in connection with historical literature, 
100Z. Mr. Thomas Wright, in addition to the pension of 
657., 357. Miss Mayne, in consideration of the personal 
services of her late father, Sir Richard Mayne, K.C.B., 
to the Crown, and of the faithful performance of his 
duties to the public, 907. Mrs. Wood, for the services of 
her late husband, Mr. William Wood, as the inventor of 
the process of weaving carpets by machinery, 707. Miss 
Smith, in addition to the pension of 607., on account of 
the valuable and gratuitous services of her father, the 
late Dr. Southwood Smith, 307. 



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Anonymous communications are rejected. 

CCCXLThe allusions in the preface to Mit.cheU's 
Translation of Aristophanes is to the Cato Street conspi- 
racy, Feb. 23, 1820. 

L. CHAPMAN (Faversham.) The song "Oh dear! what 
can the matter be," will be found in many collections of 
English songs, e. g. J. E. Carpenter's New Standard Song 
Book, 1866, p. 47 (Routledge), and The Feast of Apollo 
(Dublin), p. 60. It has been net to music for the piano- 
forte by J. W. Bolder of Oxford. 

E. L. (Holmes Chapel). For articles on Riding the 
Stang, see "N. & Q." 2^ S. x. 477, 519 ; xii. 411, 483 ; 

d S. iv. 27. Consult also Chambers's Book of Days, 
ii. 510, 511, with an illustration of the custom. 

S. L. The probable meaning of the Scotch proverb, 
" First in the wid (wood), and last in the bog,"" is, " The 
first to get into danger, and. the last to get out of it." 


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S. X. JULY 27, '72. 

NEWMAN'S (of 235, High Holborn) LIST OF 


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4 th S. X. AUGUST 3, 72.] 





NOTES : Junius, 81 Folk Lore, 82 London Swimming 
Baths, 83 - Epitaph in Prittlewell Churchyard Death- 
bed Puns A List of Books Dr. Arnold, 84. 

QUERIES : Tyndale's New Testament, 1536, 4to, the 
"Mole" Edition, 85 Manor of Walton, Hunts, /&. 
"Absalom and Achitophel" and " MacFlecknoe Len- 
tene of Lyng Chaucer Edition Dickens and Kirby s 
Wonderful Museum" : Emescit " Filia Mundi : 
"Filia Populi " Frognall Priory, Hampstead- Hecla in 
Iceland Jongleurs Medallic Mesmerising a Cock 
Arms of Povah Ruswarp Old Hall, near Whitby - 
Terence Bellew MacManus - Trophy -Vair in Heraldry 

"Vanity Fair" Virginia Death- Warrant of Charles 
I.: Thomas Wayte, 8G. 

REPLIES: - Scutarius, 88 Parish Registers Gossip, 89 
Ferrey's Recollections of Welby Pugin: Isabey, 90 
Mauthe Doog, 91 Sir John Lubbock on " Felis Catus 
- Edward Underbill, the " Hot Gospeller "- " The Colours 
of England he nailed to the Mast" J. A. Atkinson - 
Margaret Harvey Everard, Bishop of Norwich The 
Livery Collar of Esses Draught = Move Red Deer 
Mrs. M. Holford Rae's MS. History of the Presbytery 
of Penpout Foreign Inventories Permanence of Marks 
or Brands on Trees " Man proposeth," &c. " Haha 
Arthur Brooke of Canterbury Leland and Penwortham 
Churches " Finis coronat Opus" lolanthe " Billy- 
cock " and " Wide- Awake " Lairg, Largs, Largo" Sphsora 
cuius Centrum" Dinners" a la Russe" Porcelain Figure 

Napoleon's Scaffold at Waterloo Irish Provincialisms 

Eccentric Turning Cat " Tipped me the Wink" 
"The Paradise of Coquettes" Monumental Brasses 
Lepell Family, &c., 92. 

Notes on Books, &c. 


Did Junius ever get the vellum-bound volumes ? 
That he did has always been taken for granted; 
and has it not been believed that when the volumes 
should be brought to light as we all have hoped 
they might be in our time they would lead to 
the discovery of who Junius was ? Kecent con- 
sideration, however, leads me to doubt whether the 
books ever reached Junius's hands. It is charac- 
teristic of incidents connected with the Junian 
mystery, that though at first we may readily ac- 
cept them in a particular sense, yet, when subse- 
quently examined, they assume an appearance of 
doubt and uncertainty, which justifies the applica- 
tion to them of the words which Byron wrote 
respecting the " epistolary iron mask " himself: 

" . . . . Now many rays 

Were flashing round him, and now a thick steajn 
Hid him from sight, like fogs on London days." 

The idea of publishing the famous letters as a 
book seems to have occurred to Woodfall in con- 
sequence of a note received from Junius dated 
July 17, 1769, in which the writer refers to an 
incorrectly printed edition of his first fifteen 
letters published by Newberry. To this nott 
Woodfall must have replied; for Junius, ir 
another letter dated four days later than the one 
just mentioned, says: 

" I can have no manner of objection to your reprinting 
IB letters if you think it will answer, which I believe it 
light before Newberry appeared." 

We may fairly assume the printing off of the 
heets began shortly after November 8, 1771, for 
n that day Junius wrote to Woodfall 

"At last I have concluded my great work, and I assure 
ou with no small labour. I would have you begin to 
dvertise immediately, and publish before the meeting of 
'arliarnent ; let all my papers in defence of Junius be 
nserted. I shall now supply you very fast with copy 
nd notes." 

At this time the preface and dedication were 
already in type, for Wilkes, writing to Junius 
inder date of November 4, 1771 

" On my return home last night I had the very great 
leasure of reading the Dedication and Preface which 
Mr. Woodfall left for me." 

And the only fresh matter which the printer 
lad to compose after that time were ! he letter to 
the Duke of Grafton dated November 27, 1771, 
and those to Lords Mansfield and Camden, which 
ppeared in the Public Advertiser of July 21, 1772. 
A letter dated December 17, 1771, contains the 
irst allusion to the vellum-bound books. In it 
Junius says : 

1 When the book is finished, let me have a set bound in 
vellum, gilt and lettered Julius, i. n., as handsomely as 
you can the edges gilt. Let the sheets be well dried be- 
fore binding. I must also have two pets in blue paper 
covers. This is all the fee I shall ever desire of you." 

Junius now becomes anxious for the publica- 
tion of the book, and expresses his impatience in 
various passages of his notes to Woodfall ; some- 
times in a petulant tone. A curious letter is that 
dated March 3, 1772, in which Junius says 

"Your letter was twice refused last night, and the 
waiter as often attempted to see the person who sent for 
it. I was impatient to see the book, and think I had a 
right to that attention a little before the general publica- 
tion. When I desired to have two sets sewed and one 
bound in vellum, it was not from a principle of economy. 
I despise such little savings, and shall still be a purchaser. 
If I was to buy as man}' sets as I want, it would be re- 
marked. Pray let the two sets be well parcelled up and 
left at the bar of Mjundy's Coffee House, Maiden Lane, 
Avith the same direction, and with orders to be delivered 
to a chairman, who will ask for them in the course of 
to-morrow evening." 

One cannot suppose that Woodfall could have 
been bamboozled by this weak attempt to mystify 
the transaction. He must have perceived the hol- 
lo wness of Junius's reasons for wanting the copies, 
because he would have run no risk in buying them, 
whereas he ran great risk in endeavouring to ob- 
tain them from the Coffee House. Junius wanted 
to buy no copies as he pretended ; but evidently 
he did want the two copies stitched in paper, and 
was willing to incur risk to get them. What did 
he want them for ? Not for himself of course, for 
he knew he would be able to buy the book in two 
or three days. Junius in the course of his career 



[4i S. X. AUGUST 3, 72. 

wrote privately, as Junius, to two individuals 
Mr. Grenville and Lord Chatham. These states 
men, however, had no means of knowing tha 
-their correspondent was Junius, and not some on< 
assuming the title, for they had no access to th< 
MS. of the letters printed in the Public Adver- 
tiser, and could not compare it with the letters 
received by them. Was it intended that Mr 
Grenville and Lord Chatham should receive the 
copies in their unfinished state, stitched in paper, 
before the publication of the work, as evidence 
that their correspondent was indeed Junius ? 

At length the work was published on March 3 
1772, and two days afterwards Junius writes to 

"Your letters with the books are come safely to hand 
... If the vellum books are not yet bound, I would wait 
for the index. If they are, let me know by a line in the 
P. A. When they are ready they may safely be left at 
the same place as last night." 

The Letters, we have seen, were published on 
March 3, 1772, and on the 5th Junius acknow- 
ledges the receipt of his two sets stitched in blue 
paper, and yet, as Woodfall informs Junius under 
date March 7, 1773, the vellum-bound set was not 
"out of the bookbinders' hands till yesterday "; 
that was a year and three days after the publica- 
tion of the book ! Here is a mystery. It is pos- 
sible, perhaps, to explain the matter partially and 
by conjecture, though many circumstances will 
still remain to puzzle and perplex. Observe that 
Junius, in acknowledging the receipt of the stitched 
copies, said "If the vellum books are not yet 
bound I would wait for the index." This shows 
that the first edition published on March 3, 1772, 
was without the contents and index ; and it also 
shows me that one of my copies of Junius, which 
I have hitherto supposed was of the first edition, 
must be of the second, for it contains both the 
contents and the index. The printing of contents 
and index ought not to have occupied more than 
a week j and even supposing that the work was 
composed a third time (I showed in my last that 
it was composed twice) it is impossible to account 
for the very long time (a year and three days) 
which elapsed between the publication of the edi- 
tion of which Junius received two copies stitched 
in blue paper, and the binding of the copy in 

Leaving this point, however, what answer must 
be given to the query which stands at the begin- 
ning of this note Did Junius ever get the vellum- 
bound volumes ? 

It has been assumed that Woodfall carefullv 
preserved all Junius's private letters, though it 
might not be difficult to show from references in 
the letters published that others were received 
which have not been published. It is singular, 
too, that Woodfall should have preserved no copies 
of his own letters to Junius, though some of them 

must have been worth the trouble according to 
Junius (although it is unsafe to take anything 
proceeding from this consummate actor in its 
natural sense), for referring to one of them Junius 
says, in private letter 6, " The spirit of your letter 
convinces me that you are a much better writer 
than most of the people whose works you publish." 
The only letter, however, which we have of 
Woodfall's is that dated March 17, 1773. in which 
he informs Junius that the vellum-bound volumes 
were sent to him on that day. This letter has 
been opened after being sealed, and it is conjec- 
tured that, owing to Junius not having sent for it 
to " the usual place," Woodfall himself regained 
possession of it. But in that case he must also 
have regained possession of the vellum-bound 
books. He would not leave them behind. . What, 
then, has become of them ? Doubtless the sealed 
letter may not have been sent by Woodfall. He 
may have opened it after it was sealed, written 
another, varying in some respects from the first, 
and sent it, with the books. But the evidence, 
as far as it goes, seems to negative this suppo- 
sition. Then surely, if Junius received the books 
he would have taken the trouble to acknowledge 
their receipt. This was the least he could do 
after all the fuss he had made about them. Junius 
ran no risk in sending letters ; his danger lay in 
sending for them. C. Ross. 


DORSETSHIRE SAYING. In Dorsetshire people 
anxiously look for the dew drops hanging thickly 
on the thorn-bushes on Candlemas morning. 
When they do so, it forebodes a good year for 
peas. But these weather-wise seers are apt to 
forget that all these old saws were adapted to 
ihe Old Style, according to which what used to 
be Candlemas is now St. Valentine. N'importe, 
;he weather prophet coolly moves on his peg, 
and goes on predicting with equal confidence. 

F. C. II. 


" Nous empruntons les lignes suivantes k un recueil de 
ieux documents sur le pays de Vaud : 

" C'est settlement 1'an 1825 que Ton a detruit, au chateau 
de Daillens, la cage des sor tiers. 

" C'etait une prison faite expres au comble du bati- 
ment, construite en carrelets de chene superposes et forte- 
ment lie's et cheville's, fort basse et de la largeur d'un lit 
a deux personnes. II n'y avait, disait-on, que ce genre 
e % prison d'ou un sorcier ne pouvait s'e'vader. Dans 
;elle-ci, on voyait encore de la paille qui avait servi, 
lisait-on, de litiere & une vieille femme renferme'e la, 
omme sorciere, vers le milieu du XVIII" siecle. 

" Au printemps 1826, on refendait, dans la cour de la 
ure de Daillens, diffe'rents quartiers de bois a bruler ; 
'on trouva, dans Fun des quartiers de ce bois, une meche 
e cheveux pincee dans une fente, au bout d'une cheville 
e bois dur enfoncee dans la tige d'un cerisier, au moyen 
'une perforation faite jusques pres do 1'aubier, il y a plus 
e 40 ans, comme on peut en juger par les couches li- 

S. x. AUGUST 3, '72.] 



gneuses qui avaient successivement recouvert ladite che- 
ville. Le bucheron qui fit cette petite decouverte dit que 
cette magie se pratiquait encore, et qu'il en avait, lui, 
eprouve les bons effets centre le decroit d'une jambe, h la 
suite d'une sciatique : apr^s avoir consulte inutilement 
plusieurs medecins, apprehendant de perdre 1'usage de 
cette jambe, il alia consulter un mage qui, pour de 1'ar- 
gent, faisait aussi le devin. Celui-ci, apres les prelimi- 
naires d'interrogation et d'inspection locales et urinaires, 
re'cita quelques paroles magiques qu'il appelait des prieres 
en latin, puis lui coupa une meche de cheveux, qu'il 
arrangea comme il est dit ci-dessus, et qu'il enfonca de 
meme par perforation, dans un arbre de fruits &> noyaux 
indiqud par le malade ; puis il me donna, dit le bucheron, 
un onguent dont je devais me frotter deux fois par jour. 
Voila le vrai remede, lui dit-on ; les frictions que Ton fit 
avec cet onguent rctablirent peu & peu la transpiration et 
la circulation du sang. Malgrd 1'evidence, il pre'ferait 
attribuer sa gue'rison a des actes magiques plutot qu'a 
des remedes naturels." 


THE MILKIN TIME. The following song, in 
the dialect of Craven, is in the Craven Pioneer of 
July 6 inst. It is by the author of " Slaadbinn 

" Meet meh at the fowd at the milkin-time. 
Whan the dusky* sky is gowd, at the milkin-time ; 
Whan the fog is slant wiv dew, 
An clocksf gang hummin thro 
The wick-sets, an the branches ov the owmerrinj 


" Weel ye knaw the hour ov the milkin-time; 
The girt bell souns frev t' tower at the milkin-time : 
Bud as t' gowd suin turns ta grey, 
An ah cannat hev delay 
Dunnat linger bi the way, at the milkin-time. 

" Ye'll finnd a lass at's true, at the milkin-time ; 
Shoo thinks ov nane bud you, at the milkin-time ; 

Bud my fadder's gittin owd, 

An he's gien a bit ta scowd, 

Whan ah's owre laug at the fowd at the milkin time. 
" Happen ye're afear'd at the milkin-time ; 
Mebbe loike ye've heer'd, at the milkin-time 

The green-fowk shak thir feet, 

Whan t' moon on Pinnow's|| breet ; 
An it chances soa ta neet, at the milkin-time. 

*' There's van, an he knaws weel whan it's milkin-time ; 
He'd feace the varra deil at the milkin-time : 
He'd nut be yan ta wait, 
Tho' a bargest|[ war i' t' gate, 
If the word, ah'd nobbut say't, at the milkin-time. 


CUCKOOS. There was and yet is in parts of 
Cumberland aprevalent notion that cuckoos change 
into hawks. This stands recorded in a story told 
of a J. P. of that county (a capital specimen of 
the old Cumberland "A gustus Pease "), between 
whom and the clerk of the peace the following 

* Dusky, adjective from dusk, twilight. 

t Clocks, beetles. 

t Owmerrin, overshading. 

Green-fowk, fairies. 

|| Pinnow Hill in Lothersdale. 

*j[ Bargest, the spectre dog. 


conversation on the subject was heard to take 
place : 

J. P. " A'say, mister, what queer things them cuckoos 
is, that turns into 'awks ! " 

C. P. " Cuckoos turn into oaks ! your worship surely 
don't mean to tell me that birds can change into trees ? " 

J. P. " No, no, I don't say so. It's awks they turn 
into ; awk, a bird ; not hoak, a tree." 


Here is a Leicestershire saying, which this year 
has turned out very true : 

" A wet Good Friday and Easter da}', 
Brings plenty of grass but little good hay." 


" If draught comes to you through a hole, 
Go make your will, and mind your soul." 

I heard this for the first time a few days since, 
and immediately u made a note of " for the benefit 
of " N. & Q." HERMENTRUDE. 

On the Feast of the Annunciation, the angels 
come down and fill the corn with flowers. (Italy.) 

If you tear your dress returning home, you will 
never take the same walk or drive with the same 
people again. (Piedmontese.) J. C. G. 

NOSE-BLEEDING. I was told on July 18, in the 
county-town of Rutland, by a woman who kept 
a small shop, the following infallible remedy to 
stop nose-bleeding in an unmarried female : " Tie 
a new piece of red ribbon round her neck." This 
charm did not apply to the male sex, or to mar- 
ried women. My informant firmly believed in its 
efficacy, and told me that she knew many cases 
in which it had been tried with success. She was, 
apparently, upwards of fifty years of age; and 
said that her mother had taught her this charm 
when she was a girl. CUTHBERT BEDE. 


Two, at least, of the old baths mentioned by 
Timbs in his Curiosities of London., p, 32, as remain- 
ing in 1855 viz.-, Peerless Pool (the "Perilous 
Pond," referred to by Stow), Old Street Road ; and 
the Bagnio, or Old Royal Baths, Bath Street, Moor- 
gate Street, removed to make way for the new Post 
Office buildings exist no longer. The old Roman 
Bath in Strand Lane, the oldest in London ; and 
the Coldbath, in Coldbath Square, Clerkenwell, 
which has been known about 180 years, hardly 
allow room for swimming evolutions. But, ex- 
clusive of these, there are now thirty or more, 
large or small, good or bad, in London and sub- 
urbs ; one or two not named in the Post Office 
Directory; and as all seem well attended, the 
number of bathers must be very considerable. In 
all the best, the water is changed daily during the 
season. I find no reference to the increase of these 
establishments, or to the Act of Parliament (9 & 10 


S.X. AUGUST 3, '72. 

Viet, c. 74) passed to encourage their formation, 
in Irving's Annals of Our Time (2nd edit, 1837- 
'71), and other works where one might expect 
some notice of such important additions to our 
metropolitan improvements. In many provincial 
towns, also, baths have been opened within about 
twenty-five years, either by private munificence 
or enterprise, or by means of a charge on the 
rates. And I hope, before long, there will be a 
good one in every large parish in London, and in 
every considerable town. Well do I remember 
seeing the New River, from Balls Pond to Stoke 
Newington, and in other parts, swarming with 
bathers of the lowest class ; and have myself, 
when about seven or eight years old, bathed near 
the old Sluice House O temporal O mores! in 
what was then a retired field, but now is sur- 
rounded by houses. Fortunately, the New River 
is no longer open, with few exceptions, anywhere 
near town; where open, it is, I trust, well guarded; 
and the numerous facilities for swimming offered 
"by the public baths make any attempt to use the 
river utterly unjustifiable FILMA. 

London Institution, Finsbury Circus. 

" Here lieth the Bodys of M" Anna & Dorothy Free- 
borne wives of M r Samuel Freeborne whoe departed this 
life one y 8 31 T of July Anno 1641 The othar [sic] August 
y e 20 Anno 1658 one Aged 33 yeares y c othar 44 
" Under one stone two precious iems do ly 
Equall in werth weight lustre sanctity 
If yet perhaps one of them doe excell 
Which was't who knows ? ask him y* knew them well 
by long enjoyment, if hee thus bee press'd 
hee'l pause then ansAvere : truly both were best. 
were't in my choice that either of the twayne 
might bee return'd to mee t'enjoy againe 
Which should I chtise ? well since I know not whether 
He mow me for th' losse of both but wish for neither. 
Yet here's my comfort herein lyes my hope 
The time a comeinge cabinets shall ope 
Which are lock't fast then then shall I see 
My lewells to my Joy : my Jewells mee." 
The foregoing very characteristic epitaph is in- 
cised on a large horizontal slab of stone covering 
a brick tomb which stands in the open church- 
yard at the east end of Prittlewell church in 
Essex. Above the inscription are a skull and a 
coat of arms, side by side. The blazon on the 
coat of arms consists simply of three nondescript 
birds, two and one, displayed. 

The epitaph covers the whole of the stone ; and 
it does not appear whether the gallant and impar- 
tial widower obtained that monumental record of 
his own decease, which his efforts in the cause of 
marital affection had so well deserved. The con- 
ceit in the last four lines (one of them a halting 
line) was doubtless too tempting to be omitted: 
but it breaks the force of that weighty though 
covert sarcasm which is contained in the mourner's 
previous statement, that although he regrets both 

his wives, he declines to have either of them back 

I do not remember to have seen the epitaph 
elsewhere. Is it wholly due to the genius of Mr. 
Samuel Freeborne ? A. .T. MUNBY. 

DEATH-BED PUNS. There are few subjects on 
which a book has not been written, and this is 
not to be reckoned among them. I have before 
me a curious volume entitled 

"Reflexions sur les Grands Hommes v qui sont morts 
en plaisantant, etc. Par M. Deslandes." A Amsterdam, 
8vo, 1776. 

There is also in English 

" Dying Merrily, or Historical and Critical Reflexions 
on the Conduct of Great Men in all Ages, who, in their 
last Moments, mocked Death, and died facetiously." 
London, 12mo, 1745. 

I hardly see the " coarseness " imputed to the 
saying of Vespasian. I extract the following from 
the volume mentioned above : 

"L'Empereur Vespasien le fit bien sentir a ses prin- 
cipaux courtisans, adulateurs fades et insipides. Voulant 
leur marquer qu'il etoit fort malade, il s'ecria avec un 
souris malin, Je mapperfois qne je vais devenir Dieu. Le 
flatteur est insensible h, de tels reproches ; il ne peut se 
persuader qui 1'Homme aime la Verite." p. 54. 

The saying of Rabelais has been mentioned 
" Je m'en vais chercher un grand peut-etre"; and 
M. Deslandes cites the bitter sarcasm equally 
well-known " Tirez le rideau, la farce est jouee," 
but these sayings do not exhaust the wit of the 
moribund jester : 

" On lui fit revetir sa robe de benedictin au moment de 
1'agonie, et il eut encore la presence d'esprit d'equivoquer 
sur un psaume cles agonisans, en faisant allusion a son 
froc : Beati qui. moriuntur in Domino. Ensuite il dicta ce 
burlesque testament : ' Je n'ai rien vaillant, je dois beau- 
coup ; je donne le reste aux pauvres.' " Notice historique, 
etc. Par P. L. Jacob, Bibliophile. 

See also Swift's Dying Words of Tom Ashe, a 
little piece, the object of which is to show how 
such an inveterate Momus might have expressed 
himself in the last hour. WILLIAM BATES. 


A LIST OP BOOKS. Some of your readers may 
be amused by the following list of books belong- 
ing t a lady in the early part of the eighteenth 
century, taken from the fly-leaf of a fine copy of 
George Sandys's Christ's Passion, London, 8vo, 
1687. I give the writer's own orthography : 

;" A Cataloge of Bookes belonging to Alee Percival." 

1. Common Prayer Booke. 

2. Premitirc Sacra, Reflections of a devout Solitude. 

3. Femal Policy. 

4. Serious & Compassionate Inquiry. 

5. Devout & Worthy Reception of y e L ds Supper. 

6. A Sermon on M r Hanserd Knollis. 

7. Light and Salvation of Christ. 

8. Christ's Passion. 

9. The County Court Revived. 
10. The fire of the Alter. 

4 th S. X. AUGI-ST 0, '72.] 



11. The Whole Duty of Mourning. 

12. Miscellaneous Poems. 

13. Week's Preparations to y e Sacramt. 

14. War with y c Devil &c. 

15. Precious Blood of y e Son of God. 

16. Derections for Cookery and Physick &c. 

17. Devout Companion &c. 

18. Court's Convert &c. 

19. Justice of Peace's Officer. 

20. 7 Champions of Chrisondom. 

On the next page, in a handwriting apparently 
of a writing-master with grand flourishes, is " M" 
Alee Parcifull, Her Booke 1722," and then, evi- 
dently in the hand of the lady herself, " Yo rl till 
Death dear Teddy." 

The orthography of the name is interesting, as 
it shows that the spelling of proper names often 
accorded with the pronunciation. I fancy e was 
generally pronounced a broad a in those days, and 
that it was by no means a vulgarism to say 
sarvant for servant, &c. I met with a copy of 

Pope's works in a country library, " to , Esq r 

from his humble sarvants, Martha and Teresa 
Blount." Thus Darby for Derby, Berkeley for 
Berkeley, &c., though I have never heard one 
talk of Mr. Spencer Parcifull. R. H. 

DR. ARNOLD. In that most admirable of all 
modern biographies, Stanley's Life of Arnold, 
many extracts are given from Dr. Arnold's pub- 
lished sermons, and much editorial praise is also 
bestowed upon those sermons. As there appears 
to be an appetite just now for sermon-literature 
witness the cheap issues of Dr. Newman's Ser- 
mons, Frederick Robertson's Sermons, &c. may 
we not ask that a republication may be made of 
Dr. Arnold's Sermons f Surely he was one in a 
million. TANDARAGEE. 



Will some kind friend advise me what best 
to do to preserve an imperfect copy of the 
above, comprising about four-fifths of the whole 
volume ? It has been in my family collection 
more than a century, and though a little stained 
from^ age and .use, is, in other respects, in good 
condition. It had been carelessly done up in 
the roughest of boards, with many leaves mis- 
placed. I have carefully separated and arranged 
the whole, and am anxious to have it so bound 
that it may be preserved as a venerated relic. I 
know how valuable it would be if perfect, and I 
know pretty much what it would cost to make it 
as perfect as fac-similes and stray genuine leaves 
$ould make it ; but my question is, shall I bind it 
in its present state, with all its imperfections about 
it, or shall I get an ordinary transcript made of 
the missing portions page by page from the beau- 

tiful copy in the British Museum, and thus make 
it as perfect as may be without any false pretences Y 
Some good friend will please answer and oblige 

Woodbury, North Bank, N.W. 

P.S. Tyndale has been called to my attention 
by the article in the Quarterly on "The Revision 
of the Bible," where (at p. 157) Dr. Lightfoot is 
made to quote Tyndale as follows : 

1 Cor. xii. 4." Ther are diversities of gyftes verely, 
yet but one sprete, and ther are differences of adminis- 
tration, yet but one lorde," c. 

whereas in my copy of Tyndale it stands thus : 

" Ther are diversities of gyftes verely | yet but one 
sprete. And ther are differences of administracions | and 
yet but one Lord," &c. : 

Four variations in twenty-one words. Adminis- 
tracions in the singular instead of the plural, and 
with a t instead of the c : the succeeding word 
f{ and " omitted, and (l Lord " unnecessarily spelt 
" lorde." Surely, in everything connected with 
the revision of our Bible, the most scrupulous 
correctness of quotation ought to be observed. I 
see that in the Geneva Bible, 1576, " administra- 
tion " is in the plural ; as, indeed, it stands in the 
authorised version. J. H. II. 

Can any antiquary assist me in tracing the 
early owners of this manor ? In 1134 Albreda, 
daughter of Remelin, gave the manor to the abbey 
of Ramsey ; Walter de Bolbec, feudal lord, and 
his son Hugh, consenting and executing separate 
deeds of gift, and King Henry I. giving a charter 
of confirmation as superior lord. In the deed of 
Walter, and also of Albreda, the manor is said to 
have been hers by inheritance. Now what I want 
to ascertain is, who was Remelin ? and of what 
sex ? The deed of Albreda says " filia Remelini," 
Remelinus being the Latinized form of Remelin ; 
I think, however, that Remelin might have been 
a woman, as there are instances of feminine names 
Latinized with termination in " us." In Domes- 
day Book the manor of W r alton is given as the 
fief of Hugo de Bolbec, but at the end is said, 
" Hugo tenet de Comite Wilhelmo." Sir H. Ellis 
gives Hugo as a tenant in Hunts, doubtless owing 
to this addendum. This William was probably 
the Earl of Hereford, who died in 1071, and was 
succeeded by his third son, Roger, who died in 
prison in 1088. Inasmuch as Albreda had a 
grown-up son, Eustace, afterwards called Eustace 
de Walton, she must have been well on in years 
in 1134. As Eustace was a witness to his mo- 
ther's deed, he would probably be of legal a^e, 
br say at least twenty-four; this would make 
Albreda forty-five to fifty years of age at that 
time. As she says in her deed that her husband, 
Eustace de Sellea, has been now soma years dead, 


* S. X. AUGUST 3, '72. 

I think it is fair to assume her age to have been 
at least fifty j this would make the date of her birth 
circa 1084, which would give circa 1058 to 1063 
as the date of birth of Eemelin. If Remelin was 
a de Bolbec, he or she must have been a child of 
Hugo de Bolbec, of Domesday Book, and born in 
.Normandy. Dugdale's Baronage, I believe, only 
mentions two sons of Plugo Hugo and Walter 
hence my supposition that Remelin may have 
been a daughter. Remelin may, however, have 
been a child of William, Earl of Hereford, and if 
so, must have been a daughter. Is it known who 
was the Saxon owner of Walton, as it is possible that 
Kemelin may be a Saxon name? Is any thing known 
of Eustace de Sellea, called sometimes de Stellea, 
and also de Scyellea ? Is it possible that this 
name may be a corruption of St. Liz ? Simon 
de St. Liz, Earl of Northampton, married Matilda, 
daughter of Earl Waltheof and Judith, niece of 
William the Conqueror, and by this marriage 
acquired lands in Pluntingdonshire, on which his 
aon, Simon the second, founded the abbey of 
Saltrey, in 1146, the lands of which joined up to 
ihose of Ramsey abbey on the manor of Walton, 
A William de Selfleia gave a charter to the monks 
of Saltrey, and some land in Walton manor ; he 
was the son of Simon son of William, whose 
wife was Emma, probably daughter and sole 
heiress of Eustace de Walton, which marriage 
would give Simon and William some rights over 
the lands of Walton. Who was William the 
ifather of Simon ? I conjecture Selfleia to be the 
same name as St. Liz. A Simon Seynlige was a 
witness to a deed about 1219 : Is not this also 
St. Liz ? I shall be very glad to have these 
points elucidated by some antiquary conversant 
with this part of Hunts. JAMES BIGGIN. 

Sunny Hill, Cheetham Hill, Manchester. 

FLECKNOE." Considering that it was in the year 
1681 that, at the express desire of the king, 
Dryden wrote his memorable satire of Absalom 
{Duke of Monmouth) and Achitophel (Earl of 
Sliaftesbury), it is a fact of sufficient biographi- 
cal interest for N. & Q. that the same names are 
employed to represent the same contemporary 
characters in the MS. volume of poems which I 
Jhave attributed to Dr. Donne;* for instance, from 
" Satyr Unmuzzell'd :" 

"Thou weak Achitophell, to undertake 
By thy wise councell a fals king to make ; 
But thou and Absalom, thy weaker freind 
Your damn'd ambition now is att an end." 

Also that Dryden's Mac-Flecknoe and my 
author's Mack Fleckno are alike vigorous satires 
directed against the same rival poet, Shadwell. 

f * Dr. John Donne, divine and poet, died March 31, 
631. ED.] 

Having previously supplied evidence from The 

Sham Prophecy that the MS. referred to was 

written before 1678, may we not fairly conclude 

that Dryden was assisted to poetical pre-eminence 

j by one of his poetical contemporaries ? That the 

I author of my volume lived on terms of friendship 

! with Dryden may reasonably be inferred from his 

admiration of him, and from the harmony of their 

aims. (See " N. & Q." 4 th S. ix. 531 ; x. 14, 47.) 

Of the evidences in which the volume abounds 

I that its author was a constant courtier, the 

j following is a fair specimen : 

" To us that know these things 'tis no such wonder, 
The Court and devill n'ere live far a sunder.-' 

And of the passages which afford strong pre- 
sumptive evidence that the author could scarcely 
be other than the king's chaplain are these : 

" While thus I scribling sitt, methinks I hear, 
The men in furies, ladies all o're fear : 
See, ther's the censuring monster, letts be grave, 
Heel libell you if he but see you laugh : 
But what of that, must I alone sitt still, 
Shall all be mad, and I not dare to smille " ? 

Utile Dulce. 

" Such crowds of fopps are fluttring in my sight, 
That spight of all the muses I must write, 
Speak truth of them and my own name forswear, 
That shall concealed be for shame or fear, 
For tho I want the witt to mend my fault, 
Yett I have sence to know this is stark naught." 

Scandall Satyr'd. 

0. B. B. 

CENTENE or LTNG. What was this precise 
measure or quantity of fish ? The term " cen- 
tene " is used in an ancient Latin charter of one 
of the Cinque Port towns. The writing is ex- 
quisitely clear and good, and <l centum " occurs in 
the next line, otherwise we might have supposed 
that the number of lyng spoken of was one 
hundred. M. D. T. N. 

CHAUCER EDITION. Who was the editor of an 
edition of Chaucer in my possession, and when 
was it published ? The title is Chaucer's Canter- 
bury Tales and other Poems, published by " John 
Cumberland, 2, Cumberland Terrace, CamdenNew 
Town," * 2 volumes small 12mo, containing 926 
pages of print, portrait, and vignette title pages, 
and : twenty-one cuts by J. Mills. ' Pages 157 to 
168 in vol. i. in my copy are in a smaller type 
than the rest of the book. Besides the poems 
there is a sketch of English poetry, a life, exten- 
sive foot-notes, and a glossary. I can find no 
notice of this edition in Lowndes or elsewhere. 



[* The publisher of the British Theatre (acting plays) 
edited by George Daniel, 39 vols. 1823-31, 12mo ; also of 
the Minor Theatre, by the same editor, 14 vols., 1831-2, 
18mo. ED.] 

. X. AUGUST 3, '72.] 


u And here's Kirby's Wonderful Museum ! " ex- 
claims Boffin in Our Mutual Friend. Can any 
of the readers of " N. & Q." inform your corre- 
spondent whether the work referred to by the 
" Golden Dustman " (published in five volumes 
in London, 1820) was in the library of Mr. 
Dickens ? ALADDIN. 

EMESCIT. What is the meaning of the word 
cmescit f It occurs by itself in Lombardic cha- 
racters at the head of an old cross slab in Kemsing 
church, Kent. Are there any instances of the use 
of the same word under similar conditions ? 


Kidbrooke, Blackheatb. 

" FILIA MTTNDI : " "FiLiA POPULI." What is 
the difference between the expressions " Filia 
inundi " and " Filia populi " occurring in the same 
parish register about the end of the sixteenth and 
beginning of the seventeenth century ? A. M. R. 

stone's throw from Hampstead old church there 
stands what is apparently an Elizabethan man- 
sion in an advanced state of dilapidation and 
decay. Mr. Howitt, in his Northern Heights of 
London, 1869, gives a short account of it, com- 
mencing at p. 154, in which he states that it is of 
modern date, having been built by a Mr. Thomp- 
son, who died about 1836. The house, especially 
in its exterior, has every appearance of antiquity ; 
and the quantity of carving which covers the 
front, and also the porch, which is a very large 
and singular one, would surely cost an enormous 
sum, even if it could have been produced at all in 
this century. In one of the upper windows there 
is a small quantity of stained glass, with the date 
1632. Mr. Howitt says it descended to a niece of 
Thompson's, who married Bernard Gregory an 
individual whose name, if I mistake not, was im- 
paled in your columns a short time back, and who, 
liaving neglected to pay the fine to the lord of 
the manor, the said lord (Sir Thomas Wilson) 
recovered possession by injunction; but fearing 
that some heir of Thompson's might appear after 
lie had repaired it, allowed it to go to ruin. It 
is, however, extremely picturesque in its decay ; 
and I shall be much obliged to any of your cor- 
respondents who can give any further account of 
it, or a reference to any work which mentions it. 
At the commencement of the drive which leads 
to it there is a small lodge, over the window of 
which, almost hidden by the clustering ivy, is 
curious carving in stone of a monk playing upo: 
bagpipes. Was this lodge built at the same time 
as the house, or is it of an earlier date ? 



[An interesting notice of Memory-Corner Thompson 
will be found in Hone's Every-day Book, i. 80.1 

HECLA IN ICELAND. What is the meaning of 
his name in the old Norwegian language ? M, 

[In Icelandic hekla or hohull denotes a hooded frock or 
mantle. Hence Heklu-fjall or Hecla-fell, the native 
name for Mount Hecla, which thus signifies the hooded* 
mountain in allusion to its hood or mantle of snow. See- 

leasby's Icelandic Dictionary, edited by Vigfusson.] 

JONGLEURS. Who were the jongleurs ? I metr 
with this name in reading, and cannot find it ia 
any dictionary ? J. N. ATKINSON. 

Seven Oaks. 

[The jongleurs, or players on the jongleur (a sort of 
uitar or hurdy-gurdy), a class of minstrels who accom- 
panied those troubadours who chose to employ them. 
During the cruel wars against the Albigenses these 
knightly bards disappeared, but the hireling jongleurs 
remained behind. Some of them had visited the East,, 
and learned the art of conjuring ; some had no poetry i 
them, and tried to earn a living by antics and feats e> 
prowess ; others introduced whatever they thought would 
amuse and bring the best harvest : so that eventual!^ 
the player on the jongleur became the common juggJer r . 
or person skilled in sleight of hand. Some informatic* 
relative to the jongleurs may be collected from Petrarch's- 
curious, but angry description of them, in the Memoirs 
of his Life, by M.l'Abbtf de Sade, iii. 655. Consult also 
Bp. Percy's lieliques of Ancient English Poetry, ed.!775 r 
vol. i. pp. Ixiv. Ixxvi.J 

MEDALLIC. Where can I find any mention of 
the medal presented to Captain Ewing, of the 
Royal Marines, who fought at Bunker's Hill, and 
on which is inscribed "By order of the King 
with 300 Pound for the Wound Capt. Ewing 
Recv d the 17 June 1775 ," ? 

And where can I see an engraving, or drawing, 
of the gold medals and clasps given by Sultan 
Mahmoud II. to William Spry and William 
Richardson, of the Royal Sappers and Miners, for 
services in Turkey during 1836 ? 


3 St. Michael's Place, Brighton. 

MESMERISING A COCK. As a boy I kept fowls,, 
and was taught the following experiment by a 
schoolfellow : One boy holding a cock's (or hen's) 
head down on a board laid on the ground, another 
slowly drew a line with chalk from the point of 
the beak along the board, when the bird appeared 
fascinated, and lay for a short time as if dead. 
This we called "mesmerising a cock,'-' mesmeric 
experiments and lectures being then very much 
in vogue. Will any physiologist kindly explain, 
the cause of the effect produced ? " FILMA. 

ARMS OF POVAH, co. Westmoreland and North 
Lancashire, till 1745. (?) Two lions passant 
guardant. (?) What are the proper tinctures ? 
Address X. Y. Z., Post Office, Limerick. 

this hall ever occupied as a private harem, and by 
whom ? Did King Charles II. ever visit it? 

j. a 



. X. AUGUST 3, '72. 

graphical account ever been published of the late 
Terence Bellew Mac Manus, one of the principal 1 
members of the Young Ireland party, and whc 
may, therefore, be considered, as political senti- 
ments influence, either a patriot or a rebel ? I am 
informed he was a Fermanagh man, and resided 
for some time in Liverpool ; also, that he died an 
exile in the United States, and that his body was 
brought back to Ireland, and carried through the 
streets of Dublin with great solemnity to the 

TROPHY. An annual assessment of one penny 
in the pound is made in the City of London for 
the militia, but it is levied as a t( trophy tax." 
What does this mean ? It appears to be founded 
on an Act (13 & 14 Car. II. cap. 3) dating from 
Christmas 1661 ; which I find was for " ordering 
the forces," and applies to the. City in respect of 
"militia, train-bands, and auxiliaries"; but I do 
not see that it in any way explains the meaning 
of the word trophy as used in this sense. A. H. 

[The word trophy as applied to a tax is from 
$)s, fy food, maintenance, board, pay, &c., and as applied 
to the City of London militia, includes the cost of head- 
quarters, permanent staff, band, arms, and all other in- 
cidental expenses. The tax is levied and disbursed by 
the Court of Lieutenancy for the City, under the autho- 
rity of various Acts of Parliament ; and accounts of the 
expenditure, we believe, are occasionally printed.] 

VAIR IN HERALDRY. When the word vair is 
used simply, I believe that it is understood that 
the points of the azure cups are downwards, and 
the points of the argent cups upwards. How 
should the five be blazoned when the points of 
the azure cups are upwards, and those of the 
argent ones downwards ? RESUPINTJS. 

[In vair the points of the argent cups are opposed 
to each other, whilst the azure are placed base to base. 
In counter-vair the points of the two colours meet.] 

" VANITY FAIR," Can any one tell me the 
meaning of the signature "Ape" which is found 
on Mr. Carlo Pellegrini's caricature portraits in 
Vanity Fair? C. W. S. 

VIRGINIA. In an account book now before 
me I find, under the year 1616 : 
" pd to a breefe yt came for the buildinge of a church in 
Virginia V s " 

Can any of your readers give me the name of 
the place where the church was to be built ? 


WAYTE. Apropos of this subject, might I ask 
what is known of the family of the Thomas Wayte 
whose name is attached to this document ? I find 
the name frequently occurring in family deeds; 
and one of them appears to have been a solicitor 
of Aston, near Birmingham. The deeds and docu- 
ments in question, I see, would bring his family 

in contact with that of Devereux, who sold pro- 
perty in this parish to my ancestors. 

The name Thomas Wayte first occurs in a deed 
of January 16, 1547 (1 Edw. VI.) ; and after- 
wards in several other deeds of this reign, Philip 
and Mary, and Elizabeth. 

To a deed of January 20, 1594, 1 find the name 
of Edward Waghte of this parish (doubtless of 
the same family) attached as a witness. From 
the phraseology he makes use of in these docu- 
ments, and other circumstances, I think it is very 
probable that he might, as- the old genealogists 
would say, "have had issue Edward, who had 
issue Thomas." C. CHATTOCK. 

Castle Bromwich. 

(4 th S. ix. 446.) 

Ducange, under the word " Scuta," gives as the 
meaning "Vestis ecclesiasticse species" a kind 
of ecclesiastical vestment ; upon the strength of 
which I hazard the conjecture, that Scutarius may 
be synonymous with, or tantamount to, vestiarius, 
the officer who had charge of the church furniture 
and vestments. Of scutellce, which may perhaps 
be a diminutive or derivative of the former, he 
says : " Cibi ac potus portiones diurnse quse prea- 
byteris aliisque clericis erogantur ex ecclesiaD 
facultatibus " daily rations of food, which are 
served out to the priests and other of the clergy 
from the stores of the church; and its cognate, 
scutellarius, he defines as " officium in coquina 
regia, cui scutettarum cura incunibit " an office in 
the royal kitchen, having for its duties the care 
of the provisions : hence the person having charge 
of this office would be the chief cook, butler, or 
governor of the commissariat. 

But if monasteries held lands by " knight-ser- 
vice," as they certainly did by " knight-fee," we 
may then take the word in its more strict etymo- 
logical sense, as armiger, spatharius, stipendiarius, 
&c. ; since, by this tenure, the monastery would 
be bound to supply, whenever called upon, a cer- 
tain complement of men fully equipped for mili- 
tary service : nor need your worthy correspondent 
ESPEDARE hesitate to accept this view, if he will 
bear in mind that these persons were not " officers 
of the monastery"; but simply tenants of, or 
labourers on, the lands pertaining to it. 

But in treating of a subject like this, we must 
not lose sight either of the character of the times, 
or the rank in the social scale, which monastic 
establishments held during the middle ages. The 
times were eminently rude and lawless : the rights 
of persons or property but little respected ; might 
made right ; and " the strong man armed " was 
ver ready to make prey of the weak and the de- 

4* S. X. AUGUST 3, 72.] 



fenceless. Hence, to keep either themselves or 
"their goods in peace," it became a matter of ne- 
cessity with those who had possessions, to protect 
them by a stronger arm than that which the 
law of the land afforded. This only could _ be 
secured by means of a force similar to that against 
which they had to guard, and hence their need of 
armed retainers, and these in numbers propor- 
tionate to the extent of their estates. To _ these 
they may have granted tenures of a kind like to 
those under which they themselves held, and I 
strongly suspect that this "Andree Ros, alias 
Paynter," is an individual instance of such a tenure. 
He, I am inclined to think, held the particular 
tenement lying in the then newly erected burgh 
of Paisley by military service, and so might 
very properly be spoken of as " prsedilecto fami- 
liari scutario nostro." 

But again it must be remembered, that many 
of the monasteries the larger ones especially 
held in those days very high rank in the social 
scale ; and their abbots, a number of whom were 
mitred, had their place amongst the highest dig- 
nitaries of the land. And as churchmen have 
never been remarkable for remitting anything 
which pertained to their dignity or interest, we 
may feel pretty sure that these abbots would take 
good care to gather about them all those appur- 
tenances and appointments which were considered 
necessary, in those days, to the due maintenance 
of the exalted position which they filled. Among 
these a band of military retainers was neither last 
nor least, and such, in consequence, we may be 
sure they had. Besides all this, as Lords of Par- 
liament, and in the discharge of other duties in- 
cumbent upon them, they had frequently to make 
long and tedious journeys; and as, from the num- 
ber of lawless persons infesting the high-roads, 
travelling in those times was highly dangerous, 
they could not with any degree of safety have 
travelled without a competent guard, especially 
as in their baggage they carried with them much 
that was calculated to tempt the cupidity of the 
marauder. From all which considerations I in- 
cline to the opinion that there was attached to all 
the greater monasteries a staff of armed retainers, 
and that to such is to be assigned the general 
term Scutarii. 

That dignified ecclesiastics were accustomed to 
have such persons about them is patent, from the 
cases of Thomas a Becket, and Cardinal Wolsey 
at a later date, EDMUND TEW, M.A., F.R.H.S. 

Patching Rectoiy, near Arundel. 


(4 th S. ix. passim; x. 13.) 
" The keeping of a church book for the age of 
those that should be born and christened in the 
parish began in the thirtieth year of King Henry 

the Eighth," says Burn (Eccles. Law, iii. 459) ; 
and Canon 70 (1003) was only a reinforcement of 
Lord Cromwell's injunction of 1538, and directed 
that a book of parchment should be provided in 
each parish, wherein should be written the day 
and year of every christening, wedding and burial, 
and that minister and churchwardens should each 
have a separate key to the coffer wherein such 
book should be kept. But the modern church 
registers, with their printed forms and separate 
books for baptisms, marriages, and burials, date, I 
believe, from the important Act of 52 George III. 
c. 146, " for the better regulating and preserving 
parish and other registers," which Act, still in the 
main in force, recites in the preamble that an 
amendment in the manner of keeping registers 
" would greatly facilitate the proofs of pedigrees," 
and be otherwise of great public benefit, and 
enacts that books should be kept " of parchment 
or durable paper," according to the forms now 
well known j that entries of baptisms and burials 
should be made by the officiating minister within 
seven days ; and the said books should be kept by 
the minister in charge of the parish, safely and 
securely, in an iron chest, either at his residence 
or in the parish church or chapel. Although a 
later Act (6 & 7 Will. IV. c. 86) provides that 
nothing therein should affect the registration of 
baptisms or burials as previously by law estab- 
lished, the civil registration which that Act 
brought into being has, in some respects, super- 
seded the ecclesiastical. The forms provided are 
fuller, entries being made of the date of birth of 
child, the maiden name of mother, and for de- 
funct persons, of the cause and date of death ; 
and although in many parish registers it is, and 
long has been, customary to enter the date of 
birth of a child in the register of the christening, 
such entry is not of itself held to be sufficient evi- 
dence of the age ; whereas the Act 3 & 4 Viet, 
c. 92 enables courts of justice to admit non- 
parochial registers as evidence of births, baptisms, 
deaths, burials, and marriages. 

In the older parochial registers, several of 
which date almost from the time of their insti- 
tution (30 Henry VIII.) the entries are often 
very difficult to decipher, being written with 
numerous abbreviations, and usually in Latin; 
and baptisms and burials are, if my memory does 
not deceive me, usually jumbled together, and 
occasionally there are memoranda either of 
matters pertinent to the ceremony performed, or 
of events of local interest at the time : the break- 
ing out or departure of plague, even of cattle- 
plague. J. Lewis, in his History of Tenet (2nd 
edit., 1736, p. 149) records that a minister of 
St. John's, Margate, " left this character " of his 
predecessor, G. Stevens, " in the parish register, 
optimus et doctissimus Scotus" And in the re- 
gister books of friends of my own I have seen 



X. AUGUST 3, 72. 

Hotices in the margin, either of the birth, death or 
marriage rate having been unusually email or 
great for some years, or in a certain year of per- 
sons dying at a more advanced age than usual j 
or even matters specially noteworthy of indi- 
viduals, as that such a man had been a Penin- 
sular veteran. And entries of date of birth, not 
being required by law, must be considered as 
purely voluntary; and all such marginal me- 
moranda, if sparingly and judiciously made, might 
hereafter be of great interest and utility, not only 
to the families concerned, but to the public gene- 
rally. In the old parchment register of Awre, 
Gloucestershire, is an entry (of baptism, I think) 
relating to Sternhold, one of the composers of 
the original version of the Psalms, which might 
have escaped notice but for a memorandum by a 
much later hand. And through some registers 
may be traced, for many generations, families 
which, though now reduced and it may be poor, 
were once wealthy and powerful, and even gave 
their names to the parish or township in which 
their representatives still live. Instances of this 
have come under niy own observation, but it 
would be an impertinence to particularise. The 
connection, however, where clear and undoubted, 
might be, with the approval of the families them- 
selves, recorded in the margin of the register in 
which any entry was made relating to such family, 
and thus help be given in- obtaining proofs of 

Might not some of the older registers, which 
have sometimes ceased to have any merely local 
interest, be advantageously transferred, at least 
pro tern., to the British Museum, or custody of the 
Society of Antiquaries, that their contents might 
be examined and interesting entries published ? 

20, Compton Terrace, Highbury. 


(4 th S. x. 8.) 

It strikes me that MR. FERRET is somewhat 
too harsh in his " Recollections " as regards the 
late J. 13. Isabey, to whom, in half-a-dozen lines, 
he can apply such terms as the following, little 
suited to so distinguished an artist, so amiable 
and truly worthy a man as he was. " This man 
boasted," says MR. FERRET "he was at all 
events a very presuming person " ( ' Isabey one 
day bragging of his great intimacy " " boastinqly 
laid a wager" " the Consul resented the gross 
liberty by ever afterwards excluding Isabey from 
his presence." Surely this is gross exaggeration, 
for, even admitting that this "extraordinary inci- 
dent" was an ill-timed and ill-placed "practical 
joke," we must likewise in fairness bear in 
mind the revolutionary period when it happened, 

and the great intimacy which then really obtained 
between the Beauharnais family and Isabey. More- 
over, Bonaparte himself had the good taste not ta 
resent the offence long, as we shall presently see. 
If I mistake not, this anecdote is related in 
J. B. Isabey 's own Reminiscences, as also in the 
Duchess d'Abrantes' Memoirs, and in the Sou- 
venirs of Queen Hortense, by Mme. Bochsa 
(Mdlle. "Georgette Ducrest) ; but here is a free- 
translation of what Mr. E. J. Delecluze, a co- 
pupil of Isabey's at David's, and later a writer in 
the Debats, says of it, and of his goodness of heart 
and endearing sociable qualities. 

In 1796 Isabey, who had already been able to 
lay some money by, hearing that his friend Gerard 
(the historical painter), less fortunate, was on the 
point of parting, after the Exhibition, with his 
picture Belisarius for the paltry sum of GOO 
francs, offered him at once 3000 francs, and, not 
content with this first act of generosity, having 
sold the picture for double that price to Mr. Mayer r 
the Dutch Envoy, Isabey, with a joyful heart, 
went and gave his friend the surplus of what he 
had paid him. " One good turn deserves another," 
says the old adage ; so Gerard, grateful for so 
much disinterestedness, painted for his benefactor 
and friend the admirable full-length portrait of 
Isabey with his little girl (the future Madame 
Ciceri), which his son, M. Eugene Isabey, the 
clever marine painter, has given to the State, and 
which is now in the Louvre. 

Much about that time, Mme. Campan's large 
establishment for young- ladies was founded at 
Ecouen ; there Mme. de Beauharnais (the future 
Empress Josephine) hastened to place her daugh- 
ter Hortense. The drawing department was en- 
trusted to Isabey, and such was the confidence 
that he had inspired, that several times he had 
charge of young Eugene Beauharnais and his 
sister, to accompany them to juvenile parties. 

In those days General Bonaparte occupied the 
small hotel in the Rue Chantereine (now Rue de 
la Victoire), where, in later years, resided the 
mother of Count Walewski. 

Every one knows that the acquaintance of Gene- 
ral Bonaparte with the seduisante Creole Jose- 
phine originated in her sending her son Eugene 
to ask the General to cause the sword of his 
father (the ill-fated General Beauharnais) to be 
restored to him. On her expressing her heartfelt 
thanks for such a boon, Bonaparte " came, 
saw her and was conquered." Wishing to 
purchase La Malmaison, belonging to Mdme. 
Lecoulteux-Mole, it was Isabey whom B. chose 
as negotiator, which he did to the General's entire 
satisfaction, and it was shortly after that he 
Dainted the admirable portrait of "the First Consul 
with La Malmaison in the background, the en- 
graving of which is now so difficult to be had. 
Isabey was not only naturally gay, good humoured 

4 S. X. AUGUST 3, '72.] 



and quick-witted, but he was uncommonly adroit 
&t all manly exercises. He was a first-rate skater 
and a most elegant dancer, at a time when 
"tripping it with the light fantastic toe" was 
quite an art, and he was consequently much 
sought after in high circles. Enfant gate des 
habitants de la Malmaison, he often played at 
leap-frog with the young aides-de-camp of the 
General. The story is told that, one day, after 
having cleared the heads of all successively and 

aliis. He next proceeded to Vienna, where tha 
congress gave him a unique opportunity of exer- 
cising his magic brush. This all-important work, 
beautifully engraved, has now a world- wide re- 
putation. The fine album containing all the 
portraits in sepia, taken from life, of so many 
illustrious political personages, was purchased and 
given by the Count d'Artois (the future Charles X.) 
to the Duchess de Berry, and at her death became 
the property of the late Marquis of Hertford. 

mi 1-v i r> TYT 11* i M 

successfully, Isabey perceived an erect figure at The Duke of Wellington, who of course figures 
the turning of an alley ; it was Bonaparte. Full of | there, was very desirous to possess it. 
fun and frolic, he could not withstand the 

and frolic, he could not withstand 
temptation of this saut-perilleux. He apologised 
for having taken so great a liberty, but saw at 
once by the frown on the haughty brow that he 
had overshot the mark. From that moment there 
was less familiarity allowed. The* year after, 
however, in June 1802, the First Consul insti- 
tuted the Legion of Honour; Isabey was com- 
missioned to make the drawings, and he was one 
of the first Legionnaires. Independently of the 
great charm and merit of Isabey's works, they for 
the most part have an historical importance which 
greatly enhances their value. In the galleries of 
Versailles can be seen two fine very large sepia 
drawings with many historical heads, of exquisite 
workmanship. The one represents the First Con- 
sul at Eouen, visiting the manufacture of the 
Brothers Sevenne, and in 1806 the Emperor 
Napoleon giving his own cross to Mr. Chr. 
Phil. Oberkampf, the celebrated manufacturer at 
Jouy. In the Louvre, too, are other important 
works of Isabey's, amongst them the review of 
the Consular Guard by General Bonaparte, the 
horses of which were painted by Carle Vernet. 
Isabey had to compose all the drawings for the 
coronation, as also when at Milan Napoleon put 
on his own head the Italian crown. He painted 
the portraits of Pope Pius VII., of the Empress 
Josephine, Prince Talleyrand, young Prince Louis 
(the first born of Queen Hortense, who died when 
he was eight years old : had he lived, Napoleon 
would in all likelihood have adopted him as his 
successor, and not married again). Isabey likewise 
had to paint the portrait of Napoleon sent with 
many other precious gifts in the new Empress 
Marie-Louise's wedding corbeille. Then, again, 
those of the Empress and of the little Kino- of 
Eome, &c, &c. 

In 1812 Isabey pot fhe appointment of de-- 
corator of the Court Theatre. But in 1814 there 
was of a sudden a great change of scene, and on 
a far larger theatre that of the political world. 
The powerful conqueror was himself overpowered ! 

I cannot do better than end this too long note 
on Isabey by transcribing a very flattering portrait 
of him which, some forty years ago, he kindlj 
allowed me to copy out of his album. " Portrait 
d'Isabey par la princesse Bagration, ne'e com- 
tesse Scaurmska." 

" II faudrait une plume digne du pinceau d'Isabey 
pour entreprendre avec succes le portrait de 1'Appelle de 
nos jours. Mais Isabey demande un chef d'oauvre avec la 
confiance d'un homme habitue a en faire. Celui qui sait 
e'galer la nature ne croit pas aux difficultes. Avec un 
exte'rieur agreable, des formes polies et une eloquence 
naturelle, Isabey a tout ce qu'il faut pour attirer 1'envie 
et la desarmer. II joint 1'esprit au talent, la sensibilite 
la gaiete, et une certaine bonhomie au piquant des' 
ide'es les plus originales. Plein de gout et de grace dans 
ce qu'il dit comme dans ce qu'il fait, il est recherche dans 
tous les cercles et Ton paye avec plaisir a 1'homme 
aimable le tribut d'admiration du a. 1'homme de genie. 
Le court sejour qu'il a fait dans un pays oil sa reputation 
1'avait precede y laissera des regrets. Puisse-t-il dis- 
tinguer les miens ! Je trace avec un sentiment d'esporr 
et de fiertc mon nom & cote' des noms qui lui sont chers ; 
c'est s'armer en quelque sorte centre 1'oubli, car dans ses 
momens de loisir il regardera sans doute ce recueil d 
souvenirs." PCKSSE BAGRATION. 

Vienne, 1815. 

None but a woman could trace such a portrait. 
P. A. L. 

I think the story is in Lever's Charles O'Malley. 
I wish to point out that Thackeray has carica- 
tured it in his burlesque of Lever in Novels by 
Eminent Hands. - JOHN ADDIS. 

(4' h S. ix. 360, 415, 490.) 

The following account of this spectral appari- 
tion may interest those at least wlio are not ac- 
quainted with the legend. I have been familiar 
with it myself from my earliest boyhood from the 
narrative which I now transcribe, and have been 
many a time and oft afraid to take my eye from 
the page lest it should encounter the mvsterious 

human follies, and Isabey's talent was put in re- 
quisition to paint Louis XVIII, tl/Emperor 
Alexander, his brothers the Grand Dukes Nicolas 
and ATiVhpl tha n.,1 nf W IV . ,f. 

lel, tt )uke of \V elhngton, cum muttu 

and that of St. Germain 

n j ^ ^ "" 

*i Waldron r , elates that the . re was formerly a passage 
through one of these now ruined churches to the apart- 
ment of the captain of the guard, but it was closed up, he 



[4i S. X. AUGUST 3, '72. 

also tells us, as the natives of the island report,'on the fol- 
lowing account : 

"An apparition which they called Mauthe Doog, in 
the shape of a shaggy spaniel, was accustomed to hannt 
the castle in all parts, but particularly the guard-cham- 
ber, where it would constantly come and lay itself down 
by the fire at candle-light. The soldiers lost much of 
their terror by the frequency of the sight ; yet, as they 
conceived it to be an evil spirit waiting for an opportu- 
nity to hurt them, that idea kept them so far in order 
that they refrained from swearing and profane discourse 
in its presence, and none chose to be left alone with so 
insidious an enemy. Now, as this Mauthe Doog used to 
come out and return by the passage through the church, 
through which also somebody must go to deliver the 
keys every night to the captain, they continued to go 
two together, he whose turn it was to do that duty being 
accompanied by the next in rotation. 

" But one of the soldiers, on a certain night, being 
much disguised in liquor, would go with the keys alone, 
though it really was not his turn. His comrades in vain 
endeavoured to dissuade him : he said he wished for the 
Mauthe Doog's company, and he would try whether it 
were dog or devil ; and then, after much profane talk, 
he snatched up the keys and departed. Some time after- 
wards a great noise alarmed the soldiers, but none would 
venture to go and see what was the occasion. When the 
adventurer returned, he was struck with horror and 
speechless, nor could he even make such signs as might 
give them in any degree to understand what had hap- 
pened to him ; but he died with distorted features, in 
violent agonies. After this none would go through the 
passage, which was soon closed up, though the apparition 
was never seen more in the castle. 

"Such tales as these told to enlightened persons in a 
refined age should need no other comment than this, that 
they show the disposition of those who believe them. It 
must be owned that some stories similar to that of the 
Mauthe Doog have been related of a supposed apparition 
haunting some of our northern counties ignorant super- 
stition is nearly akin in all countries. No writer is cen- 
surable for noticing such matters, but he is worthy of 
blame who endeavours to add any degree of credit to 
them in the manner of his recital : a charge from which 
perhaps Waldron cannot be here well exculpated, who 
concludes thus 'This accident happened about three- 
score years since ; and I had it attested by several, but 
especially by an old soldier, who assured me he had seen 
it (the apparition) oftener than he had hairs on his 
head.' " Antiquities of England and lVales,fyc., by Henry 
Boswell, F.A.ILS. London, 1786, folio, No. 25. 

This story is evidently taken from that of Wal- 
dron, which may be referred to in corroboration. 
See his Description of the Isle of Man, folio, 1731, 
p. 103. 

Sir Walter Scott, in a note to his Peveril of the 
Peak, says, in allusion to the word itself 

" It would be very desirable to find out the meaning of 
the word Mauthe in the Manx language, which is a dia- 
lect of the Gaelic. I observe that Maithe in Gaelic, 
amongst other significations, has that of active or speedy ; 
and also that a dog of Richard II., mentioned by Frois- 
sart, and supposed to intimate the fall of his master's 
authority b)*- leaving him and fawning on Bolingbroke,was 
termed Mauthe ; but neither of these particulars tends to 
explain the very impressive story of the fiendish hound of 
Peel Castle." 

The reader may chance to be reminded of the 
black poodle seen by Faust : 

" Siehst du den schwarzen Hund durch Saat und Stoppel 
streifen ? 

Bemerkst du, wie in weitem Schneckenkreise 
Er urn uns her und immer naher jagt ? 
Und irr' ich nicht, so zieht ein Feuerstrudel 
Auf seinen Pfaden hintendrein." 

His companion, Wagner, can see nothing but 
an ordinary cur, and laughs at the line of light 
that follows in his wake as an optical illusion. 
Goethe, in his treatise on colours, describes just such 
a phenomenon as occurring to himself, and ex- 
plains it on natural principles; and Hay ward, 
who cites this in notes appended to his Prose 
Translation, refers to Sir David Brewster's Letters 
on Natural Magic (p. 20) for further illustration. 
Nevertheless, the subsequent doings and meta- 
morphoses of Faust's poodle suggest that he is of 
the same family as if indeed he is not identical 
with the Mauthe Doog. WILLIAM BATES. 


S. ix. 532 ; x. 56.) After reading MR. NOELL 
RADECLIFFE'S quotation (p. 532) from Augustus 
Hare's Walks in Rome, on the ancient bas-relief 
in the museum of the Capitol, representing a 
Koman lady trying to induce her cat (?) to dance 
to her lyre ( Walks in Rome, vol. i. p. 105), which 
MR. NOELL RADECLLFFE mentions as a " stubborn 
and unyielding witness " to pussy-cat's early civi- 
lization, I wrote to a friend in Rome on whose 
powers of observation I can rely, and requested 
him to inspect this bas-relief. This is what he 
reports to me : 

"After careful study of the bas-relief concerning which 
you ask for my opinion, I am bound to say that the cat 
question seems difficult of solution. I am not prepared 
to affirm that the design of the sculptor (who would have 
sculptured better had he taken more pains) was not to 
represent a dog. The work shows three main incidents : 
A lady playing on a lyre, two ducks hanging from the top 
of a wall, and a small quadruped standing on hind legs 
and endeavouring to approach the ducks. I can perceive 
no sufficient ground for the assertion that the lady is 
playing for any other purpose than that of her own diver- 
sion. On the other hand, it seems reasonable to attribute 
the attitude of the so-called cat to simple greed." 

A. E. 


(4 th S. ix. 484 ; x. 15, 75.) Permit me to correct 
a clerical error in my last paper. I stated that 
Underhill was born in 1508 ; it should have been 
1512. He was eight years old when the inquisi- 
tion of his grandfather was taken, Oct. 31, 1520. 


THE MAST " (4 th S. ix. 426 ; x. 19.) THE KNIGHT 
OF MORAR may be glad to know that his hero 
John Crawford does not stand alone in the parti- 
cular act of heroism to whifh he refers. A very 

4 th S. X. AUGUST 3, '72.] 



handsome piece of plate, now in the possession of 
my nephew. Colonel Fitz-Gerald, bears the fol- 
lowing inscription : 

" Lloyd's Coffee House. 

" A tribute of respect from his Country to Mr. William 
i"itz-Gerald, Midshipman of His Majesty's Ship the Marl- 

i 1 llZ-vjcltiiUj i.xiuoiii|jii.i.Aj. vi j. *T..V*J~^ ~ 

borough, for his gallant conduct on the ever memorable 
1st of June, 1794, when the French Fleet was defeated by 
the British Fleet under the command of Admiral Earl 

The gallant conduct " thus referred to is re- 
corded by his family as follows : 

" At the time of the engagement, the 1st of June, 1794> 
William Fitz-Gerald was a midshipman on board the 
Marlborough, not more than sixteen years of age. His 
ship had been driven nearly on shore by a French vessel, 
and in this position was cruelly raked fore and aft by the 
enemy's fire. The last remaining mast was shot away, 
and a cheer was given by the Frenchmen under the im- 
pression she had struck her colours, as it was the one 
which carried the flag. The men had been ordered, after 
firing, to lie flat on the deck to escape the enemy's fire ; 
but when the Frenchmen raised their exulting cry, young 
Fitz-Gerald sprang on his feet, tore the flag from the 
wreck of cordage, &c., and nailed it to the stump. In a 
short time after some of the other ships came to their 
aid, and the splendid vessel came out triumphant." 

I am sorry to add that this gallant young sailor 
was afterwards captured by the enemy, and died 
in a French prison. 



My mother was present when George III. re- 
turned thanks for the victories in St. Paul's. She 
always spoke of the boy who nailed the colours to 
the mast as a boy, and said that he held a hammer 
and nail in his hands, and stood close to Lord 
Duncan under the dome, not far from where she 
herself was. K. N. J. 

J. A. ATKINSON (4 th S. ix. 299, 372, 415, 492.) 
John Augustus Atkinson was not only a carica- 
turist and good draughtsman but a painter of 
great merit. I possess two battle pieces in oil 
by him, also two small water-colours all well 
painted. The oil paintings are of the battles of 
Waterloo and Vittoria, each forty inches by 
twenty-four. In the Waterloo are portraits of 
Wellington and other officers grouped near to a 
tree I believe the " elm-tree " which was sketched 
in the Illustrated Neivs some years ago. The 
battle grounds of Waterloo and Vittoria were 
drawn by Atkinson, who, as I have heard, was 
himself an officer. The accuracy with which both 
dead and living soldiers and horses are detailed is 
remarkable ; indeed, I believe the Waterloo to be 
one of the very best pictures of that battle. 

There was a very large painting of Waterloo, of 
which I have an engraving. This differs from my 
picture. The engraving was published by Hunt and 
Robinson in 1819, and is by " John Burnet," after 
a " painting by John Augustus Atkinson," with 

" portraits by W. A. Devis." This painting is 
very large I believe several yards long. About 
eighteen years since I saw it at Mr. Ruttley's in 
Newport Street. Where it now is I do not know. 
I also possess a large coloured engraving of the 
battle of Vittoria, which was published in 1820 
by Hunt and Robinson, and was engraved by 
" Jas. Walker, after a drawing by John Augustus 
Atkinson." The view of the battle in this engra- 
ving is not identical with, but very like to, a small 
portion of my Vittoria painting. In addition to 
these works, I have a small landscape a " har- 
vest field with peasants at a repast." In this pic- 
ture Atkinson is quite equal, if not superior, to 
Morland. A. B. MIDDLETON. 

The Close, Salisbury. 

MARGARET HARVEY (4 th S. ix. 469.) In Elze's 
Life of Byron, p. 213, a Mrs. Harvey, " an old lady 
of sixty-six years of age, the authoress of several 
romances," is mentioned as meeting Byron at 
Madame de Stael's house at Geneva in 1816, and 
l( swooning away at his entrance into the room, as 
if his Satanic majesty had arrived." 

I do not know whether she is the Margaret 
Harvey inquired after. S. H. A. H. 


TEWARS wishes that I should communicate to 
"N. & Q." either my assent or objection to his 
letter denying the identity of Everard de Mont- 
gomery with Everard, Bishop of Norwich. I shall 
always have pleasure in meeting the wishes of 
so sagacious an inquirer as TEWARS has shown 
himself to be. I quite resign my notion of the 
aforesaid identity in deference to his adverse 
proofs, and I fail to recall the grounds of my own 
former impression on the subject. I certainly 
did not derive it from the New Monasticon, though 
TEWARS informs me that the editors of that work 
share my mistake. ROBT. W. EYTON. 

Albury House, near Guildford. 

THE LIVERY COLLAR OF ESSES (4 th S. ix. 527.) 
I have read with- much interest my friend MR. 
J. GOTTGH NICHOLS' paper on this badge. Not 
having access to the first series of f( N. & Q.," in 
which I see from the General Index that a lengthy 
discussion on the subject took place, I can only 
hope that the information now communicated may 
be new. A few weeks ago, when visiting the 
church of Dunster in Somersetshire, I observed 
on the north side of the now disused chancel a 
dilapidated monument with two recumbent figures 
of alabaster, a knight and lady, and round the neck 
of the former a distinct collar of SS. The style 
appears to me to be that of the thirteenth century. 
As the Guide-books assert it to be the tomb of 
one of the Mohuns, the first lords of the honour 
of Dunster, this is a corroboration of its antiquity, 
for it is well known that the Luttrell family did 



[4 th S. X. AUGUST 3, 72. 

not acquire the castle till the reign of Edward III. 
There are no armorial bearings on the tomb, and 
both the knight's legs have been broken off abeve 
the knee, which some kindly hand has replaced 
with clay ! The tomb occupies a chantry chapel, 
which is, as usual, ignorantly styled a " confes- 
sional" by the person who shows the church. 
This most interesting church, the nave of which 
is said to have been built by Henry VII. in gra- 
titude for the aid of the men of Dunster at Bos- 
worth Field, is sadly in want of restoration, being 
pewed and bedaubed with paint and yellow ochre, 
in a style which is simply horrible. The chancel, 
which .is much older than the nave, and has been 
long built up and separated from the latter, owing 
to a curious dispute between the monks of the 
priory and the townsmen, about the year 1500 or 
so (detailed no doubt in Collinson's Somersetshire), 
is also in a wretched condition ; covered with hatch- 
ments, which would be more suited to the walls 
of a London mansion, and evidently nothing more 
than a burial vault. The owner of the castle has 
made his residence a magnificent place by judicious 
additions. Let one hope he will now do as much 
for his church, and throw the nave and chancel 
together again. Proper renovation would make it 
one of the finest churches in the West of England. 


DRAUGHT = MOVE (4 th S. ix. 483 ; x. 17.) MR. 
KENNEDY does not appear to notice the point of 
the query as to twelve ferses. 

Of course the "fers " primarily means the piece 
now called a queen ; but Chaucer would not write 
about twelve queens. The word " fers " is an 
equivalent for the Eastern wazir, Anglicised as 
" vizier " ; the Arabic is traced to a bearer of 
burdens, a porter; cf. Latin /ero, fers, ferre, "to 
bear " ; for the chief minister of state bears the 
real burden of government. 

Chaucer's imagery, in the Duchess, is taken 
directly from the -Roman dela Rose; it commences 
at line 7,388, vol. i. p. 220, edit. F. Michel, Paris, 
1864. The French text has " fierche " in the 
singular, which some think is a form of vierye, 
virgin, for the queen of heaven j and " fierges " 
in the plural, applied to the two principal pieces, 
our king and queen. 

This word fers (p =f\ is an equivalent to our 
word ^ piece "; we speak of the eight pieces, 
meaning the back row ; i. e. the men, barones, as 
distinguished from the pawns or common pieces, 
When Chaucer writes of twelve " ferses," I think 
he refers to the warier game, played with extra 
pieces, viz. twelve pieces and twelve pawns, on 
ninety-six squares. L A. II. 

EED DEER (4 th S. ix. 428, 493, 521 ; x. 16.) 
In Daniel and Samuel Lysons' Magna Britannia. 
vol. v. p. 169, it is said that the Peak forest was 
of great extent, in ancient times much infested 

with wolves, and spoken of " as plentifully stocked 
with deer in the year 1634 : it is probable that 
they were destroyed in the civil war." There 
were more than sixty parks, in the early part of 
the fourteenth century, 4n Derbyshire, belonging 
to monastic bodies or individuals ; but now they 
are comparatively few, and of very small extent ; 
and the wild red deer, such as are still found in the 
Highlands of Scotland and occasionally on Ex- 
moor, are, I believe, unknown in the county. 
Polidore Virgil informs us that even so late as 
Henry VII.'s time 

" Tertia propemodum Angliae pars pecori aul cervis, 
damis, capreolis, cuniculisve nutriendis relicta est in- 
culta, quippe passim sunt ejusmodi feraruna vivaria, seu 
roboraria, quae ligneis roboreis sunt clausa ; unde multa 
venatio, qua se nobiles cum primis exercent." 


20, Compton Terrace, Highbury. 

MRS. M. HOLFORD (4 th S. ix. 534.) This lady 
baffled my researches apparently, for I find 
amongst my notes relating to her that after 
spending an entire day at the British Museum I 
could not find anything about her. The Gent. 
Mag. has plenty of information about the Hoi- 
fords of London, but not about those of Chester, of 
which county they were one of the oldest families. 
(Gent. Mag., March 1810, p. 251.) Some quota- 
tions but no information about her will be found 
in The Female Poets, by F. Rowton, 1848. Her 
name appears to have been Margaret not Mary. 
She was a daughter of Mrs. Holford. 


PENPONT (4 th S. vi. passim ; ix. 366.) My state- 
ment alluded to by DR. RAMAGE, that this MS. 
was in the Advocates' Library, was founded on a 
note to the Lord of the Isles (vol. x. p. 303 of the 
1833 edition of Scott's Poems'), where, in a very 
interesting memorandum by the well-known 
Charles Kirkpatrick Sharpe regarding his family, 
it is mentioned at the end that the above MS. is 
"in the Advocates' Library of Edinburgh." MSS. 
sometimes get laid aside in the best regulated 
libraries, and this one may yet be in the Faculty 
halls unsuspected. I happen to know that at a 
very recent period their " Catalogue of MSS. " 
could scarcely be styled a catalogue from want of 
minuteness; and the late distinguished librarian 
enjoyed his office for too short a period to give 
him "time to amend it. ANGLO-SCOTUS. 

may consult the following work : 

" A Nomenclature, or Dictionary in English, French, 
Spanish and German, of the principal Articles manufac- 
tured in this Kingdom, more particularly those in the 
Hardware and Cutlery Trades; the Goods Imported and 
Exported, and Nautical Terms. By Daniel Lobo, Notary 
Public. London, 1776." 

4 th S.X. AUGUST 3, 72.] 



I give two specimens : 

" Broad cloth. Drap fin. Pano de lana. I Fein-tuch. 
Dimity. Basin. Fustan. Hiibscher fei- 

J ner parchet." 

B. E. N. 

(4 th S. ix. 504 ; x. 19.) Marks cut on trees are per- 
manent if cut into the wood ; if only in the bark 
they become gradually obliterated. Incisions 
made in the true woody substance become filled 
up with the new wood that is formed in annual 
layers, and are never more seen unless the wood 
be longitudinally severed so as to expose them 
again. My grandfather had given to him many 
years ago a bit of oak with a Roman 7, and some 
other letter with a perpendicular stroke possibly 
an R but partly destroyed by a chop of an axe. 
It has the following note pasted on the back : 

" This piece of wood was found in an oak tree fifteen 
inches below the bark, and contained the initials of King 
John, who died at Newark 600 years ago." 

This may be one of the identical " brands ' 
mentioned in the guide books. J. T. F. 

Hatfield Hall, Durham. 

The following quotation from the late Mr. John 
Richard Walbran's Guide to lledcar is interesting 
in connection with this subject. The author is 
speaking of Kirkleatham : 

"There is, too [in the museum], a portion of a tree 
grown in Newbrough Park near Thirsk, and sent here by 
Lord Fauconberg, which, on being cut down and split 
up for billet-wood, was found to bear the following in- 
scription graven in rude Roman capitals about five or 
six inches high, on a bole or core of about twelve inches 
in diameter, which came out entire from an outer rind of 
about four inches in thickness : 

* This tre lovng time witnes beare 
Of tow Lovres that did walk heare.' " 

The letters encircle the tree in nine spiral lines, 
occupying a space of about five feet, and are im- 
pressed both on the bole to which they have been 
"originally committed, and on the rind by which they 
have been subsequently enveloped. Two hearts, each trans- 
fixed with an arrow, after the usual and approved fashion, 
are introduced in the third line, and in one of them may 
be traced the letter B. The other is uninscribed." p. 38. 


"MAN PROPOSETH," ETC. (4 th S. ix. 423, 537.) 
DR. RAMAGE speaks of this being pithily put by 
Schiller in Wallenstein ; but the common saying 
is yet more concise 

"Mann denkt, Gott lenkt." 


"HAHA" (4 th S. x. 37.) W. P., whether 
serious or not in what I may term his " so-so " 
derivation of haha f will not be surprised to learn 
that I " coming suddenly upon it in reading, and 
naturally exclaiming ' ha ! ha ' at being so sud- 
denly stopped in my progress" to ask myself 
whether his truly laughable explanation were the 

right one W. P. will not, I say, be surprised to 
learn that I doubt our knowing this matter ; and 
accordingly I have the honour to submit to the 
readers of "N. & Q." the received and orthodox 
derivation of haha. From the Old High German 
haga came the French hate, the English heigh or 
hay (as in the Northern hay at Exeter), haw (as in 
hawihorn, hips and haws), and ha, from which is 
formed by reduplication our word haha. 


29.) This was the late Mr. John Chalk Claris, of 
Canterbury, for upwards of thirty years editor of 
the Kent Herald. He published several little 
volumes of poems from 1816 to 1824, including 
" Durovernum" (the Roman name for Canterbury), 
"Retrospection," "The Elegy on the Death of 
Shelley," as well as others which were very 
favourably received in the literary world of the 
day. Some of his poetry is very graceful. Mr. 
Claris was educated at the Canterbury King's 
School. His father was a bookseller, and pub- 
lisher of several of the books used in the King's 
School at that time. W. D Y. 


S. x. 30.) The histories of Leyland and Pen- 
worthain churches are yet to be written, but 
notices of them will be found in Baines's History 
of Lancashire and in Hardwick's History of Pres- 
ton. In Tol. vii. of the Lancashire and Cheshire 
Historic Society's Transactions there is a paper 
read by Miss Ffarrington on " The Old Church at 
Leyland." H. FISHWICK. 

" FINIS CORONAT OPUS " (4 th S. viii. 67, 175 ; 
ix. 22, 206.) I suggested that Buchler (1613) 
may possibly have been the writer who gave us 
the Latin form of this proverb. This may be the 
case, but we must go to Homer (//. iv. Ill) for 
the origin of the idea : 

Tlav S' f 3 AetTjyas, \pv(Ti)v cVe^TjKe Kop(avf\v. 

Having well polished the whole bow, he added a 
golden tip." 

Eustathius, who flourished towards the latter 
end of the twelfth century, draws our attention to 
this proverbial expression in his Commentary on 
the Iliad: 

'H 8e 'O/j.ripiKT] XP vff y Kopcavij Kal ety Trapoipiav 
'.I 6 ayaObv reAos rots (pBdaavi eVtfleis XP vff ^ 
J -rravrl K.op(avt]v \4*ytra.i, 

" The Homeric golden tip (Kopdivn) has also passed 
into a proverb : he who has put a good finish to his 
undertaking is said to have placed a golden crown to the 

It was floating about in the mouths of the 
French in the fifteenth century, as I find Le Roux 
de Lincy (vol. ii. p. 493) quotes the following 



[1 th S. X. AUGUSTS, 

from the Roman de Jouvencel, fol. 37, v, a 

romance of the fifteenth century (Paris, 1493) : 

"Dit-on communement que la fin couronne Icevre" 

Schiller (Wallenstein's Death, i. 7, 221) had 
evidently the idea in his recollection when he 
wrote the following Ibeautiful lines : 

" Denn eifersiichtig sind des Schicksals Machte, 
Voreilig Jauchzen greift in ihre Rechte. 
Den Samen legen wir in ihre Hande, 
Ob Gliick, ob Ungltick aufgeht, lehrt das Ende." 
" For the Powers of Destiny are jealous. Shouts be- 
fore victory encroach on their rights ; we place the seeds 
in their hands, the end tells us whether for good or bad" 


IOLANTHE (4 th S. ix. passim ; x. 37.) But. 
lolanthe being, as stated by CCCXL, " clearly of 
Greek origin," that is to say made from tov and 
&vOos, he will see on consideration that the digamma 
before iov will give the required change. Violante 
and lolanthe are the same thing, and both Greek. 

D. P. 

Stuarts Lodge, Malvern Wells. 

ix. 444, 517.) With deference to DR. DIXON, I 
venture to think that the latter term does require 
some explanation. The " Wide-awake " may be, 
it is true, an outward and visible sign that the 
wearer is a sharp fellow, and not to be caught 
asleep j but it may also mean and this was the 
explanation current on the introduction of the 
term, say five -and- thirty years ago that the 
article itself did not indulge in the luxury of " a 
nap." It was, in fact, a felt or napless hat. 



LAIRG, LARGS, LARGO (4 th S. ix. 485 ; x. 33.) 
ESPEDARE makes my query an occasion for trot- 
ting out his Celtic hobby-horse. I know as well 
as your correspondent what Chalmers and Joyce 
say on this subject, nor is it at all surprising that 
the one should contradict the other. This is the 
genius of Celtic etymology, which can be made to 
signify anything and everything, according to the 
fancy of the person who employs it. It might 
reasonably have been assumed that I had con- 
sidered the probabilities before framing my inter- 
rogatory, and which I was feign to believe I had 
done so as to preclude the possibility of receiving 
such answers as that given by your correspondent. 
At all events ESPEDARE must allow me to judge 
as to the points in regard to which I desire in- 
formation. I entirely dissent from your cor- 
respondent's notions regarding the so-called Celtic 
origin of the Scottish nation, and for reasons which 
it would be tedious and impracticable to give here 
in detail. If the Celts were a distinct people, I 
fail to discover any evidence that they ever had a 
footing in the British Islands. I now repeat that 
I shall be much obliged to anv of your contributors 

who will favour me with a satisfactory explana- 
tion of these names from the Gothic view. 

E. D. 

CENTRUM "(4 th S. viii.329; ix. 
265, 310, 412.) Among the elder authorities 
which the learned correspondents of U N. & Q." 
have unshelved, not one has to me at least ex- 
pounded the contradiction-in-terms of an every- 
where centre and nowhere circumference : I find it 
less difficult to comprehend Eternity of Time than 
Infinity of Space. The idea seems, however, to 
have crossed our Milton's imagination : 

"... as God in heaven 
Is centre, yet extends to all." Paradise Lost. 

and, more definitely, attributing to this world, 
which his Satan delights to term the property of 
Sin, an* orbicular, and to God a quadrate form 

..." henceforth monarchy with thee divide 
Of all things, parted by the empjTeal bounds, 
His quadrature from thy orbicular world." Ibid. 

What our Paradise poet intended by the Al- 
mighty's te quadrature," unless it were the com- 
ponent square of His power, wisdom, justice, 
and mercy a quaternion as actual and as mys- 
terious as His trinity I will not bewilder mine 
old brain with conjecturing, but merely append 
the amphibology of his minor contemporaries : 

" . . . . when weak times shall be poured out 
Into eternity, and circular joys, 
Dancing an endless round, again shall rise." 


" Below the bottom of the great abyss, 
There, where one centre reconciles all things." 



" ..... like a God, by spiritual art, 
Be all in all, and all in every part" 


DINNERS " A LA HUSSE " (4 th S. ix. 422, 488 j 
x. 11, 35.) Whether LORD LTTTELTON'S observa- 
tions convey a compliment, or a sarcasm, I can- 
not determine. The "great subject" and the 
"abstruse question" seem to imply the latter. I 
am glad, however, to find the subject pursued, 
and shall like to see it discussed in all its bear- 
ings. He seems to hint at parsimony, which word 
a friend of mine will have to be only a clumsy com- 
pound, meaning sparing your money. Perhaps the 
idle appearance of luxury is but too often counter- 
balanced by the greater display of ornament and 
dessert. The main argument of saving trouble 
and superfluous cccni diibivtatem, I own I cannot 
quite admit. In a former article I have alluded 
to the greater waste occasioned by so many por- 
tions being refused and sent away. And for 
myself, I would much rather have the trouble of 
carving and helping, than be condemned to the 
intolerable bore of sitting half the time of dinner 
unemployed, partly from the delay in bringing 

X. AUGUSTA, '72.] 


round the plates, and partly from having to de- 
cline several things offered, three, four, and even 
five perhaps in succession, as I know from expe- 
rience. F. C. H. 

PORCELAIN FIGURE (4 th S. ix. 507 ; x. 56.) 
I have been hoping that some one would have 
replied to the query of W. H. P., inasmuch as I 
possess a porcelain figure which is almost pre- 
cisely similar to that described, and about which 
I should be glad to obtain further information. 
The figure which I have varies slightly from that 
of W. H. P. In height it is eighteen inches, and 
the eyes are not altogether closed, though the 
eyelids droop heavily. The wreath or coronet too 
has the appearance of being intended to represent 
jewels rather than flowers, and in like manner the 
necklace and ornament terminating in a tassel on 
the lower part of the dress. All of these have 
some very slight remains of gilding upon them. 
The hands (winch are wanting) I presume were 
originally made moveable, for the edges of the 
round apertures, where they fitted, are glazed like 
the rest of the piece. 

All I know about the figure is that it was 


1S , 

brought from Lisbon, by^ one of my ancestors, , m juuwwn unu rr w, jwymeers, u 
with other Oriental porcelain, about the middle of Smiles (p. 253). Even the names 
the last century. I believe it to be Oriental from | slightly and colourably changed" 
the fact of having two nondescript lions (part of 
the same collection), of about the same height and 
of similar porcelain, which undoubtedly are 
Oriental. These bear traces of gilding and coloring. 
The goddess Kouan-in, the type of the Chinese 
Venus, is described as having downcast eyes, but 
it seems scarcely probable that she would be re- 
presented with feet of natural- size. 

I have been told that the figure in question is 
an Oriental representation of the Virgin, and if 
not intended to represent the goddess Kouan-in, 
such I should suppose it to be. Whether it is 
Chinese or Japanese I know not ; possibly it is 
the latter, since it was in consequence of the 
Portuguese missionaries having introduced scrip- 
tural subjects into the Japanese manufactories 
that the Portuguese were expelled from Japan in 
1641. See Marryat's History of Pottery and 
Porcelain, 3rd edit. p. 292. G. B. MILLETT. 

469, 538 ; x. 37.) The scaffold in question was a 
sort of temporary observatory erected for the use 
of the trigonometrical survey of Belgium in pro- 
gress when Napoleon returned from Elba (vide 
Scott's Life o/ Napoleon}. It is probable that 
Napoleon or his steff used it on the evening of 
the 17th or the morning of the 18th to recon- 
noitre the British position, but certainly not after 
the battle commenced. H. HALL. 

Woolston, Hants. 

IRISH PROVINCIALISMS (4 th S. ix. 404, 475, 513.) 
I give you two or three additions to the list of 

Irish provincialisms. One is "Beef to the heels, like 
a Mullingar heifer" often rather ungallantly 
applied to ladies with thick ankles. The next is a 
very local one and used perhaps in Dublin only. 
" All a one side, like Bow Bridge." This refers to 
an old dilapidated street in the west end of Dublin, 
which runs alongside of a stream instead of 
crossing it. The third I now recollect is " He's 
gone to Saggart to stack blackberries," applied to 
those who take a great deal of trouble for in- 
adequate results : blackberries being the princi- 
pal production of the barren hill sides of Saggart 
and its locality. Lastly, " It's all Tallaght hill 
talk " j that is, all bounce and vague language, and 
which has a strange propriety when we think of 
the Fenian rising three or four years ago on the 
slopes of the hill of Tallaght, and the miserable 
end of the "tall talk " used on that occasion. 

Woolston, Hants. 

ECCENTRIC TURNING (4 th S. ix. 532 j x. 38.) 
The story quoted by MR. RAYNER is clearly only 
a " hash "^ of the story told of Wm. Murdock's 
first interview with Matthew Boulton as narrated 
JBoulton and Watt, Engineers, by Samuel 

are only 

slightly and colourably changed "Boutron" 
for " Boulton," and Weil " for " Watt " ! The 
whole paragraph is only a stupid hoax, as a refer- 
ence to the narrative of Mr. Smiles will show. 
As to the " origin of the oval lathe," MR. &AYNER 
will find some full and curious details, two 
centuries old, in the four pages of letterpress and 
two plates in Moxon's Mechanick Exercises, pt. 
xiv. pp. 235-241 (London, 1680), and that " these 
oval engines are excellently well made by Mr. 
Thomas Oldfield, at the sign of the Flower-de- 
Luce, near the Savoy in the Strand, London." 


CAT (4 th S. x. 29.) The query of MR. RAMAGE 
is, I think, well answered by the following note 
by Mr. T. J. BUCKTON in N. & Q." (1 st S. x. 
507) : 

"The only language, as far as I can ascertain, 
in which this word is significant, is the Zend, where the 
word gatu, almost identical with the Spanish goto, means 
" a place" (Bopp. i. Ill), a word peculiarly significant in 
reference to this animal, whose attachment is peculiar to 
place, and not to the person, so strikingly indicated by 
the dog. The inference is that Persia is the original 
habitat of the cat, where that animal exists in its most 
perfect state. Pallas has a coloured plate, the portrait of 
a very fine animal in the Crimea of that species, in his 
Travels, vol. ii. It may be probably inferred that it was 

introduced into Europe" from Spaing because the Spanish 
word is almost identical with the Zend, whilst a greater 
variation is found in other European dialects : for ex- 
ample, catus in Latin, chat in French, Katzc in German, 
&c. As the Zend, the language of Zoroaster, is a dead one 
akin to the Sanskrit (Bopp, passim}, and gave place to 
the Persian, which dates its origin from the Arabic in- 



[4S. X. AUGUSTS, '72. 

vasion in the seventh centufy, the probable inference is 
that the cat had been domesticated in Europe prior to 
the seventh century." 


The Hebrew word is kat, Arabic kith, Persian 
katt, Polish kot (I observe C. T. R. gives " kat"), 
and kat or katze in all the Gothic dialects. I do not 
know if this name will be found in the Sanscrit, 
but should think it probable. J. CK. R. 

"TIPPED ME THE WlNZ >? (4 th S. IX. 536.) 
" Sudden she storms ! she raves ! You tip the wink ; 
But spare your censure : Silia does not drink." 

Pope's Moral Essays, epist. ii. 33. 

485.') In No. 4 of the first volume of Blackivood's 
Magazine, July 1817, is the following notice, 
which may interest J. S. DK. : 

" The Bower of Spring and other Poems. By the 
Author of the ' Paradise of Coquettes.' Small 8vo, pp. 
156. Edinburgh : Constable and Co." 

It is followed by a critique including both books. 


MONUMENTAL BRASSES (4 th S. x. 4.) St. Mary 
Cray. S. K. will be glad to learn that the brass to 
Elizabeth Cobham, formerly in St. Mary Cray 
church, Kent, was removed many years since to 
Lullingstone, where it still remains in good con- 
dition on the chancel floor. I saw it only a few 
weeks since. E. II. W. DUNKIN. 

LEPELL FAMILY (4 th S. ix. 506; x. 19.) Molly 
Lepell, the daughter of Brigadier- General Nicho- 
las Lepell, and said for some years to have re- 
ceived pay as a cornet in his regiment, was of the 
family to whom Sark belonged. It seems scarcely 
necessary to go to Russia for the origin of such a 
French-sounding name. S. H. A. II. 


COCKROACHES (4 th S. ix.. passim.) I have got 
rid of masses of cockroaches in the course of a few 
nights by giving them a liberal supply of "James's 
phosphor paste/' which can be obtained at almost 
any oil shop. I have tried another phesphorous 
paste, but it remained uneaten. M. E. Z. 

The most important monumental brasses in Lon- 
don are the following : 

All Hallow's, Barking. John Bacon, 1437 ; Thos. Gil- 
bert, 1489 ; John Rusche, 1498, and ten lesser ones. 

St. Andrew, Undersbaft. Three of the sixteenth cen- 

Great St. Helen, Bishopsgate. A civilian, 1465; Thomas 
Wylliams, gent. 1495, and one or two sixteenth century 

Westminster Abbey. John de Waltham, Bp. of Salis 
bury, 1395 ; Robert de Waldeby, Archbp. of York, 1397 
Alianore de Bohun (very fine), 1399; Sir Humphrey 
Bourgchier, 1471, and portion of others. 

Minor brasses remain at the churches of St. 
Bartholomew-the-Less, St. Catherine, Regent's 
D ark; St. Dunstan-in-the-West ; Holy Trinity, 
Minories; St. Martin, Outwich, and St. Olave, 
lart Street. Your correspondent will find them 
described in Haines' Monumental Brasses, pt. ii. 
>p. 127-30. JOHN PIGGOT, JUNR. 

Refer to Godwin and Britton's Churches of Lon- 
don a work which is unfortunately unprovided 
with consecutive pagination (the account of each 
church being paged separately) or index. Refer 
also to Boutell's Monumental Brasses and Maskell's 
Parochial History of All Hallow's, Barking. 

R. B. P. 

MISERERE CARVINGS (4 th S. ix. passim ; x. 15.) 
In the great church at Haarlem (St. Bavon's) 
the stalls of the choir are filled with misereres of 
good but plain work. There are, I think, twenty- 
two on a side, and all of them seemed to ine to 
represent faces, but I could not examine them 
loaely, as the gates of the choir were locked when 
I saw" them on June 25. 

If my memory does not deceive me there are 
some miserere seats in the choir of the great 
church at Dordrecht, but it is some years since I 
was there, and I cannot therefore speak quite 
positively. EDWARD PEACOCK. 

The " miserere " (mei) in the dictionaries of 
Coles (1713) and Bailey designates a very painful 
internal disease. I apprehend that Bishop Milner 
is responsible for the blunder of using the word 
instead of "misericord," the Latin and French 
term for "the small shelving stool which the 
seats of the stalls formed when turned up in their 
proper position." (Milner's Hist, of Winchester, ii. 
82 ; comp. J5ritt<m,Arch. Antiq. vol. v. p. xliv., and 
Bentham's .Ely, 74, n.) I speak from experience 
and know that, without the assistance of a tall 
hassock for the feet, even with the support of the 
elbows on the lateral rests, it is impossible, unless 
a man be an Edwardian Longshanks, to maintain 
himself in a position of relief upon the tiny bracket 
of a misericord. 

The erroneous name of "miserere" has been 
adopted in Hart's Eccks. Documents, 246 (1846), 
and the Glossary of Architecture, 4th edit. 1845, 
and by Britton in 181 7 ( Winchester Cathedral, 92). 
Douce in 1804 simply speaks of ll seats on stalls " 
(Archcsol. xv. 233) when alluding to their quaint 
carvings ; and Carter at the same date, in his 
"List of Technical Terms " (Gent. Mag. Ixxiv.), 
omits both the words. Rickman also in 1835 
alludes to "stalls with turn-up seats." (Archit. in 
England, 97.) 

Chaucer says (suggestively of the use of the 
under-seat) "the spices of misericorde ben for to 
lene" &c. ; but of course " misericord " as in the 
case of a hall for eating flesh meat, an additional 
mess or beaver or clothing, or a relaxation of 

4 th S. X. AUGUST 3, 72.] 



some point of duty clearly meant a merciful^ in- 
dulgence of rest in choir. 

The question is, what was the English word ? 
as the correct term is " ceiled seats " and not 
" sedilia " for the sanctuary sta'ls. 


CHATTERTON (4 th S. x. 55). MAZROCHEIR says 
that he would feel obliged by being shown a good 
stanza from Chatterton. If your correspondent 
will turn to the works of " the marvellous^ boy," 
and read the following poems, I do not think he 
will require to be shoivn good stanzas, as he will 
discover them for himself : " The Bristowe Tra- 
gedy, or the Death of Sir Charles Bawdin " ; The 
Minstrel's Song in JSlla," commencing lt O sing 
unto my roundelay " ; and " An Excellent Ballad 
of Charity." I do not wish to compare the two 
things, but when MAKROCHEIR denies, or at least 
doubts, there being a good stanza in Chatterton's 
poems, he reminds me of Mr. Ruskin, who asserts 
that Milton's description of the Garden of Eden 
contains only two instances of imagination, the 
rest being commonplace composition ; which is a 
criticism surely worthy of Rymer himself (ac- 
cording to Macaulay " the worst critic that ever 
lived"), who speaks of the Paradise Lost as a 
work t( which some are pleased to call a poem " / 

i EDGEHILL BATTLE (4 th S. x. 47.)JBoth autho- 
rities are right, for after the death of Sir Edmund 
Verney, Knight-Marshal of the King's Horse, 
and Standard Bearer, the royal banner was several 
times lost and recaptured ; Captain Smith, of 
Lord Grandison's regiment, being the first to re- 
cover it after the fall of Sir Edmund. It was 
again retaken from the rebels by Huddleston, and 
finally secured by Robert Welch, an Irish gentle- 
man in command of a troop of horse. After the 
battle, Mr. Welch, with his trophy, was presented 
by Prince Rupert to King Charles, who conferred 
the honour of knighthood upon him, and subse- 
quently directed the chief engraver 

"To make a medal in gold for our trusty and well- 
beloved Sir Robert Welch, knight, with our own figure 
and that of our dearest sonne Prince Charles. And on 
the reverse thereof to insculp y e form of our Royal Banner 
used at the Battail of Edge-hill, where he did us accept- 
able service, and received the dignity of knighthood from 
us ; and to inscribe about it Per Regale Mandatum Caroli 
Regis hoc assignatur Roberto Welch Militi." 

3, St. Michael's Place, Brighton. 

POPULAR FRENCH SONGS (4 th S. ix. 442.) The 
writer says the Germans have a very old song, 
"I would not be a little Bird." I have a manu- 
script German song, set to a Swiss melody, called 
" Wenn ich ein Voglein war." There are three 
Terses. No date or name of composer. 


THE BATTLE or WATERLOO (4 th S. x. 30.) In 
the gossip about the battle which Sir Walter 
Scott gave to the world in Paul's Letters to his 
Kinsfolk, inaccurate of course as gossip always is, 
the story of the Duke's acting as " whipper-in " 
to a runaway Belgian regiment is given as a fact 
unquestioned : 

" The Duke saw a Belgian regiment give way at the 
instant it crossed the ridge .... He rode up in person, 
halted the regiment, and again formed it, intending to 
bring them into the fire himself. They accordingly 
shouted en avant I . . . But as soon as they crossed the 
ridge, and again encountered the storm of balls, they went 
to the right-about once more, and fairly left the Duke to 
find more resolved followers. He accordingly brought up 
a Brunswick regiment, &c." 


NAMES OF PAPER (4 th S. x. 16.) The late 
Mr. Francis Humble of Durham, the founder of 
the Durham Advertiser, wrote a song under the 
above name. I have not a copy. If I had one 
it should be forwarded to "N. & Q." I only re- 
member entirely the first verse : 

" If a stationer's catalogue you would look o'er, 
You'll there find the life of le grand Empereur, 
For all his success, his ill-luck, and his capers 
Are full}' described by the names of our papers." 

Mr. Humble was a most incorrigible punster, 
and the song contained puns equal to any that 
ever emanated from Hood himself. Perhaps some 
Durham or Newcastle collector can forward a copy. 




Shakspere and Typography; being an Attempt to show 
Shakspere's Personal Connection with, and technical 
Knowledge of, the Art of Printing : also, some Remarks 
upon some common Typographical Errors, with especial 
Reference to the Text of Shakspere. By William Blade*. 

We have again to thank Mr. Blades for a little volume 
in which he has turned his peculiar professional know- 
ledge to good literary account. There is much ingenuity 
in the manner in which Mr. Blades endeavours to asso- 
ciate Shakespeare with typography, and show how, 
through his friend and townsman Field, he found employ- 
ment in the office of Vautrollier, the printer and pub- 
lisher in Blackfriars, during that short period of his life, 
respecting which there exists no evidence; and even 
hose who may think that the proofs which our author 
las brought forward that Shakespeare was a printer are 
not a whit more conclusive than those adduced to show 
ic was " Doctor, Lawyer, Soldier, Sailor, Catholic, Atheist, 
Thief," will welcome the book if only for its concluding 
chapter " On some common Typographical Errors, with 
especial Reference to the Text of Shakspere." 

Life and Letters of Francis Bacon. By James Spedding. 

Vol. VI. (Longman.) 

(From a Correspondent.) 

The sixth volume of Mr. Spedding's Life and Letters 
if Bacon will be welcomed by all who wish to see a great 
man's character traced in his actions as closely as it is 



[4 th S. X. AUGUST 3, 72. 

possible at this distance of lime. Perhaps, however, the 
main interest of the volume is rather connected with the 
biography of Raleigh than with that of Bacon. It seems 
incredible, but it is nevertheless true, that there exists 
amongst the Harleian MSS. a whole series of documents 
relating to Raleigh's voyage, which have been altogether 
unnoticed by Raleigh's numerous biographers. These, 
together Avith a most valuable paper from the library of 
the late Sir Thomas Winnington, which appeared some 
time ago in the pages of " N. & Q.", have been printed 
in extenso by Mr. Spedding, and go far to confirm the 
impression that the official declaration, which has been 
treated with such contempt by Raleigh's biographers, 
was in reality grounded upon the evidence before the 
Commissioners. Of Bacon himself we learn less than in 
preceding volumes, but his connection with Buckingham 
in the matters of the marriage of Coke's daughter, and of 
the letters relating to Chancery proceedings, receive an 
elucidation which they have never had before. 

DR. LIVINGSTONE. The uncomfortable feeling of un- 
certainty respecting the distinguished traveller still con- 
tinues, and will continue until his friends receive and 
publish the letters he has addressed to them. The com- 
munication of the President of the Geographical Society, 
which appeared in The Times of Thursday, tends rather 
to increase than diminish this feeling. 

MUSEUM. We have received from Messrs. Mansell & Co. 
of Percy Street a most interesting catalogue of a large 
series of photographs from objects in the British Museum 
now in course of publication by them. We hope to call 
attention at greater length to this important contribution 
to Archaeological and Ethnological Science, but must in 
the meantime content ourselves with pointing out that 
the catalogue, which is in seven divisions, has been com- 
piled by Mr. Francks, who has catalogued I. The Pre- 
historic and Ethnographic Series ; also, Series VI. Anti- 
quities of Britain, and Foreign Mediaeval Art, by Dr. 
Birch, who has catalogued Series II. Egyptian Series ; 
IV. Grecian, and V. Etruscan and Roman Series ; and, in 
conjunction with Mr. George Smith, III. The Assyrian 
Series. The last Series, VII. Seals of Sovereigns, Cor- 
porations, &c., has been catalogued by Mr. W. De Gray 
Birch. The general introduction is by Mr. Charles Har- 



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134, 255 ; vii. 16 ; viii. 314 ; x. 521 ; 3 rd S. vi. 217 ; 
vii. 270. Consult also Cobbetfs Paper against Gold, 1810- 
1815, and Dunkin's Dartford, p. 233. 

TEDCAR. The " wise man's " saying quoted by Andrew 
Fletcher of Saltoun (Political Works, ed. 1749, p. 266), 
respecting ballad-makers and legislators, has hitherto baffled 
research. See " N. & Q." 1" S. i. 153. 

A. R. (Croeswylan, Oswestry). The printer's pelt or 
leather ball was superseded in London about fifty years 
ago by composition balls and rollers, but much later in the 

country, where the printer would not be able so easily to 
procure the latter. 

H. HALL. Our Correspondent has probably overlooked 
the article on "Lob's Pound" in "N. & Q." 1 st S. x. 327. 
Consult also Nares' Glossary, ed. 1859, s. v. 

W. "HORACE AND HIS EDITORS " (4 th S. ix. 319.) 
Where will a letter find you ? 


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4 th S. X. AUGUST 10, '72.] 




CONTEXTS. Xo. 241. 

NOTES: Who Sir John Russell? Earldom of Menteith, 
1231-1298. 101 -H6=hoe, 102 London Street Improve- 
mentsModesty of Dogs Lines written on a Pane of 
Glass Our Use of the Word " Immense " Red and 
Blue Costumes assigned to Males and Females Bell In- 
scription Why Weepers are called Jemmie Duffs 
Parody of Longfellow's "Psalm of Life " Children's 
Games : " All around the Maypole," 104. 

QUERIES : JEsop, the Drunken Rhyming Cobbler of 
Eton Sir Edmund Bacon The Verb, "To brain" 
Browne of Reynolds's Place, Horton Kirby, Kent Burial 
Custom Cremis Family William Frost Inscription 
at Egliston Abbey "The Jovial Mercury " Milton's 
" Areopagitica " O'Neill " Pitt " Voyage Portraits 
in Pastels Quotations wanted Capt. Woodes Rogers 
Name of Sculptor wanted Skating Subject of an En- 
graving Thor drinking up Esyl Views of Ancient 
Rome, 106. 

REPLIES : " No worse Pestilence than a Famylyar 
Enemy, 108 " Nothing from Nothing," 109 Kylosbern, 
110 Gretna Green Marriages, 111 American Centena- 
rians, 112 Thomas Wayte Dryden's Broken Head 
Epitaphiana Beever " Garrick in the Green Room" 
De Loutherbourg's Eidophusikon " Aired " Iron Ship- 
building Weston-under-Lyzard, co. Stafford "Ex Luce 
Lucellum" Barony of Banff Preservation of Seals 

Ta TavraAou TaAavra Tai/TaAt'^erai Augustine Bernher 

John Asgill Village of Dean, Water of Leith, Edin- 
burghA Yard of Wine Maria del Occidente Age of 
Ships "All the Glory," &c. Ar-nuts Tyke, Tike 
Inigo Jones and the Earl of Pembroke M.P.s of Castle 
Rising, &c., 112. 

Notes on Books, &c. 

OF MEXTEITH, 1231-1298. 

According to the ancient law of Scotland, as 
settled in the case of the earldom of Athol, which 
was decided in the law courts of Alexander II., 
the eldest sister succeeded to an earldom, exclud- 
ing her younger sisters and the heir male of her 
father. By reason of this rule, the eldest daugh- 
ter succeeded Mauritius, Earl of Menteith; and 
having married betore February, 1231, Walter 
Comyn, he became jure curialitatis Earl of Men- 
teith. He died in 1258. His widow, disregard- 
ing her Scotish suitors, selected for her second 
husband an English knight called John Russell, 
by which alliance she grievously offended her 
northern lovers, who accused her of poisoning her 
first husband. She and her spouse, having been put 
ill prison, subsequently escaped to England ; and 
in 1260 appealed to Rome against the proceedings 
in Scotland, which had wrested the earldom and 
estates from her and transferred them to Walter 
Stewart, commonly called Balloch, or Bullok 
(that is to say, the Freckled), third son of Walter, 
the High Stewart of Scotland, the husband of the 
next daughter of Earl Maurice. 

This nobleman, with his countess, the abbot of 
Balmerino,* and other persons of rank in Scot- 

* Bernard, or Barnard de Monte-Alto. 

land, accompanied the daughter of Alexander III. 
to Norway, and witnessed her espousals there. 
This marriage having been completed, a portion 
of the retinue of the princess, including the abbot 
of Balmerino, Bernard de Monte-Alto, "et alii 
plures in redeundo sunt submersi." The Earl of 
Menteith and his countess remained "cum tota 
familia de Norwegia," and in due time arrived 
safely in Scotland. 

It* is conjectured, and with probability, that 
this lamentable immersion of the ship, passengers, 
and crew was the foundation of the ballad of Sir 
Patrick Spence, one of the finest popular lyrics of 
Scotland, the authenticity of which was never 
disputed until recently, when the late Dr. Cham- 
bers, without the slightest evidence, unhesitatingly 
ascribed it to Lady Wardlaw, who is generally 
assumed to have been the manufacturer of the 
ballad of. " Hardicanute." A full account of the 
controversy was given at the time in " N. & Q. " 
(2 nd S. ix/118, 231; x. 31, 237), which it is not 
necessary to resume, as the present inquiry relates 
not to the fate of those on board the lost vessel, 
but to the Earl and Countess of Menteith, who 
remained in Norway ; and to the previous countess 
and her English husband, Russell. 

In the unanswerable case by Lord Hailes for 
the Countess of Sutherland an interesting account 
of the earldom of Menteith^will be found, from 
which it appears that Balloch held the honours 
until his death; but having taken an oath of 
fealty to Edward I., he subsequently violated the 
pledge and was executed for doing so. 

The matter for inquiry is Who was Sir John 
Russell ? If he was a knight, as he has been styled, 
this would not indicate a plebeian origin. Sir 
Robert de Bruce was an English knight only, when 
he married the Countess of Carrie, and thereby 
jure curialitatis became Earl of Carrie; but the 
only one apparently offended at these espousals 
was King Alexander. Why should the marriage 
of another countess to an English knight, in the 
same reign, create such an outcry and be called 
ignoble ? 

According to Wiffen, in his Memoirs of the 
House of Hussell, there was in 1220 a Sir John 
Russell, who held an office in the household of 
Henry III. He hardly could have been the 
favoured suitor of the countess, who was not a 
widow until 1258; and at that date Sir John 
would have been about eighty years of age, as- 
suming that he was twenty-five years old when 
he received his appointment in the king's ser- 
vicea somewhat antiquated lover for a brisk 
widow of fifty. 

No other Russell bearing the Christian name of 
John, about the time, is to be found in Wiffen. 
The probability is that the lady, as widows some- 
times do, selected a youthful not an aged help- 
mate; and thereby excited the wrath of the 



. x. AUGUST 10, 72. 

imperious elderly Scotish nobles, who -v^ould feel 
insulted by another countess being carried off by 
an English knight. Sir Kobert de Bruce -was 
pardoned by the monarch for his offence, wTiich, 
according to Fordun, originated in the Lady of 
Carrie carrying off the handsome knight to her 
castle of Turnberry; but so far from pardoning 
Russell, Alexander deprived the Countess of Men- 
teith of her peerage, and transferred it with its 
territorial possessions to her next sister, thereby 
giving Walter Stewart the title of an earl in right 
of his wife. Now as the nobility could not have 
deprived the lady of her peerage, or transfer it to 
her sister, that being the prerogative of the crown, 
and as Alexander was a wise, able, just, and 
powerful sovereign, there must have existed good 
cause for his refusing that lenity to Russell which 
he had shown to De Bruce. 

The Russells were not an historical family until 
the reign of the Tudors ; and notwithstanding their 
amiable and poetical genealogist has collected to- 
gether all the Russells, or De Rouselles, he could 
find, he has not found a place for a Sir John 
Russell of 1258-9; although it would have, no 
doubt, given him the greatest delight could he 
have adorned his pages by telling how a preux 
chevalier of the family had distinguished himself 
in the north by carrying off a wealthy Scotish 
countess in defiance of the efforts of the earls and 
barons of the court of Alexander. We suspect 
when Fordun, or his continuator Bower, applied 
the epithet of " ignobilis miles " to Sir John Rus- 
sell, they had good reason for so doing. It may 
be noticed that after being imprisoned, the deposed 
countess, upon " receiving a sum of money, dis- 
gracefully departed from Scotland with her hus- 
band Sir John Russell."* 

It seems that the countess had a daughter by 
her first husband, Walter Comyn, Earl of Men- 
teith ; for Alexander, in the year 1285, whilst 
confirming the right of Walter Stewart (Balloch.) 
to the title, gave half of the lands to William 
Cumin to be erected into a barony, a fact of im- 
portance, as showing that as far back as the reign 
of the third Alexander the transfer of the land did 
not affect the title of honour. Thus Balloch still 
remained earl although William Comyn obtained 
a baronial grant, carved out of one half of his 
lordship's territorial earldom. J. M. 

-HO = -HOE. 

Sprinkled over several parts of England, is a 
series of ancient place-names ending in " -hoe ". 
The ancient form is found to have been " -ho ", 
and sometimes remains without the "e": and, 
where this has been added, it probably only re- 
presents a tradition of the ancient long sound'. 

* Hailes' Case, sect. iv. p. 14. 

Although widely scattered, this tribe of names 
is far from numerous ; compared, for instance, 
with those in " -ham " or " -ton ". With a keen 
sense of one of the most powerful ingredients of 
romance, the inventor of Ivanhoe constructed or 
adopted that name with a knowledge that although 
this terminal is so widely spread as to be every- 
where recognised as probable, it is nowhere so 
common as to be ordinary. The title of a later 
romance, Westward-ho! although at first view 
similar, and, by a mere coincidence, lately become 
the name of a new place close to an ancient 
series, being of a totally different and more recent 
suggestion, has no claim to our consideration. 

There is, in the county of Devon, a remarkable 
ancient group of this family of names Mortehoe, 
Trentishoe, Martinhoe, and Pinhoe. These are all 
what may be distinguished as church-towns the 
ancient centres of parishes. There are also in the 
same county three or four less important examples. 
The first three, above named, are all immediately 
on the north coast ; their parishes bounded by the 
sea. The fourth, Pinhoe, is, on the contrary, con- 
siderably inland, in the eastern part of the county. 
The smaller examples referred to are also distant 
from the sea. 

It has been the fate of one of these names 
Pinhoe to obtain a place in the early written 
histories of this kingdom. Almost surrounded by 
the river Exe and its smaller confluents the Culm 
and 'the Clist, is an insulated block of elevated 
land, nearly triangular in plan, with sides of about 
three miles each. Pinhoe stands high up against 
the side of the eastern promontory of this bit of 
high land ; whilst the city of Exeter occupies the 
western spur, at a much lower level ; and is not 
only within sight of Pinhoe, but with a rapid 
descent of about two miles towards the only part 
of the city where its wall is not protected by a 
deep valley. When the Danish invaders (A.D. 1001) 
besieged this city, instead of approaching it by its 
own river, which would have brought them to its 
strongest side, they outflanked it by going direct 
to Pinhoe. Although the river Clist s now small, 
it has a broad alluvial margin ; but, even if they 
left their " marine cavalry " in the natural har- 
bour of its mouth, a inarch of about four miles, 
mostly through its valley, would bring them to 
this most advantageous post. 

But, whatever may have been their method of 
approach, it is certain that their occupation of 
Piuhoe has caused five examples of its written 
name to be preserved in four out of the five parallel 
manuscripts of The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, edited 
by Mr. Thorpe ; in the fifth it does not appear. 
In two of them it is " Peonnho ', in one " Pe- 
onnho/' in another it occurs twice as "Peonho". 
The present form of the name Pinhoe, has, for 
all local purposes, prevailed from, time imrne- 
moiial. So it must be sought in all gazetteers, 

4 th S.X. AUGUST 10, '72.] 



directories, and county histories. So it must be 
written on a letter intended to find its owner. So, 
also, it has lately come into broader daylight at a 
railway station/ On what ground, therefore, has 
this name been changed to " Penhow " by a recent 
very learned, critical, and vigorous historian? 
(Freeman's Hist, of the Norman Conquest, vol. i. 
p. 340, 1867). Especially as he has himself laid 
down an express canon to the purpose, when he 
afterwards says : " I hold it to be a sound rule to 
speak of a nation, as far as possible, by the name 
by which it called itself" (i. 597). If a nation, 
why not a village ? If the learned historian did 
not choose the name by which this place has 
known itself for many generations, his only toler- 
able alternative would have been that of the 
earliest record of the transaction which he copies. 

It is found, indeed, that the present form, 
"Pinhoe", is but an approximate and imperfect 
imitation of the traditional utterance of it still 
preserved by the unlettered natives and their 
neighbours ; more exactly represented by the an- 
cient form in the Chronicle. In some parts of 
England there is, perhaps, some confusion of the 
sounds "pin" and "pen"; but throughout the 
province here concerned, these two sounds are 
remarkably distinct. But this is not all. The 
traditional sound in the name is not equalled by 
their own sound of "pin." The vowel in the name 
is longer ; in fact, the same as the same diphthong 
"eo"in the word "people". It is also safe to 
say that there is not, in indigenous mouths, the 
slightest flavour of either "u " or " w " in the final 
half of the name. 

It must be admitted that Florence of Worces- 
ter, Henry of Huntingdon, Simeon of Durham, 
and Matthew of Westminster, as collated by Dr. 
Ingram, give us"Penho". But even they stop 
short of the more objectionable innovation of the 
terminal. Roger of Hoveden, however, goes a 
step that way in writing " Penhou". But are the 
literary fancies of later writers, writing in another 
language, to avail against the recorded original 
vernacular, confirmed" as we have seen by surviv- 
ing traditional usage ? 

But the truth is, that this propensity to tamper 
with names is not a mere recent heresy. It is an 
original sin of transcribers and redactors of his- 
torical records. We actually catch the first pa- 
rents of them in the very act. In the original 
returns of the local commissioners, which, bound 
into a volume, constitute the Exeter Domesday 
Book, two of the above names appear nearly in 
their original form, as " Morteho " and " Pinnoe "j 
but the Westminster clerk who reposted them into 
the Exchequer Domesday, no doubt indulging 
some philological theories of his own, has chosen 
to write them " Mortehov " and " Pinnoch " (D. 
B. pub. by Record Com. ; compare vol.i. fol. 101 a 
and 113 b, with Additamenta, pp. 87 and 423). 

It is, no doubt, true that there is in Monmouth- 
shire a border county a place called " Pen- 
how "; but that is no reason why the other name 
is related to it, because it also is in a border or 
mixed county. And, if it had been so related, the 
change would not be justified. It may be quite 
true that " Tenby " and " Denbigh " are two forms 
of one British name, but to identify them now 
would cancel the symbol of all their subsequent 
separate existence. 

Any farther consideration of the first half of 
this name "Peon" maybe left to those who 
like to pursue it. Perhaps it was the name of 
the family or clan who first settled the " village 
community ". But what is the connection of the 
word " -hoe ", found in all these names, with 
'any allied words of which we better know the 
meaning ? 

The late Mr. Kemble conjectured that this 
word was connected with "heel" or "hock"; 
and that it was " originally a point of land formed 
like a heel, or boot, and stretching into the plain, 
perhaps even into the sea" (Cod. Dip., vol. hi. 
pref. p. xxxi.). It cannot be denied that, if it 
had been a solitary example, the natural site of 
Pinhoe would have offered a strong confirmation 
of this conjecture. It is, indeed, situated upon 
what is pre-eminently a headland "stretching 
into the plain". 

Passing on to the other places named ; perhaps 
the situation of Martinhoe may also not unfairly 
be subjected by fancy to this description. But 
when we come to Trentishoe it is positively for- 
bidden. This place lies in a deep narrow woody 
dell ; to the bottom of which, it is said, during 
some months of the year the sun never penetrates. 
If indeed this spot has any likeness to a " boot," 
it must be to the inside of it. 

At Mortehoe, however, there is a promontory 
running out boldly into the sea. But the pro- 
montory has a distinct name of its own " Morte 
Point ". In advance of it is also a fine and threat- 
ening rock, well known to sailors as " the Morte 
Stone ". These are flanked by a bay, called 
" Morte Bay ". The name of " 'Mortehoe " is re- 
served for the village itself 5 which lies in a hol- 
low at the landward end of the promontory. 

In like manner, although the name of the church- 
village " Pinhoe " has naturally, by usage, ex- 
tended to that later institution the parish, the 
parish contains several other villages or hamlets 
with names of their own. One of these is " Pin- 
pound." There was also formerly a manor-house 
called " Pin Court "; and there is a small stream, 
separating this from the next parish, called 
" Pinbrook". 

But, as an example well known to "most of 
your readers, did Boston in Lincolnshire derive 
its ante-Botulph name of "Icanho" from its 
natural topography ? 



[4* S. X. AUGUST 10, 72. 

We see, then, that this fossil word "-hoe" 
rather indicates a social condition than a natural 
feature of the locality. That it actually consti- 
tutes the distinction of certain communities from 
immediate neighbours, with whom they some- 
times do not even participate in the peculiarity of 
site suggested as its cause. It is believed, indeed, 
that it has nothing at all to do with either " heel ", 
or u hock ", or "how", but that it is no more than 
a "tribal variety of " -ham " or " -hom ", as the 
equivalent of "home". 

We are not much accustomed to the silence or loss 
of a radical " m " or " n "; but it is suspected that 
this habit does nevertheless exist in some mem- 
bers of our family of dialects. An instance may 
be cited, not the less instructive for being far- 
fetched. The learned Jo. Matt. Gesner published 
a sort of school book of general knowledge, not 
unlike our Kett's Elements. In this, he inciden- 
tally tells us how he had formerly wondered that 
the people where he was born near the Altmiihl, 
between the Rhine and the Danube said "a 
loci" for "einbein", and ii stoii" for "lapis"-, 
until his acquaintance with English brought to 
his mind that his compatriots were a colony of 
Angli, who had settled there early in the ninth 
century. (Isagoges in Erud. Univ., Lips., 1774, 
vol. i. p. 204.) 

But there is, nearer home, more direct evidence 
of the identity of " -hoe " and "-ham ". Sirens- 
ham. in Worcestershire, is well known as the 
birth-place of the author of Hudibras. But in a 
grant to the abbey of Pershore (A.D. 972) the 
same place is called "Strengesho" (Cod. Dtp., 
No. 570). It does not weaken our inference that 
the charter is asterisked as doubtful, for it is at 
least as much to our purpose that the variety 
came readily to the mind of a local scribe, or even 

Another instance is also from the same county. 
Poden, near Chipping- Camden, appears in the list of 
Benefactions to Evesham as " Poddenho" (Chron. 
Abb. Evesh., p. 71). In No. 61 of Codex Diplo- 
maticus it also appears as " Podden ho " once ; but 
in the same charter, twice more as "Podden 
homme " (vol. iii. p. 377). 

The celebrated name " Clovesho " has reached 
us in a greater number of written examples, show- 
ing several forms of the terminal word. For the 
sake of shortness, I will only say that one of 
these or perhaps two (see note in Wilkins' Cone. 
vol. i. p. 161) is " -ham", another " -hom " (Cod. 
Dip. No. 1034). 

It* would scarcely be fair to suppress what 
may, however, be some drawback to the ready 
acceptance of this assumed kinship that the 
learned Sir H. Spelman and Dr. Wilkins seem to 
favour the relation of "-ho" with "-how", rather 
than with " -ham ". In the title-heads which 
they have given to the records of the Synods at 

Clovesho, the former writes " Cloveshovise ", and 
the latter " Cloveshotiense ". 

But, after all, the value or soundness of the 
derivation, promoted by this indulgence of the 
privilege of permutation'of letters, is not the main 
question. Something it is, no doubt, that such 
remains of the past should be handed on to the 
future untainted with false associations. But is 
not 'this perversion of a name, that has held its 
integrity for at least nine centuries in the speech 
of us " lewed peple," a despotic usurpation, on 
the part of scientific philology, of our native and 
customary rights in our own words and names ? In 
the ears of some who are living, such names are old 
memories and to these it is a real and sensible 
grievance : and this, it is hoped, will be a valid ex- 
cuse for the present attempt at a reprisal of our spoil 
from within the sacred precincts of that learned 
function. Besides, in the case before us, not only 
is the name itself truly monumental, but the dis- 
tortion attempted would blot out one of the links 
of an interesting chain of such names j which, as 
they stand, may explain or illustrate each other. 
Such a name has a value at least equal to the 
Dorchester Rings, or to a Saxon baluster in a 
Lincolnshire bell-tower. 


likely soon to get rid of Temple Bar and Northum- 
berland House, notwithstanding the sentimental 
objections of various persons, may I be allowed to 
suggest through the medium of "N. & Q." the 
desirableness of making a clean sweep of all the 
old buildings in the metropolis of every kind, 
instead of dealing with the matter bit by bit? 
Think of the employment that would be given to 
thousands of deserving artisans if we were to pull 
down St. Paul's, Westminster Abbey, the Tower, 
the Monument, the City churches, &c. &c. ! That 
consideration (not to speak of the gains of capi- 
talists and professional men) ought to outweigh 
all absurd taste for antiquity and the fine arts. 
To accommodate the congregations of the demo- 
lished churches, large wooden sheds could easily 
be run up. TAXDAKAGEE. 

MODESTY OP DOGS. Darwin, in his Descent of 
Man, I fancy (but cannot now find the place) 
somewhere speaks of the modesty and bashfulness 
of dogs, as exhibited in their not liking to beg too 
often from the same person at the same meal. 
Having kept dogs for over twenty years I have 
never observed this ; but nearly all my dogs have 
evidently felt uncomfortable and abashed under a 
steady gaze, looking away, turning round when 
lying down, or pretending to be asleep, and this 
especially after they had, or thought they had, 
been doing wrong. Have other instances of Dar- 
win's kind been observed ? FILMA. 

4 th S. X. AUGUST 10, 72.1 




following lines were written on a pane of glass in 
one of the windows at Puiiwell Hall, Batley, 
Yorkshire, by a Miss Taylor, and bears the date 
of 1734. I copied them recently. It is said her 
heart was won by a lover that did not meet with 
the approbation of her friends, and that they made 
her prisoner in one of the rooms, and it was there 
she wrote the lines I beg you will preserve in 
"N. Q.": 

" Come gentle muse, -wont to divert, 

Corroding cares from anxious heart ; 

Assist me now, to bear the smart 

Of a relenting angry heart. 

What, tho' no being I have on earth, 

Tho' near the place that gave me birth, 

And kindred less regard do pay 

Than the acquaintance of a day. 

Know what the best of men declare 

That they on earth but strangers are : 

Nor matters it, a few years hence, 

How fortune to thee did dispense ; 

If in a palace thou has dwelt, 

Or, in a cell penury felt- 
Ruled as a prince, served as a slave 

Six feet of earth is all thou'lt have. 
Here give my thoughts a nobler theme, 

Since all this world is but a dream 

Of short endurance." 

26, Wilberforce Street, Hull. 

reading a paper upon a physiological subject con- 
tributed by a well-known university Docent to a 
well-known Vienna medical periodical, I came 
across the following : (( Ich sah Kiigelchen von 
immenser Kleinheit," &c. I saw globules [of mer- 
cury] of immense, or immeasurable, smallness. 
Such use of the word immense, until I had thought 
upon its derivation, seemed to me to be absurd, 
used as I am to the English use of the term, 
which is ever one conveying an idea of magnitude. 

Among all the quotations given by Richardson 
in his well-known dictionary, this word is never 
used save in the sense of immeasurability in great- 
ness. Shakspeare seems never to have employed 
this word in his writings, if our best Concordance 
to his works that of Cowden Clark can be 
trusted. It would be interesting to know if any 
of the standard writers of our language" wells 
of English undented "have ever employed the 
word in question as implying smallness tnat cannot 
be measured. J. C. G. 

New University Club. 

AND FEMALES. I have seen a statement, but 
where _ I do not now remember, that in the most 
primitive attempts at portraiture in ages when 
art was in its infancy, the costume of males was 
invariably red, and that of females blue. And 
that if two pieces of water-colour, red and blue, 
were given to a child and he asked to paint with 

them a boy and"girl, it would be found that his 
untutored hand had given the rude sketch of the 
girl a blue frock, whilst the garments of the boy 
would be red. And also, that when a mother 
purchases clothes for her infant, the same taste 
guides her selection. If the child is a girl, blue 
is the prevailing colour ; but if it is a boy, then 
red is the predominant shade. And this rule holds 
good whether the mother be an accomplished 
inhabitant of Belgravia or the illiterate wife of a 
country labourer. 

It would be interesting to know how far the 
above is in accordance with facts. J. P. 

BELL INSCRIPTION. The following unique and 
elegant Leonine verse is kindly reported to ine 
from the second bell at Rowlston, Hereford, 
which deserves to be recorded in the pages of 
" N. & Q." : 

/'Christus . est . via . veritas . et . vita." 
On the third is found 

" Personet hec cellis dulcissima vox Gabrielis." 

Cellis is probably the founder's error for ceetts. 
The treble of this is dated 1683. with " God sar 
the King." H. T. E. 

Jemmie Duff was a half foolish creature, who 
used to attend all the funerals in Edinburgh 
like "Old Q." I forget when he lived, but I 
have often heard of him. He used to beg weepers 
and hatbands the brDader and longer they were, 
the better pleased was Jemmie. T. C. G. 

The following appeared in the Leattle Intelligencer \ 
(a Washington Territory newspaper) of December 
4, 1871. I have also seen it in a Sydney (New 
South Wales) newspaper of last year. I have 
not seen it in any of the papers or journals of the 
United Kingdom : 

" Tell us not, in idle jingle, 

' Marriage-is an empty dream ! ' 
For the girl is dead that^ single, 
And things are not what they seem. 

" Life is real ! life is earnest ! 

Single blessedness a fib ; 
Man thou art, to man returnest, 
Has been spoken of the rib. 

" Not enjoyment, and not sorrow, 

Is our destined end or way ; 
But to act that each to-morrow 
Finds us nearer marriage-day. 

*' Life is long, and youth is fleeting, 

And our hearts are light and gay ; 
Still like pleasant drums are beating 
Wedding marches all the day. 

" In the world's broad field of battle, 

In the bivouac of life, 
Be not like dumb, driven cattle ! 
Be a heroine a wife ! 



. X. AUGUST 10, 72. 

" Trust no future, howe'er pleasant ; 
Let the dead past bury its dead ; 
Act act in the living present, 
Hoping for a spouse a- head. 
" Lives of married folks remind us 

We can live our lives as well, 
And departing, leave behind us 
Such examples as will ' tell ' ; 
" Such examples that another, 
Wasting time in idle sport, 
A forlorn, unmarried brother, 

Seeing shall take heart and court. 
" Let us, then, be up and doing, 

With a heart on triumph set ; 
Still contriving, still pursuing, 
And each one a husband get." 

G, Havelock Square East, Dublin. 

POLE." According to Captain Cuttle, I communi- 
cate that the other evening I was walking in a 
lane and observed a number of children with 
linked hands form a revolving circle round an 
imaginary Maypole, all singing 

"All around the Maypole, trit, trit, trot; 
See what a Maypole I have got ; 
One at the bottom and two at the top ; 
A.11 around the Maypole, trip, trip, trop." 



ETON. Can any of your readers give me an ac- 
count of this person, of whom there is a published 
engraving undated? C. B. T. 

SIR EDMUND BACON. Who was this person, 
whose arms are Gules on a chief argent, two mul- 
lets argent ; motto, " Mediocria firma " ? N. 

[Sir Edmund Bacon of Gillingham, co. Norfolk, was 
the son of Sir Nicholas Bacon, the first person advanced 
to the dignity of a baronet on the institution of the order 
bv James I. in 1611. Sir Edmund died s. p. in 1649. 
Blomefield's Norfolk, ed. 1807, vii. 165 ; Burke's Extinct 
Baronetage, ed. 1844, p. 31.] 

THE VERB, " To BRAIN." The Daily News 
(a paper not distinguished for sensational and 
uncouth words), in its account of the Bermondsey 
tragedy on July 1, says : 

" William Edward Taylor, thirty-nine years of age 
brained to death a woman who had lived with him." 

Can beating in a woman's skull be properly 
called " braining " ? GEORGE RAVEN. 


KENT. Hasted says Reynolds passed by sale, in 
Charles I.'s time, to Sir Jno. Jacob. Which was 
the Browne who sold it ? Was it the John Browne, 
mentioned in Berry's Genealogy of Kent, as " son 
and heir" (although the youngest of a large 
family), and aged seven, in 1619? and did he 

marry a Kennett ? If so, is anything known of 
him? Did he leave descendants? I should be 
glad to know if there are any "Brownes" now 
living who claim descent from this family. His 
father Thomas married two Essex wives. Had he 
estates in Essex as well as Kent ? If so, where ? 
The last wife was Martha Rich, daughter of 
Richard Rich of Lees. What Richard Rich was 
this? It was not Baron Rich? I cannot find 
out in any county history. 

84, Caversham Road, N.W. 

^ CUSTOM. In many parts of Italy, the 

friends take leave of their dead when the corpse 
is carried from the house on a bier. Candles are 
borne, and prayers said by the priest on the way 
to the church." The body is left before the altar, 
under the care of those whose office it is to lay it 
in the coffin. The funeral takes place at night. 
Even among the rich, the dead lie unwatched for 
hours, and tales are told of sacrilegious robbery. 
Was this ever the custom in England? If it 
were, I think it accounts easily for the stories of 
people being buried alive, and of recovery in con- 
sequence of the sexton trying to strip the dead of 
jewellery, &c. ISABELLA C. GRANT. 

114, Gloster Terrace, Hyde Park. 


" The Earl of Maxfield went down to the north borders, 
to overthrow the Cremis, a certain family that were 
relate to me . . . The gentlemen called the Cremis 
. . ."Diary of Edward VI., Cott. MS. Nero, c. x. 
fol. 21 b, Aug. 16, 1550. 

What family was this ? Does Cremis stand for 
Grahams? How were they " relate to me"? 
Why, considering that relationship, was it deemed 
necessary to " overthrow " them ? 


WILLIAM FROST of Benstead, near Farnham, 
Hampshire, emigrated to America in 1667.* I 
should like to find out if he left an English de- 
scendant, and any particulars about the family. 

L. D. 

large flat stone, lying on the ground at Egliston 
abbey, near Barnard Castle, is the following coup- 
let in large bold black-letter. I have never heard 
any explanation of the abbreviated words that 
satisfies me, though I have heard several at- 
tempts : 

(T * l&ohcbg j^ ||Ijn for m uassioiTS sej Qf) 
Ihsmrbc. ^' bane nursi mt pi sinfull Ijc^ 

The M " for Mary " is crowned. J. T. F. 
Hatfield Hall, Durlr TC. 

JOVIAL MERCURY." I have Nos. 1 to 4 
of the Jovial Mercury. The first number is not 
dated, but No. 2 bears date March 3, 1692, the 
other two being each a week later. I wish to 

4 th S. X. AUGUST 10, 72.] 



know if this paper was continued after the fourth 
number. It consists of a single leaf only, size 
about one foot by seven and a half inches. 



" And we perhaps each of these dispositions as the 
subject was whereon I entered, may have at other times 
variously affected ; and likely might in these foremost 
expressions now also disclose which of them swayed 
most " Arber, p. 31. 

" Which though I stay not to confess ere any aske, I 
shall be blamelesse, if it be no other, than the joy and 
gratulation which it brings to all who wish and promote 
their countries! erty." Arber, p. 31. 

What is tne subject of the verb " might dis- 
close " ? To what does " it " refer ? 

' The barbarick pride of a Hunnish and Norwegian 
statelines." Arber, p. 33. 

Whence did Milton obtain his knowledge of the 
characteristics of Huns and Norwegians ? Where 
can one find Mr. Holt White's comments on the 
Areopaqitica alluded to by the editor of Milton's 
Prose Works (Bohn's Library) ?* 

E. F. M. M. 


O'NEILL. Supposing there is to-day an O'Neill, 
who is the senior representative of Shane the 
Proud The O'Neill of his time and another who 
descends in direct line of primogeniture from 
some other The O'Neill of another epoch, which of 
the two is to be considered the chief of his name 
to-day ? CLANEBOT. 

"PITT" VOYAGE. In 1760 Captain William 
Wilson, of the ship " Pitt," received a medal from 
the H. E. I. Company for " his passage to and 
from China by an unusual course, and thereby 
evincing navigation to be practicable at any season 
of the year." Where can I find an account of 
this voyage ? J. W. FLEMING.- 

3, St. Michael's Place, Brighton. 

[Brief accounts of the voyage of the "Pitt" are given 
in the Gentleman's Mag. xxx. 20 ; and the Annual Re- 
gister, iii. 95.] 

PORTRAITS IN PASTELS. In many books on art 
it is stated that Barocci, bom in 1528, was the 
first of the great Italian artists who used pastels ; 
at any rate for portraits. Nevertheless, from the 
casual manner in which Paolo Giovio mentions 
pastels in a letter to Pietro Aretino, dated Eome 
March 11, 1545, it appears that they were then in 
common use. Giovio says : 

" Son tutto vostro : ma perche il pittore non seppe 
cavare, a mio gusto, 1'effigie vostra dalla medaglia che mi 
donaste, desiderarei d'haverne un schizzo de' colori, se 
ben de' pastelli e piccolo di mezzo foglio, senon, in tela 
da un qualche terzuolo del Signor Titiano : accib che al 
Sacro Museo si vegga la propria effigie, e non trasformata 

[* Mr. T. Holt White published a new edition of the 
" Areopagitica, with Prefatory Remarks, copious Notes, 
and excursive Illustrations ;" Lond. 1819, 8vo. ED.] 

in un peregrine Romeo. Et di gratia tenetemi in gra- 
tiissimo del Signor Compar Tiliano." 

I should feel very much indebted to any person 
who would be so obliging as to point out any 
earlier mention of the use of pastels for portraits. 

Ashford, Kent. KALPH N. JAMES. 


1. "His grave is all too 3 r oung as yet 

To have outgrown the sorrow" that consigned 
Its charge to it." 

2. " Much of glamour might, 
Could make a lady seem a knight ; 
The cobwebs on a dungeon wall 
Seem tapestry in lordly hall." 

[Scott's Lay of the Last Minstrel, canto iii. stanza ix.'J 

3. " What though beneath thee man put forth 

His pomp, his pride, his skill ; 
And arts that made fire, flood, and earth 

The vassals of his will 
Yet mourn I not thy parted sway, 
Thou dim discrowned king of day." 


" The table groans beneath the festive load." 


" Listene these lays, for some there bethe 
Of love which stronger is than dethe ; 
And some of scorne, and some of guile, 
And old adventures that fell while." 

K. P, D. E. 

" Joy and sorrow together were born, 
On a sunny showery April morn." 


In which of De Quincey's Essays is the follow- 
ing 1 passage from an article on the Irish Church, 
in the Evening Standard of July 16, 1872, to be 
found ? 

" The truth is that, as DeQuincey has abundantly shown 
in one of his best essays, all professions rise or fall in 
popular estimation and dignity according as they can or 
cannot be in some manner identified with the State. A 
disestablished Church means a degraded clergy." 


Hungate, Pickering. 

CAPT. WOODES ROGERS. Can any correspon- 
dent to " N. & Q."" supply me with any informa- 
tion concerning the birth, parentage, and county 
of this voyager, noted in his day as having brought 
home Alexander Selkirk from the island of Juan 
Fernandez, and with further particulars of his 
life than are given in the Georgian Era f It ap- 
pears he was at one time governor of the Bahama 
Islands ; and by a petition in the Sloane MS. 4459, 
art. 29, dated Feb. 29, 1727-8, addressed by him 
to the king, he prays, amongst other things, that 
he might be reinstated in his former station of 
governor and captain of the Independent Com- 
panies there ; or, if it was the king's pleasure to 
keep his successor, then to give him such a con- 
sideration for his past sufferings and present half- 
pay as would in some measure retrieve his losses, 
that he might support his family, who for above 
seven years had suffered very much by means of 



.X. AUGUST 10, 72. 

this employment wholly in the British service. 
From this it would appear that he had a family, 
and I shall be glad to be further informed who 
Captain Rogers married, what family he had, and 
whether any of his descendants are now living ? 
He was born in 1670, and died in 1732. 


a sculptor met with a mutilated head of a young 
man, the countenance strongly expressive of terror. 
He thought it was so fine a work of ancient art, 
that he restored and repaired it himself; supply- 
ing what was wanting in the same sense as the 
original, and made it a beautiful work. As I have 
a bust which answers to the above description, I 
shall be glad if any of your correspondents, 
learned in odds and ends of art, could supply me 
with the name of the sculptor. J. R. HAIG. 

SKATING. What is the shortest time in which 
a two-mile course has been run over ? and who 
are the fastest skaters on record in modern times ? 
A challenge appeared in Bell's Life or the Stam- 
ford MeYcunj in 1822-3 I fancy from a father 
aud three sons named Egar offering to race any 
parent and three sons in England, for fifty pounds 
or one hundred pounds, in ice pattens. Wanted, 
a copy of the challenge or particulars. EGAR. 

or AN ENGRAVING. While looking 
over a private collection of engravings and etch- 
ings in Germany last autumn, I came across a 
copperplate impression of a subject quite new to 
me, the history of which I should like to know. 

My notes of the above are as follows: Copper- 
plate 19 by 14 inches ; representing landscape 
with trees, wooden hut surmounted by cross on 
right. Bearded and bare-headed man, dressed 
somewhat like a hermit, with cross suspended 
round neck by a bead chain, and with well-defined 
nimbus round head, grasps with his right hand 
the left hand of a bearded nian dressed in a cloak 
reaching nearly to ankles ; hosen tucked up round 
ankles ; curious gourd-like vessel hanging from 
right side of girdle. This figure holds in right 
hand three cards, and wears a hat, above which 
is a faintly defined nimbus. The first described 

Tire points with left hand towards hut, inviting 
econd figure to come in. 

Below the engraving were the following lines 

" Auglus erat patria ETHBIXUS, sed pulsu, Hybernis 

Mansit finitimis incola pauper agris. 
Incola pauper erat, sed cum sub imagine leprae 
Exciperet Christum, nobilis hospes erat." 

The three cards which Christ holds are, I should 
imagine, emblematical of the Trinity. J. C. G. 

THOR DRINKING UP ESYL. Will one of your 

readers enlighten me upon a Shakespearian point ? 

I see that nearly every commentator explains the 

word " esil " or eisef " (Hamlet, Act V. Sc. 1) 

" Woo't drink up eisel ? " 

as derived from Ang.-Sax. aisil = vinegar ; and the 
Germans, as I see from the Tieck-Schlegel trans- 
lation, agree in this. Now I remember that many 
years ago I met with a book of Scandinavian 
legends, among which were several relating to the 
adventures of Thor. I have a distinct remem- 
brance that, in one of these, mention was made of 
a lake Esyl, and one of the impossible feats de- 
manded of Thor by the giants was to drink this 
lake dry. Now might not Hamlet allude to this 
national legend, the point of which certainly bears 
more analogy to 

" .... eat a crocodil. " 

than the accepted " vinegar "a sort of competi- 
tion more worthy of a village revel, where, I 
believe, we may still see a brave peasantry con- 
tend in rival consumption of hot pudding. 

13, Victoria Terrace, Mount Radford, Exeter. 

VIEWS OF ANCIENT ROME. I should be glad 
to ascertain the scarcity, value, and date of the 
following work in my possession: 

" Nuova Raccolta di 100 Vedutine Antiche della Citta 
di Roma, e sue Vicinanze. Incise a bullino da Domenico 
Pronti. Roma [1795.]." 

The second part contains seventy views of 
Modern Rome, all beautifully engraved. Any 
information respecting the artist would also oblige 

R. E. WAY. 


(4 th S. ix. 423 5 x. 18.) 

There is a sentence quoted by Bloomfield in 
Recensio Synoptica, i. 138, from Philostr. V. A. 
5, 35, p. 218, eKTreTroAejuelcrftn Trpbs TOV tavrov O!KOIS. 
Ill Bonn's Proverbs a phrase from Seneca runs 

" Ncfas nocere vel malo fratri puta." 
Even a bad brother may not lawfully be injured. 

It is an axiom little acted on, for it is quite a 
natural law in human nature that those who are 
likest in disposition disagree most hotly when 

difference arises. Coarse criminals follow rape 
V, ith murder. " There is no hate like that of a 
brother " ; no zeal like that of a pervert. No two 
men in Europe were so much alike as Malebranche 
and Berkeley, and yet the visit of the latter to the 
former ended, when they disputed, in such extra- 
ordinary anger that Malebranche died from the 
effects of it. " Defend me from my friends " bases 
on the same principle. For such can guide their 
ill actions with more intimate knowledge than 
external foes. It needs one of . the garrison to 
betray the postern. Treason is of so base a nature 
that it justifies Cosmo of Florence in the dark . | 
saying which horrified Bacon. You may read that 
we are commanded to forgive our enemies, but 



never that we are to forgive our friends. The 
Greeks have a more good-natured proverb refer- 
ring to an injudicious friend <f>i\os jue &\&TrTuv, 
oVoev (\9pov SiaQfpei A friend who hurts me differs 
nothing from an enemy. DR. RAMAGE, in his 
very interesting parallels, gives a wrong reference : 
it is not Matthew x. 25, but 36. The Judas-kiss 
shows saliently as the vilest act in all time. I 
should not think that sixteenth century English 
could furnish much connection of the word " faniy- 
lyar " with " enemy," except in passages based on 
the very phrase in question. Chaucer has " famu- 
lar fo", (Richardson's Diet., sub v.) Test. Love, 
book n.|: 

"Thus arne Ins familiars his foes and his enemies ; and 
nothing is more worse nor more naughty for to annoy, 
than is & familiar enemy." 

" perilous fire, that in th' bedstraw bredeth ; 
famuler fo, that his service bedeth ! " 

Merchant's Tale, v. 9, 658. 

There is a pleasant point lying close here. The 
" famuler " is from the Latin famulus, from ira^a, 
a possession, says Haigh ; from 6/ju\la, says Rich- 
ardson ; and t\v), a crowd more properly, how- 
ever, a communion, a living under one housebond. 
The ^Eolic is nearer with its digammate Fot j utA.i / a 
or from a/xa Fafju\la. Hence the familar foe is an 
enemy to his family, communion, or community. 
Treason lies at the bottom of the idea, and aggra- 
vation of danger naturally springs from intimate 
knowledge. Out of this gathers the portentous 
feature of the late wars in Europe procedure 
being formulated on the axiom that it is u cheaper 
to buy a general than to fight him when at unity 
with his army." Oh! Sedan, Paris, Metz, ye have 
indeed taught France what it is to have given 
house-room to familiar foes. Does anyone take 
up the parable ? or can any in Austria" interpret 
the ghastly characters inscribed on the dried 
parchment skins of the victims of Sadowa ? In 
German discipline and the whim of Mars, let those 
believe who will. " Those that think must go- 
vern those that toil "(Goldsmith); and the cabinet, 
with its double-foldings diplomatic, can easily 
overrule as cash does, according to Byron, the 
court, the camp, and the battle-field. Woe to the 
nations listless, listening to the Siren song of 
arbitrating diplomatic double entente. C. A. W.' 

HERMENTRTJDE'S proverb occurs in Chaucer's 
Marchaundes Tale (1. 549-550). I quote some 
lines of context, as the quotation will show what 
Chaucer thought of the " famuler fo," and of the 
bearing of the proverb : 

" O perilous fuyr, that in the bed-straw bredith ! 
O famuler fo, thattois service bedith ! 
O servaunt traitour, false homly he we, 
Lyk to the nedder sleighe in bosom untrewe, 
God schild us alle from your acquaintance ! 
O January, dronken in plesaunce 
Of manage, se how thy Damyan, 
Thyn oughne squier and thy borne man, 

Entendith for to do the vilonye ; 

God graunte the thin homly fo espye. 

For in this world nys worse pestilence 

Than homly foo, alday in thy presence." 

Morris's Aldine Edition. 

The italics are mine. JOHN ADDIS. 

Rustington, Littlehampton, Sussex. 

I beg to offer a proverb somewhat similar in 
meaning to the Italian ones given in your last 
from the Icelandic 

Vih milli vinn, fiendr milli frandr." 
A creek between friends, a fiend between relations. 

A. S. 

I think I may venture to answer MR. RAMAGE'S 
query, seeing that I have resided in the sixteenth 
century since February, 1870. "A familiar enemy " 
is a. family enemy a foe " of a man's own house- 

(4 th S. ix. passim.) 

A friend of mine purchased a copy of the fol- 
lowing ditty some thirty years since from a vender 
of street ballads, plying his trade in the City 
Road, London : 


" When rhyming and verses at first were in fashion, 
And poets and authors indulged in their passion, 
Select what they might, still their subject was new, 
And that's more than our modern scribblers can do. 

" The ancients have work'd upon each thing in nature, 
Described its variety, genius, and feature, 
They having exhausted all fancy could bring, 
As nothing is left, why of nothing I sing. 

" From nothing we came, and whatever our station, 
To nothing we owe an immense obligation ; 
Whatever we gain, or whatever we learn, 
In time we shall all unto nothing return. 

" This world came from nothing, at least so says history, 
Of course about nothing there's something of mystery ; 
Man came from nothing, and by the same plan, 
Sweet woman was made from the rib of a man. 

" Since then a man thinks a nothing of taking 
A woman to join and again his rib making ; 
As nothing can give so much joy to his life, 
As nothing's so sweet as a good-humour'd wife. 

" Some pass [away] their time nothing beginning, 
By nothing losing, and by nothing winning; 
Nothing they buy, and nothing they sell, 

Nothing they know and of nothing they tell. 

" There's something in nothing exceedingly clever, 
Nothing will last out for ever and ever ; 
Time will make everything fade away fast, 
While nothing will certainly durable' last. 

" You may talk about anything, but its condition, 
With nothing for certain can't bear competition ; 
And so I praise nothing, for nothing my gains, 
And nothing I certainly get for my pains. 

" That life is all nothing is plainer and plainer, 
So he who gets nothing is surely a gainer ; 
All about nothing I prove pretty plain, 
Take nothing from nothing, there'll nothing remain. 



S. X. AUGUST 10, 72. 

" Thus with this nothing the time out I'm spinning, 
Nothing will sometimes set many folks grinning ; 
Believe me in this there is nothing so true, 
The Author wrote this, having nothing to do." 

I have heard this sung to the air of " The Irish 
Washerwoman;" "but two verses are required 
instead of one to suit the metre of this tune. 


Wallham Ablev. 

(4j th S. v. vi. viii. and ix. passim ; x. 34.) 

Many readers of " N. & Q." must be thankful 
to DR. RAMAGE for his various highly valuable 
communications over the last two or three years 
directed to the discovery of the true bounds of 
this barony, the possession of a very distinguished 
ancient family, the Kirkpatricks, as well as of the 
other adjoining ones of Tybaris and Briddeburg. 

The charter of Alex. II. of 1232 (4 th S. v. 562) 
to Ivan de Kyrkepatrick is one of great interest. 
It operated either as an original or first grant, or 
as the renewal of a former one (it is impossible, 
from the terms of the charter, to say which, 
from " confir masse " appearing invariably in first 
as well as subsequent charters) of the whole land 
(tenement ?) of Kylosbern, and that by the same 
bounds as the king or his great-grandfather 
(David I. ?) held the same ; but yet there is ex- 
cepted a certain piece of land, the special name of 
which is not given, which lay near to ("juxta") 
Auchenleck, and also on the north side of the 
bounds stated ("underwritten") in the charter. 
Auchenleck, for anything indicated by this charter, 
may be within or without this barony of Kylos- 
bern. The boundary description begins at' the 
meeting of the waters of the Poldune-larg and the 
Potuisso, which last is elsewhere said, possibly 
not correctly, to be now called Pottis (4 th S. x. 35). 
From thence (that point) it ascends by the Pol- 
dune-larg even to the Macricem Sicherium (the 
great Syke or wet Ditch ?), which in ascending 
runs through the Moss; and, in like manner, 
in descending passes on the north side of the 
cairn towards Auchenleck, even to the burn called 
Poldunii (now, it is said, Poldivan), which burn 
(as the charter asserts) is the march between Ky- 
losberum and Glen-Garrock. The latter, there- 
fore, would seem no part of this grant (although 
it probably was of the excepted land) a view 
that is confirmed by DR. RAMAGE'S statement 
(4 th S. x. 35), that Garrock is a farm of the 
Queensberry estate, and part of the barony of 

Now, these are the whole terms of the descriptive 
clause of this charter, and from them it must be 
that a true notion of the bounds of Kylosbern, 
conveyed with furca et fossa, soc et sac, &c. &c., is to 

be arrived at ; and as these bounds must be held 
as indubitably accurate, too particular an attention 
to them can hardly be given. 

It would appear evident that the wholemoss men- 
tioned did not belong to Kylosbern only the half 
of it. It appears likewise supposing no part of 
the descriptive clause lost or wanting before the 
words " et sic descendendo " that this moss was 
drained of its superfluous water by the "Mac. 
Sick." in two and opposite directions, the one 
towards the Poldunlarg Burn on the one end or 
side ; and the other, keeping on the north side of 
the cumulus lapidum, towards (versus) Auchenleck, 
and also the burn called Poldunii on the other 
end or side. We cannot test this interpretation 
by personally viewing the lands, but, as we be- 
lieve, DR. RAMAGE may do so without great in- 
convenience. The moss (it is not called a " great 
moss," as DR. RAVAGE does somewhere) of the 
charter must be found lying between the two 
burns mentioned ; and the Doctor will be able to 
say whether the drained moss, the " Dry Gill " re- 
ferred to by him as a very noticeable feature, is in 
such a place or not. 

Regarding the barony of Tybaris, DR. RAMAGE 

| says (4 th S. vi. 91) that he finds " part of it in 
Closeburn," meaning Closeburn New Parish, we 
presume. This part was Auchenleck and the lands 
called Newton, both mentioned in the charter of 
1424 to Thomas de Kyrkepatrick; and he seems to 
think these were that land excepted by Alex. II. in 
the charter of 1 232, and which he assumes was 

I part then of Closebarn. The charter terms, how- 
ever, neither affirm nor negative this latter view ; 
and, for aught that appears, in 1232 this part may 

I have been a portion of Tybaris, although locally 
disjoined, lying at a distance, from the main body 
of that great barony. 

Briddeburg seems to lie in the south part of 
the present parish of Closeburn. In modern times, 
it appears under the names of Burbrugh and Brog- 
burgh. It is said to be no part of Kylosbern 
barony. The original parish in which itlay was 
Dalgarno, which was extensive, embracing not 
only these two baronies, but parts, some of which 
are named by DR. RAMAGE (4 th S. ix. 215), of that 
of Tybaris. It is curious to remark, however, that 
the charter to Briddeburg by The Bruce in 1320, 
regards only " the tiro penny lands (i. e. lands of 
the " Old Extent " of two pennies) with the per- 
tinents in the vill (Spelman's Gloss., voce " Villa") 
of Briddeburg and shire of Dumfries " (transla- 
tion), and not this vill itself; and yet they are to 
be held by Sir Thomas K, in free barony i. e. 
as lands in, or part of, a free barony are held. At 
the same time, it is necessary to say, that the 
charter affords no evidence of this vill being- 
erected into a barony, or of there being a barony 
of Briddeburg, or even of this land, excepting the 
two penny lands, having been in 1320, the date 

4* s. x. AUGUST 10, '72.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


of the charter ; in the possession of Sir Thomas 

The cumulus lapidum DR. EAMAGE believes 
to be the Garrock Cairn, but he will pardon us 
in stating that, in our interpretation, it was not 
this cairn that was versus Auchenleck. It was 
the boundary that was so, the u Macricem Siche- 
rium" as we read the description. 

This " Mac. Sich." was evidently a boundary 
object, which stretched through the middle of the 
moss ; and no other boundary mark could well^be 
formed in such a position except a ditch, a wide 
open cast, or drain. These words cannot be literally 
interpreted. No such word as the former is to 
be found in Ducange (10 vols. fol. edit), Spel- 
nian, &c. j and as regards the latter, .sicm (a wet 
ditch, a lacuna, a watercourse, dry in summer 
and wet in winter; a gill, a water- channel) ap- 
pears in various forms (Ducange), and among 
others that of sichettus, ace. sichettum. 

With these remarks, too lengthy, we would 
respectfully direct DR. KAMAGE'S attention yet for 
a little to the subject. ESPEDARE. 

P.S. It seems doubtful whether the special 
boundary description of the charter was used 
otherwise than to denote the boundary between 
the excepted land and that conferred on Kirke- 
pa trick. 

(To be continued.) 

(4 th S. 8, 74.) 

It would appear from the Glasgow Weekly 
Herald of July 6, 1872, that " Old Simon Lang,'' 
who died at Felling (not Kelling) near this town 
a few months ago, was not " the last of the Gretna 
priests " nor had, to use the words of the Carlisle 
Patriot,, " long outlived all his competitors." The 
extract is a report of a recent Court of Probate 
case at Westminster : 

"Thomas Blythe stated that in May, 1853, he was liv- 
ing at Springfield, Gretna Green, in Scotland. Witness 
was in the agicultural line, but did a small stroke of busi- 
ness in the 'joining ' line as well." 

In reply to counsel's question "How did you 
perform the marriage ceremony " ? Witness re- 

" I first asked them if they were single persons. They 
said they were. I then asked'the man, " Do vou take this 
woman . for your wife " ? He said " Yes." "l then asked 

.the marriage is complete." A certificate of marriage was 
written out and given to the woman.' In cross-examina- 
tion the witness stated that he kept a book in which mar- 
riages were entered, but this marriage did not appear 
there. It did happen sometimes that a marriage was not 

nn + s\*s*/l " 


R. 0. Jenoway, in his Selection of Antiquarian 

and Historical Notes (2nd ed., Edin. 1827), writes 
as follows : 

" This place (Gretna Green) has long been famous for 
the clandestine marriages which have been celebrated at 
it. This traffic began about the year 1738. The cere- 
mony, when any is used, is that of the Church of Eng- 
land, and the certificate is signed by the pretended parson 
under a fictitious name. The following copy of a certificate 
speaks sufficiently for the illiterateness of the characters- 
who exercised the office : 

* This is to sartify all who may be concerned, that on 

from the parish of and 

from the parish of in England, and both comes 

before me declayred themselves to be single persons, and 
hereby now married by the form of the Kirk of Scotland 
and agreible to the church of England, and therefore 
givine under my hande this 23 day of June 1818. 




P.S. The Carlisle Journal has been informed 
that " Gretna is still to have its priest in the person 
of William Lang, eldest son of Simon, deceased., 
thus continuing the link to the third generation." 

EGAR and MENNEL will find some interesting 
particulars as to Gretna Green priests and mar- 
riages in Dibdin's Northern Tour. J. B. 

On the death of Old Simon Lang (with whom 
I was personally acquainted) I contributed an 
article to the Carlisle newspapers, bearing the 
title u The Last of the Gretna Priests," a portion 
of which went the round of the English papers, 
and also found its way into several American 
prints. The article itself is too long for quotation 
in "N. & Q.," but the following extract may 
perhaps possess some interest to your correspon- 
dent EDGAR and others : 

' A brief glance at the history of Gretna marriages, 
and of some of the more prominent priests who have 
flourished in connection therewith, may not be uninter- 
esting at the present time. As a place for tying the 
nuptial knot for runaway couples, there is no doubt that 
its great popularity commenced immediately after the 
infamous ' Fleet Marriages ' were suppressed, at the 
middle of the last century. The writer of this sketch 
has gathered from various out-of-the-way sources suffi- 
cient evidence to show that long anterior to that date 
irregular marriages, all along the parishes of the western 
Borders, were far more rampant than in almost any other 
part of the three kingdoms. As early as 1668 the rector 
of Stapleton cited many of his parishioners for ' unlaw- 
fully marrying out of ye parish, and chrystening chyl- 
dren ;' and afterwards mentions one ' Mr. Armstrong of 
Danoby,' on the Scotch side, as becoming exceedingly 
troublesome to him by undertaking such jobs. About 
1730, one ' John Morray, clogger, in the Langtoon,' on 
the English side, gave great annoyance to the worthy 
minister of Graitney, by writing testimonials of mar- 
iages, to which fictitious names were attached, for the 
imorous couples of his parish, and receiving from them 
about two half-crowns ' for each accomplishment. From 
he fact that marriages in Scotland were deemed legal if 
wo persons accepted one another as man and wife, Jn 



[4* S. X. AUGUST 10, '72. 

the presence of witnesses, a sharp-witted fellow named 
Scott hit on the ingenious idea of opening a place on the 
Borders for uniting runaway couples in wedlock. *He 
commenced his career at the Rigg, in Gretna parish, 
about the year 1753, and has always been accounted ' a 
cunning sort of chiel.' His successor or rival in trade 
was an old soldier called Gordon, who invariably appeared 
at the altar dressed in a full military uniform, having 
rather an antiquated or ' seedy ' appearance. He wore a 
huge cocked hat, red coat, jack boots, and generally had 
a ponderous sword dangling by his side. A pretty picture 
this for any lack-a-daisical parson of the modern school 
to contemplate ! When time had levelled" the old soldier 
there arose many aspirants for the office of chief-priest. 
The lion's share of the plunder, however, fell to the lot of 
Joseph Pasley, fisherman, smuggler, tobacconist, and 
reputed blacksmith." 


(4 th S. ix. passim.') 

Among the veterans whose claims to have at- 
tained extraordinar} 7 longevity have been so ably 
vindicated through the columns of " N. & Q." by 
MR. WHITMORE of Boston, appears the name of j 
" Father Waldo." This venerable clergyman, of 
whom, in the language of Longfellow, it may 
almost be said 

" For a whole century 
Had he been there 
Serving God in prayer," 

enjoyed a wide-spread reputation for longevity. 
Particularly in this vicinity (Albany, N. Y.), where 
he was often seen during the latter years of his 
life, is his name and age familiar. I have met 
several persons who were acquainted with him. 
Mr. Taylor of Albany has told me that he heard 
the Rev. Daniel Waldo preach in the second Pres- 
byterian church of that city, having been intro- 
duced to the congregation by the Rev. Dr. Sprague 
as over one hundred years of age. 

His sou, E. B. Waldo (already alluded to by 
ME. WHITMOEE) has sent me the following reply 
to a letter of inquiry concerning his habits, &c. : 
" Syracuse, N.S. June 13, 1872. 

" I could give you many facts bearing perhaps upon 
the subject of your inquiry "as connected with my father's 
life, but hardly know where to begin, and think possibly 
I may quite as well serve your purpose by giving you 
an extract from an address which I have prepared almost 
directly on this subject, and which I am intending to 
deliver at the various cities and towns on my way from 
Portland, Maine, to San Francisco, performing the journey 
(except the unsettled parts of the west) on foot, although 
I am now in my seventy-second year. I give the extract 
as viz. : 

" ' The history of the last six soldiers of the American 
Revolution, and their often-repeated sentiments on this 
subject (the government of their temper) are very in- 
teresting and instructive. All of these men attained the 
great age of one hundred years and upwards. They were 
of different mental and physical organisation, and of very 
different temperament. They were similar in three things 
only all were active men, all had cheerful, happy tem- 
pers, and all possessed healthy stomachs. While l" admit 

their healthy stomachs must have very favourably af- 
fected their tempers, it is equally true, as they uniformly 
believed and declared, that the absolute control which 
they exerted over their tempers, contributed greatly to 
their health and longevity. 

" It was my good fortune to have enjoyed the fatherly 
care and counsel of one of those old soldiers. He used to 
remark to me that a tit of anger was as injurious to, and 
did as much to break down the constitution of a person as 
a fever or fit of intoxication. In November, 1814, in a 
letter to me, he gave me this advice, which I have always 
remembered and endeavoured to put in practice. " Strive 
my son," wrote he, " to get the perfect control of your 
temper, under the most sudden and greatest provocation. 
If it does you no other good, it will contribute vastly to 
your health, happiness, and longevity." 

" ' In fact he had so long and so uniformly controlled 
his temper that many of his friends supposed he had none, 
but this was not so, for he had a quick and strong temper, 
but he had a stronger will, and in this respect an unerring 
judgment. So that, although I knew him for sixty years, 
I never saw him in anger, and I expect to leave myself a 
similar ground of commemoration." .... 

Several of Daniel Waldo's letters are contained 
in Sprague's Annals of the American Pulpit, and 
his biography is published in the American En- 
cyclopedia (Appleton's). ALADDIN. 

West Troy, N.Y. 

THOMAS WAYTE (4 th S. x. 88.) In a few weeks 
I hope to be able to send MR. CHATTOCK some in- 
formation respecting the family of Sir Thomas 
Wayte. I shall be extremety grateful for any 
connected pedigree previous to Sir Thomas Wayte, 
who married a Reynes or Raines. His eldest son . 
was Sir Nicholas Wayte, buried at Chertsey 
Abbey, 1738, who for some reason was disin- 
herited. I have in my possession a very curious 
will of Henry Wayte, son and heir of Sir Nicholas, 
some extracts from which are worthy of the pages 
of N. & Q." 

Sir Thomas had several sons. One of these, 
Raines Wayte, settled in Jamaica, and from his 
daughter are descended the greater number of the 
family of Ricketts of Combe (see Burke's Landed 
Gentry). I say the greater number, as Sarah 
Wayte, by her marriage with George William 
Ricketts, Esq., had twenty-six children. A second 
wife had none, but the third bore a posthumous 
son, whose descendants are also numerous. As I 
am unable to consult my MSS. for some weeks, 
I trust this bare outline may show MR. CHATTOCK 
the nature of the information I can impart. 


Has MR. CHATTOCK examined the Wayte letters 
in the Lisle Papers, vol. xiv. ? There are a few 
signed " William Waite," and a larger number 
signed " Antony Waite," which, I should think, 
might give some information respecting the family. 
The former in those letters, of which I have ex- 
tracts, dates from Wymering ; the latter from 
Chichester, Wymering, and the New Temple. 
Antony was in the service of Dr. Shaxton, Bishop 

4* s.x. AUGUST 10, '72.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


of Chichester, of whom he constantly speaks as 
" My master." The dates of these letters run from 
1533 to 1540. HERMENTRTJDE. 

DRYDEN'S BROKEN HEAD (4 th S. x. 47.) The 
following extracts from a reprint of the Mer- 
curius Domesticus, or Newes loth from City and 
Country, published to prevent False Reports, in my 
possession, will, I think, furnish your correspond- 
ent with the information he requires. The date 
is Friday, December 19, 1679 : 

" Upon the 18th instant in the evening Mr. Dryden, 
the great poet, was set upon in Rose Street in Covent 
Garden, by three persons, who calling him rogue and son 

of a knockt him down and dangerously wounded 

him, but upon his crying out murther they made their 
escape ; it is conceived that they had their pay before- 
hand, and designed not to rob him but to execute on him 
some feminine if not popish vengeance." 

Amongst the advertisements in the same paper 
is the following : 

" Whereas on Thursday, the 18th instant in the even- 
ing, Mr. John Dryden was assaulted and wounded in 
Rose Street in Covent Garden, by divers men un- 
known : if any person shall make discovery of the said 
offenders to the said Mr. Dryden, or to any justice of 
peace for the liberty of Westminster, he shall not only 
receive fifty pounds, which is deposited in the hands of 
Mr. Blanchard Goldsmith, next door to Temple Bar, for 
the said purpose ; but if the discoverer be himself one of 
the actors, he shall have the fifty pounds, without letting 
his name be known, or receiving the least trouble by any 


The allusion in "Vtile Dulce" is evidently to 
the beating Dryden got on Dec. 18, 1679, in Rose 
Street, Covent Garden. The poet was suspected 
of having written an " Essay on Satire," which 
was shown about in MS. j and as it reflected upon 
the Earl of Rochester and the Duchess of Ports- 
mouth, these persons, it is supposed, revenged 
themselves by hiring ruffians to assault him. 

The London Gazette of Dec. 29, 1679, records 
the circumstance. The Duke of Buckingham, in 
his Essay on Poetry, says of Dryden : 

" Though praised and punish'd for another'.s rhymes, 
His own deserve as great applause sometimes." 

In Tonson's edition of Lord Roscommon's Poems, 
1701, 8vo (poems at end of volume), a note on 
this couplet says : 

" A libel for which he was both applauded and wounded, 
though entirely innocent of the whole affair." 

The instigators of this undeserved outrage were 
never discovered. ' EDWARD F. RIMBATJLT. 

EPITAPHIANA (4 th S. x. 46.) MR. SANDYS will 
find the epitaph he quotes in Ashwell churchyard, 
Herts, and also in Bengeo churchyard near Hert- 
ford. J. E. CFSSANS. 

There is another variation of the epitaph quoted 
by MR. SANDYS, given in the Sabrince Corolla, 
editio prima, MDCCCL. a book creditable alike to 

the scholarship of Shrewsbury school and of Eng- 
land generally. The epitaph is thus headed 

" In a Churchyard at Elgin. 
" Life is a city with many a street ; 
Death is a market where all men meet : 
If life were a thing that gold could buy, 
The poor could not live, and the rich would not die." 

p. 34. 

The following translation of it into Greek 
verse is given by the Rev. James RiddelL M.A., 
an old Salopian, and late fellow of Balliol College, 
Oxford, whose death in the prime of life so many 
friends lamented : 

r H v6\i$ eo-0' 6 fiios, TTUKO 5e \avp7?<rt 
eV 5' ayoprj O&varos iraffi ftpOToiffi 
et 8' 

Aetirreos, ov TTTWYO) (bcarl jStarbs kv 3v. 

J.R. P. 35. 

Hungate, Pickering. 

Under the head of " Epitaphiana " you pub- 
lished a notice, signed by RD. HILL SANDYS, of 
an inscription on a tombstone in a churchyard in 
Kent, which ran as follows : 

" Life is a city full of crooked streets, 
And death's the market-place where people meets ; 
If life were merchandise that folks could buy, 
The rich would live, and none but the poor would die." 

The following epitaph, which has a close affinity 
in sentiment to the above, though differing slightly 
in the form of expression, exists on a tombstone 
dated 1687 in the Elgin Cathedral burying- 
ground : 
" This world is a citie full of streets, 

And death is the mercat that all men meets, 

If lyfe were a thing that monie c d buy, 

The poor could not live, and the rich would not die." 

W. C. G. 


MR. SANDYS is referred to p. 32 of Ancient 
Poems, Sfc., of the Peasantry. (Griffin & Co. Lon- 
don). He will there find some information about 
the lines in question. N. 

[An almost identical inscription may be seen in the 
cemetery at Basingstoke.] 

BEEVER (4 th S. x. 43.}Beever, not baver, is uni- 
versally used throughout Hertfordshire for a meal 
taken about eleven o'clock in the morning. The 
usual meals of a Hertfordshire labourer are first 
breakfast, taken before six in the morning ; break- 
fast (sometimes called " eight o'clock ") at eight ; 
beever at half- past ten or eleven ; dinner at twelve 
or half-past ; fours at four o'clock (usually only 
beer) ; sixes f or tea, about six o'clock, and supper. 


" GARRICK IN THE GREEN ROOM " (4 th S. x. 8.) 
A key to this engraving, with a Biographical and 
Critical Analysis written by George Daniel, was 


NOTES AND QUEEIES. [4* s. x. AUGUST 10, '72. 

published by James Webb Southgate, 22, Fleet 
Street, in the year 1829. The plate had then 
become the property of Mr. Southgate, head oT the 
firm of Southgate, Grimston, and Wells, book 
auctioneers ; and a proof, with the key, &c., was 

Presented to me by a member of the firm. If 
. B. D. will call here he may see the key. 

3, Norfolk Street, Strand. 

523.) A chapter is devoted to a minute descrip- 
tion of this admirable exhibition the nightly de- 
light of Sir Joshua Reynolds and Gainsborough 
in W. H. Pyne's Wine and Walnuts, i. 281-304. 
From this source it is transferred, with some 
abridgment, to a well edited work 

" The Arts and Artists ; or, Anecdotes and Eelics of 
the Schools of Painting, Sculpture, and Architecture, by 
James Elmes, M.R.I.A." 3 vols. 8vo. London, 1825. See 
vol. iii. p. 21. 



This artist was introduced to David Garrick by 
Dominico Angelo Malevolti Tremamondo in Paris. 
He was a native of Alsace. The first appearance 
of his work on the stage was in a dramatic piece 
written by Garrick entitled The Christmas Tale. 
His second display was the pantomime called the 
Wonders of Derbyshire. The drop for the latter 
was used for many seasons after, till the first con- 
flagration, when the curtain was no more em- 
ployed. He married a Mrs. Smith, and lived for a 
number of years at Hammersmith. The above are 
from the Angela Reminiscences, and may be accept- 
able as an addition to this subject. G. E. 

" AIRED " (4 th S. ix. passim.) The point which 
I discussed was not the meaning or derivation of 
the Scottish ared or aered, but the derivation of 
the English verb "to air," which J. CK. R. seemed 
to think had nothing to do with air (the atmo- 
sphere), but preferred to connect with arid! I 
"imagined" nothing, but simply adduced facts 
which to my mind indisputably proved that " to 
air " does conie from air (the atmosphere) and 
nothing else. J. CK. R. and B. (w.) have there- 
fore been guilty of much irrelevance in their 
attacks upon me. J. CK. R. again still seems in- 
capable of understanding that even when wet 
clothes are brought into the house and put before 
the fire it is still the air quite as much as the jfire 
which dries them, and that therefore they may 
most correctly be said to be aired. With regard 
to the verb " to aerate," I never said that there 
was any other connection between it and "to air" 
than that they both conie from the same root, and 
that in French one verb, aerer (which is indubi- 
tably derived from the Latin aer), expresses them 

It is J. Cz. R. himself who is guilty of the 

"imaginings" of which he accuses me, for the 
connection between the Scottish ared and the Eng- 
lish arid, or the Icelandic oreydd (as he writes it), 
must be regarded as simply imaginary ', until some 
facts are brought forward in support of the con- 
nection j and as yet he has not produced one single 
fact or even argument. When will mere guess- 
ing based upon nothing more than accidental re- 
semblance of sound be given up in etymology ? 

For my own part I shall content myself, until 
the production of further evidence, with regarding 
this Lowland Scotch word ared (or aered) as not 
improbably identical with our word aired, and 
therefore connected with air (the atmosphere). I 
do not indeed find that the Lowland Scotch either 
write or pronounce air, ar ; but I do find from 
Jamieson's Dictionary that one and the same 
word is in Lowland Scotch not infrequently 
written both with air and are* and I do not 
think it unlikely, therefore, that aired and ared 
(or aered) are merely different forms of the same 
word. At the same time I will at once abandon 
this merely provisional opinion of mine when 
J. CK. R. shall produce facts sufficient to convince 
me, or even only arguments if they are more 
plausible than my own. F. CHANCE. 

Sydenham Hill. 

IRON SHIPBUILDING (4 th S. ix. 484 ; x. 38.) 
In 1613 William Adams, in a letter from Japan 
dated December of that year, in a mention of his 
voyage from Firando to Oosaka through the Inland 
Sea, by the Strait of Simonseki, writes thus : 

"We were two daies rowing from Firando to Faccate. 
About eight or tenne leagues on this side the straights of 
Xeminaseque we found a great towne, where there lay in 
a docke a juncke eight hundred or a thousand tunnes 
burthen, sheathed all with yron, with a guard appointed 
to keep her from firing and treachery. She was built in 
a very homely fashion, much like that which describeth 
Noah's arke unto us. The naturals told us that she served 
to transport soulders to any of the islands if rebellion or 
warre should happen." Mechanics' Magazine, Dec. 18, 

The paragraph is headed " The First Iron-clad 
Ship of War." THOS. RATCLIFFE. 

ix. 274.) Sir John de Weston's arms : " Sable, 
an eagle displayed argent ; over all a label of three 
points, gules." (N. & Q." 4 th S. ix. 275.) 

" Sable, an eagle displayed or, with a label 
argent, fretty gules," The Manual of Heraldry, 
7th edit. London : Virtue Brothers & Co., 1866, 
p. 131, illustrated and confirmed by the frontis- 
piece.) Which description is correct ? 


* Thus I find hair (not the hair of the head) and hare, 
mair and mare ( = more), pair and pare ( = impair), sair 
and sare ( = sore), &c. And, if ared is pronounced ar-ed, 
cf. frae and fra ( = from), and sae and sa (=so); and 
also the German Hoar with our hair (of the head). 

S. X. AUGUST 10, '72.] 



" Ex LUCE LTJCELLTTM" (4 th S. ix. 535.) In the 
" Table Talk" of the Guardian newspaper shortly 
after the withdrawal of the Match-Tax Bill is 
this passage : 

" It is said that the Chancellor of the Exchequer's neat 
little motto for the abortive match-box stamp, ' Ex luce 
lucellum,' is at most a re-invented one, and made its first 
appearance in connection with a satire on the long dis- 
carded window-tax." 

W. D. S. 

BARONY OF BANFF (4 th S. x. 47.) This barony 
was created in 1642, in favour of Sir George 
Ogilvie, Bart., a zealous adherent of King Charles I. 
On the death of William, eighth lord, 1803, the 
barony of Banff became dormant or extinct. In 
1859 'it was claimed by Sir William Ogilvie of 
Carnoustie. J. H. I. O. 

PRESERVATION OF SEALS (4 th S. x. 10.) Gutta 
percha is better than sealing wax for collections 
of seals. The following method of taking them 
was sent me some time ago by a gentleman who 
had found it very successful. Having procured a 
seal which is to be copied, take a camel's hair 
brush and give it a thin coating of oil, any kind, 
but be careful to go over every part. Then rim 
it round tightly with paper or thin tin. Mix up 
the plaster of Paris (the finest image plaster) with 
cold water to the consistency of cream. Pour a 
spoonful or two on the seal, and then with a brush 
or feather work it well into the deeply cut parts 
of the seal, being careful to break all the air- 
bubbles ; then pour the remainder on and set to 
dry. An inch or so will be sufficient for small 
seals. When the matrix is quite dry it will lift 
off easily. To take impressions from this, cut 
gutta percha to about the required size, and boil 
in a saucepan till very soft. Hard knots will come 
out by squeezing it with the fingers. Then lay it 
on to a wet plate or board, drying the surface with 
a piece of rag. The surface may now be rubbed 
with bronze powder, and the plaster matrix pressed 
into the soft gutta percha, holding it near to the 
fire to prevent it cooling. The gutta percha may 
be pressed into the deep parts of the seal with the 
fingers, and a weight placed upon it until cool. 

The following electrotype process is given as 
" easy" in Pepper's Playlook of Metals (1861, 287.) 
A diagram is there given : * 

" In the centre of a stoneware pan or square wooden box 
well dovetailed and made watertight, without nails, and 
nearly filled with a strong solution of sulphate of copper, 
place a porous cell containing a rod of amalgamated zinc 
surrounded with a mixture of one part strong sulphuric 
acid and twenty parts of water. Round the top of the 
zinc rod is wound one end of a length of thin copper wire, 
and the other is attached to the seal or medal, previously 
well blackleaded and polished. If a medal is used and 
the wire twisted round the rim, the deposit of copper 
is not required at tbe back and might indeed spoil the 
medal by preventing its subsequent removal from the 
electrotype cast. Very little blacklead should be used 

with a medal, as it stops up the fine lines ; and sometimes 
a little sweet oil, or solution of wax in turpentine, is 
rubbed over it so as to prevent the deposited copper 
sticking to and spoiling the medal. If an impression in 
sealing- or candle-wax is used, this must be well black- 
leaded and polished on one face, and twisted round with 
the thin wire, which is placed in good conducting com- 
munication with the blackened surface. The medal or 
cast is then placed into the solution of copper, and the 
whole left for twelve hours, when the copper is precipitated 
over the surface of the medal or cast, of which it takes 
an accurate copy in intaglio. From the intaglio may be 
taken any number of other electrotype impressions in re- 
lievo. The porous cells may be either unbaked earthen- 
ware, brown paper rolled up and sealed at the bottom and 
sides, or a lamp-glass closed at one end with wet bladder." 

I observe that Lieut. Cole, in his " Report on 
Reproductions" (Official Reports, 1871 Exhibi- 
tion) says : 

" For electrotyping, moulds are most frequently made 
in gutta percha, and this material conduces to excellent 
results. In making an electrotype from a plaster mould, 
the plaster is saturated with bees' wax and covered with 
a metallic powder, on to which the copper will deposit 



S. ix. 536.) 

The wealth of Tantalus is so great that it is weighed 
in scales (and not counted). 

MAKROCHEIR will find that several of the Greek 
Paroemiographists quote this proverbial expression, 
and among others Michael Apostolius of Byzan- 
tium says that it is found in Anacreon, who flou- 
rished about B.C. 522 (Fr. 60 Schneidewin), and 

also Trapa r$ KM/JUKI? efy>7jTcu, TavroAou raAaj/ra ra\av- 

Tifrrat. This comic writer is believed to be Me- 
nander, born B.C. 342, died B.C. 291, and this is 
confirmed by Stobseus, who quotes it in his Flori- 
legium, (118, 10, 2.) The proverb is also quoted 
by Plutarch, who died about A.D. 120 (Erot. c. 16, 
p. 759, F.) in the following sentence : e\Qkv 5' e|a- 

irivt]s &i>f/j.os avv epuri 7roAA&5 Kal ir6Q<? ravro rovro ray 
Tavrd\ov \eyofj.evai' TaAavTiov Kal rqs cciVoO 

A wind of great love and desire suddenly arising has 
rendered this same feeling of love worth, as the proverb 
says, all the wealth of Tantalus. 

The riches of Tantalus have not been sufficiently 
known to us to introduce his name as a proverbial 
expression for great riches ; we have, however, a 
common enough saying, tf rich as Croesus " ; but 
Tantalus has given origin to the English word 
"to tantalize," from a well-known event con- 
nected with his mythological story. 
. It will be recollected that Pliny the Younger, 
in his Epistles (ii. 18), introduces this idea of 
weighing into a far different subject, when he is 
speaking of votes. It may not be out of place to 
quote his observations at the present moment. 
He says : 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [4* s. x. AUGUST 10, '72. 

" Sed hoc pluribus visum est : numerantur enim sen- 
tentise, non ponderantur : nee aliud in publico consilio 
potest fieri, in quonihil est tarn inzequale, quam aequalit^s 
ipsa j nam, quum sit impar prudentia, par omnium jus 

The majority were swayed the other way; for votes go 
lii muriber and not weight, nor can it be otherwise in such 
public assemblies, wnere nothing is more unequal than 
that equality which prevails in them ; for though every 
individual has the same right of suffrage, every indi- 
vidual has not the same strength of judgment. 


AUGUSTINE BERNHER (4 th S. ix. 484.) By the 
index to the Parker Society volumes much detail 
may be learned of the excellent Augustus Bernher, 
and in the two notes on him are references to further 
sources of information, as well as the titles, &c., 
of his three treatises and MS. in the Bodleian 
Library. A little book by the Rev. B. Richings, 
entitled The Mcmcetter Martyrs (Seeley, 1860), pp. 
114-171, brings together many of his letters and 
other details concerning 1 him, Mr. R. states, 
pp. 117, 119 : 

"On the accession of Queen Elizabeth, he was pre- 
sented to the rectory of Southam, Warwickshire. We 
learn from Tanner that he was a married man, given to 
hospitality, and a celebrated preacher at Southam, 1570. 
His edition of Bp. Latimer's sermons is dated from 
Southam, October 2, 1562. How long he was the shepherd 
of that little flock cannot now be ascertained." 

This might, possibly, be learned by some topo- 
graphy or county history, if not by the parish 

The neighbourhood of Coventry appears to have 
been a favourite resort of the " Gospellers " of 
that day, as this last named book portrays. The 
never-to-be-forgotten Glovers were owners of 
Baxterly and Mancetter. At the former Bp. 
Latimer frequently visited ; he was uncle to the 
wife of Robert Glover, who was burned at 
Coventry, Sept. 19, 1555. And Mrs. Joyce Lewis, 
burned at Lichfield, Dec. 18, 1557, for aversion to 
the mass and sprinkling of " holy " water, resided 
also at Mancetter. Bernher seems to have been in 
frequent communication with these Christian 
friends and their connexions. Hence he would 
naturally in later and less anxious days be the more 
gladly located in that neighbourhood. S. M. S. 

JOHN ASGILL (4 th S. ix. 440.) A further search 
in your columns would have shown MR. PRESLEY 
that I had thrown doubt upon the fact of Asgill 
having died at so advanced an age as one hundred 
in the year 16G6 (3 rd S. x. 242). Sorry as I am 
to rob Asgill of any of the interest which sur- 
rounds him, I have, since I wrote the above note, 
carefully looked into the matter, and am more 
than ever convinced that Asgill was somQ fifteen 
or twenty years less than one hundred. He was 
admitted a student of the Middle Temple May 4, 
1686, and called to the bar May 6, 1692, when, 
if he had been born in 1666, he would be twenty- 

six years old, and have published his first pamphlet 
at thirty instead of fifty-eight. He was the second 
son of Edward AsgilKof Hanley Castle, co. Wor- 
cester^ where he may have been born ; though, 
according to Mr. Wilson of Leeds, a local anti- 
quary, Asgill was born at Leeds in 1655, and 
educated at the free school there, but the authen- 
ticity of this seems doubtful. However, if correct, 
he would only have been eighty-three when he 
died. His life was full of occurrences of interest, 
none of which are properly given in any printed 
account of him that I have seen. 


BURGH (4 th S. x. 44.) Respecting the arms of 
the Baxters, one of the incorporated trades of Edin- 
burgh, I beg to give the following extract from 
An Historical Account of the Slue Blanket or 
Craftsman's Banner, by Alex. Pennecuik, Edinb. 
1722. The end of the author was sad 

'' To show the fate of Pennycuik, 
Who starving died in turnpike neuk." 

i( IX. Baxters, arms az. 3 garbs or, from a chief waved 
a hand issuing, holding a pair of ballances extending to 
the base." 

A foot-note states 

" The period at which the Baxters were first incorpo- 
rated is also unknown. A seal of cause from the Town 
Council dated in 1522, sets forth that, by their negligence 
in times of much trouble, the original charter of incorpora- 
tion was lost or amissing. This new charter informs us 
that each incorporation had an altar in St. Giles's church, 
dedicated to their respective patrons or tutelary saints, 
the priest who officiated at which was provided with 
victuals by going about from house to house amongst its 

G. E. 


A YARD OP WINE (4 th S. x. 49.) Ward, in 
his Borough of Stoke- upon- Trent, $<?., 1843, copies 
" a list of the seventy gentlemen assembled at the 
civic feast, whose names are registered in the 
Corporation Book," and adds 

" The test of admission to the freedom of this convivial 
corporation was the drinking off a yard-length-glass of 
ale at a single draught, no very trifling infliction on a 
temperate candidate." Pp. 367, 368. 

Here is no mention of drinking a yard of wine. 
He makes some reflections upon the drinking, 

" Strong ale was mostly in vogue at the parties of those 
early days, and after ample libations offered to Sir John 
Barleycorn, large bowls of punch crowned the convivial 
board, wine being introduced but sparingly." 



MARIA DEL OCCIDENTS (4 th S. x. 30.) The 
name of this lady was Maria Brooks. She was 
born about 1795, and died at Matanzas in 1845. 
Her works were Judith, Esther, and other Poems 
by a Lover of the Fine Arts, 1820 ; Zophiel, or the 

4 ttl S. X. AUGUST 10, '72. 



Bride of Seven, the first canto of which was pub 
lished in Boston in 1825, the whole poem in Lon 
don in 1833 ; and Idomen, or the Vale of th 
Yumuri (said to be autobiographical), 184 
Southey, whom she visited in 1831, calls her i 
The Doctor " the most impassioned and mos 
imaginative of all poetesses," and he superintendec 
the publication of Zophiel. (See Allibone's Die 
tionary of English Literature.} 

10, Redcliffe Street, S.W. 

AGE or SHIPS (4 th S. ix. passim ; x. 39.) Th 
" Aracaty," formerly the Portuguese ship " Res 
taurador," was built in Lisbon in 1657, and run 
between Hull and Norway in the ice trade. 

J. C. 

"ALL THE GLORY," ETC. (4 th S. x. 49.) 
H. A. B. probably refers to the following, whic. 
occur in Helen, a poem by E. A. Poe : 
" To the glory that was Greece, 
And the grandeur that was Rome." 

I quote from memory as I do not have Poe' 
works beside me, but I think I have given th 
lines correctly, R. C. WALKER, 


AR-NTJTS (4 th S. ix. 534; x. 52.) R C. H 
(Murithian) supposes the Scotch name of this 
root properly written Arnot, and this he thinks 
probably derived from Burgundian Arnotta. The 
Scotch orthography is various namely, Arnut 
Arnot, Yurnut. This name is evidently the Danish 
iordnod ; Teut. aerdnoot. In Johnstone's Abridg- 
ment of Jamieson it is defined " tall oat-grass 01 
pignut." BILBO. 

TYKE, TIKE (4 th S. ix. 536 ; x. 55.) The fol- 
lowing extract from Halliwell's Dictionary of 
Archaic Words probably contains the answer to 
MR. JESSE'S query as to li the earliest use made 
of the word tyke or tike in any English book or 
manuscript : 

' TIKE. A common sort of dog. (North.') Aubrey says, 

one of contempt, ' zoue heythene tykes,' MS. Morte Ar- 
thure, f. 91." 

The same word seems to have been used inter- 
changeably for both a dog and a dog-tick. 
Instances of both significations may be found in 
Bishop Percy's folio MS. The following stanza 
occurs in the ballad of " Robine Hood and Ffryer 

" Ever gods forbott, said Robin Hood, 

that ever that soe shold bee ; 
I had rather be mached with 3 of the tikes 
ere I wold be matched on thee." 

. In the balla'd of " Guy and Colebrande," from 
the same collection, the word is used in the 
humbler signification : 

" the Grants blood was blacke & red, 

his body was like the beaten lead, 

& stanke as did the tyke." 

In Brockett's Glossary of North Country Words, 
tike or tyke is described as " a person of bad cha- 
racter, a blunt or vulgar fellow. Also a name for 
a dog." Waugh, too, in his Lancashire Sketches, 
spqaks of " a black swarffy tyke (man)." 


Hazelwood, Belper. 

I think. with you that Dr. Latham is very far 
out in deriving this word from German Dacha, a 
badger. There is, as you suggest, no kind of doubt 
as to its Scandinavian origin. The Norse word 
tik means a bitch. Is not the word tyke, as applied 
to designate a coarse and vulgar person, rather 
from Danish tyk, gross, corpulent ? J. CK. R, 

(4 th S. ix. 535 j x. 55.) Both your correspondents 
J. M. and CHITTELDROOG have overlooked the 
following passage in Peter Cunningham's Life of 
Inigo Jones (Shakespeare Society, p. 44) : 

" I cannot conclude this account of the Life of Inigo 
Jones without pointing out a singular and important error 
which Walpole commits in his account of Jones : an error 
perpetuated by Allan Cunningham and by other authors 
who haye written the life of the great architect. Walpole 
ascribes to Philip Herbert, fifth Earl of Pembroke and 
Montgomery, some rambling, incoherent, manuscript 
notes, written about Jones in the first edition of the 
Stonehenge Restored, formerly in the Harleian Library. 
That these notes, however, could not have been written 
by Philip, the eccentric Earl, may be determined by a 
couple of dates. The earl, who is said to have written 
them, died in 1650, and the book in which they are written 
was published in 1655." 

The writer of these MS. notes undoubtedly was 
Inigo "Jones's old rival Sir Balthazar Gerbier, 
whose life, if carefully written, would form a most 
nteresting piece of biography. My late friend 
Peter Cunningham (who delighted in looking over 
my collection of the works of this singular cha- 
racter) fully agreed with me as to the author of 
these notes. EDWARD F. RIMBATJLT. 

M.P.s OF CASTLE RISING (4 th S. x. 30.) 
780. Robert Macrith ; John Chetwynd Talbot. 
~81. Dec. Vice Talbot, appointed "a Commissioner of 

Trade and Plantations John Chetwynd Talbot. 
782. May. Vice Talbot, succeeded to the Peerage -is 

Baron Talbot Sir James Erskine, Bart. 
784. Charles Boone ; Walter Sneyd. 
790. Charles Boone ; Henry Drammond. 
794. July. Vice Drummond, deceased Charles Chester. 
796. Charles Chester ; Horatio Churchill. 
802. Charles Chester ; Peter Isaac Thellusson.* 

806. Charles Chester ; Richard Sharpe. 

807. Richard Sharpe ; Hon. Charles Bagot. 

808. Jan. Vice Bagot, resigned; Hon. F. Greville 


812. Hon. F. Greville Howard; Hon. Augustus C. 

Created Lord Rendlesham in Ireland in 1806. 



S. X. AUGUST 10, '72. 

1817. Feb. Vice Bradshaw, resigned ; Earl of Rock- 


1818. Hon. Fulke G. Howard, T.; Earl of Rocksavage, T. 
1820. Both the same. 

1822. Feb. Vice Rocksavage, summoned to the House of 
Peers as Baron Newburgh; Lord W. H. H. 
Cholmondeley, T. 

L82G. Hon. Fulke G. Howard, T.; Lord W. H. H. Chol- 
mondeley, T. 

1830. Both the same. 

1831. Both the same. 


TURY (4 th S. x. 47.) Since 0. B. B. has struck my 
shield with his spear, of course I come to answer 
the challenge ; and, fortunately for me, I can do 
it with an easv conscience, for I am able to discuss 
the date of "paint on feminine cheeks without 
blushing through my own. I am innocent alike 
of " powders, trimmings, curls, and wigs," of " the 
best French red," and of " false teeth ; " so that I 
can comfortably apply myself to the study of them. 
But I must ask 0. B. B. to favour me with a little 
more time, until I have cleared out of the way a 
MS. waggon at present blocking up my road, and 
impeding the progress of the lighter vehicles. 
In a few weeks I shall be happy to present him 
w r ith the result of my researches on the subject. 
I suspect that both the " French red " and the 
false teeth are much more ancient than the seven- 
teenth century. I fear my ideas on the matter 
are very much out-of-date for this nineteenth 
century, or I should scarcely have experienced the 
thrill of shame and disgust which I did, not many 
days ago, when a young damsel walked into a 
chemist's shop in which I was, and calmly asked 
for a box of face-powder, in the most open and 
imblushing manner. How women of any century 
can arrogantly endeavour to improve upon God's 
work, whether He have made them fair or the 
reverse, passes my comprehension. You will see, 
from these remarks, how very unfashionable I am. 
But why should the woman who paints circles 
round her eyes in yellow ochre be deemed a bar- 
barian, while the woman who daubs rouge over 
her cheeks is allowed to be a civilised being ? I 
should like to inquire, also, why she who thrusts 
sticks through her lips should be considered a 
savage, while she who bores holes through her 
ears is an ornament to society ? But I shall rouse 
a hornet's nest about my ears, and 1 had better 
stop here. HERMENTRUDE. 

PERSICARIA (4 th S, x. 48). To go fully into 
the various plants that make up the vegetation of 
an ordinary pond would take more space than the 
editor of " N. & Q." could spare. The weeds 
most frequently met with in ponds are the various 
kinds of pond-weed, Potamoyeton, the commonest 
species being P. natans and P. crispus, the plants 
mentioned by F. C. H., Persicaria amphibium, 

and the " American weed," Anacharis alsinastrum. 
Of these, the last is very frequent in many lo- 
calities, and is peculiarly dangerous to swimmers 
on account of its long clinging stems, and also 
because the specific gravity of the plant is so 
nearly that of water that cut or broken masses 
seem more disposed to sink than to float. The 
history of this plant is highly interesting. First 
discovered in Berwickshire, in 1842, it has grad- 
ually spread throughout the greater part of Eng- 
land, in some places completely filling large sheets 
of water, and impeding the navigation of rivers. 
A remarkable circumstance connected with it is, 
that probably all the plants in this country have 
proceeded from a single piece. The flowers bear- 
ing pistils and stamens occur on different individual 
plants, and in every specimen of the weed yet seen 
in this kingdom the pistil-bearing flower only is 
found, and therefore it cannot propagate itself 
by seed. I should presume ^that this is the plant 
meant by F. C. H., since I do not think that Per- 
sicaria amphibium is so frequently found in deep 
water as in ditches and shallow pools, and on their 
moist boggy margins. VIGORN. 

Clent, Stourbridge. 

ix. 502 ; x. 56.) I do not think there is any real 
foundation for the statement that Pope was "a 
Scot by descent." The alleged relationship be- 
tween the poet and the " minister of Reay," as I 
think, fairly comes under the head of " apocry- 
phal genealogy." I remember some years since 
reading something about a correspondence between 
Pope and a Presbyterian minister of his name, in 
which the latter is said to have suggested possible 
relationship. In a subsequent reference to this 
subject, however (I cannot recall where), the 
assumption of consanguinity was treated as fiction. 


59.) I have myself known this proverb used. 
See Eay's Proverbs, 2nd edit. (Cambridge, 1678.) 
It runs as follows : 

" As great pity to see a woman weep, as a goose go 


Wyveiiey Rectory, Melton Mowbra}*. 

ADMIRAL KEMPENFELT (4 th S. x. 146.) In my 
Lyra Britannica will be found two hymns by 
Admiral Richard Kempenfelt in addition to his 
hymn entitled " The Alarm," quoted by Mr. 
Barker. Admiral Kempenfelt composed a tractate 
entitled Original Hymns and Poems by Philothe- 
oruSj which was printed in 1777. It contains nine 
metrical compositions, all evincing religious ear- 
nestness. The admiral was born at Westminster 
in October 1718. He perished in the " Royal 
George " on August 29, 1782. 


Snowdown Villa, Lewisham, S.E. 

4 th S. X. AUGUST 10, 72.] 



506 ; x. 17.) In answer to NEPHRITE'S query, I 
subjoin an extract from Camden's Remains (Chap- 
ter on " Christian Names)" : 

" Whereas in late yeares, Sirnames have beene given for 
Christian names among us, and no where else in Christen- 
dome; although many dislike it, for that great incon- 
venience will ensue : neverthelesse it seemeth to proceede 
from hearty good will and affection of the Godfathers, to 
shew their love, or from a desire to continue and propa- 
gate their owne names to succeeding ages. And is in 
nowise to be disliked, but rather approoved in those which 
matching with heires generall of worshipful ancient fami- 
lies, have given those names to their heires, with a minde- 
full and thankfull regard of them, as we have now Picker- 
ing, Wotton, Grevill, Varney, Bassingburne, Gawdy, Cal- 
thurpe, Parker, Pecsal, Brocas, Fitz Raulfe, Chamberlnnie, 
who are the heires of Pickering, Bassingburne, Grevill, 
Calthorp, &c. For beside the continuation of the name, 
we see that the selfe name, yea and sometime the simili- 
tude of names doth kindle sparkles of love and liking 
among meere strangers. 

" Neither can I believe a wayward old man, which 
would say, that the giving of surnames for Christian 
names, first began in the time of King Edward the sixt, 
by such as would be Godfathers, when they were more 
than halfe fathers, and thereupon would have perswaded 
some to change such names at the confirmation." 

G. F. S. E. 

THE FOUR WHITE KINGS (4 th S. x. 30.) I 
can furnish G. G. with one of his four kings at 
least if they be " our kings." Of the other three 
I am ignorant ; but I know that " So [. e., in a 
shower of snow] went our White King to his 
grave/' was written of the funeral of Charles I. 



The Malre of Bristowe is Calendar. By Robert Ricaat, 
Town Clerk of Bristol 18 Edward IV. Edited by 

' Lucy Toulmin Smith. (Printed for the Camden So- 

Though the rule which regulates the publications of 
the Camden Society is, that every book should be one 
illustrative of the Civil, Ecclesiastical, or Literary His- 
tory of the United Kingdom generally, yet the Council 
have wisely departed from this rule on several occasions 
in favour of works which are of special interest or value 
in illustration of local history. The book just issued is 
of this character. It is printed from a MS. preserved in 
the archives of the Corporation of Bristol, the work of 
Robert Ricaat, who was elected Town Clerk of Bristol in 
18 Edw. IV., A.D. 1470, and held that office for at least 
twenty-seven years. The Kalendar, which is divided 
into six parts, the first three being devoted to History, 
and the last three to Local Customs and Laws, was under- 
taken at the instance of the Mayor William Spencer, in 
whose time Ricaat was elected to his office. Though of 
course of more immediate interest to Bristolians, the book 
is one calculated to illustrate our municipal system 
generally ; and as such it was a graceful act on the part 
of the Camden Council to entrust the editing of it to 
Miss Lucy Toulmin Smith, who was peculiarly fitted for 
the task by the training she received while assisting her 

late father in the preparation of his valuable book on our 
old English Guilds. The work is illustrated with a pho- 
tographic reproduction of a curious illumination in the 
original MS. representing the Introduction of the Mayor; 
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CONTEXTS. N. 21-2. 

NOTES: An Afternoon at Jcrvaulx Abbey in Wcn^lcy- 
dah>, 1^1 The Pronunciation of Initial cl and <jl in Eng- 
lish, 123 A Census of 17SS), 1-2 1 Shakcspraiv Mcntnl 
Labour John Dory: Artichoke Alliteration Plioto- 
gram " The Cenci" Trebolli : an inverted Name, 1^5. 

QUEPvIKS : ^Eolian Harp Sir John Anstrutlier, Bart. 

Gibber (Sibber) or Kibber Ancient Geography 
Justice Clodpate Rev. Thomas Gisborne A. Herasted 

Hair Brushes Jubilee of Luther's Reformation 
Richard (Beau) Nash Prehistoric Bas-Reliefs " Pretty 
Fanny's Fun " Rownce Old Sea Charts " St. Brees, 
bvried at; 1634" Whisker-Falsehood " Who mur- 
dered Downie?" William of Occam Christopher 
Worthcvale Samuel Wright, 127. 

REPLIES: Russel of Strensham: Cokcso.v, 120 John 
Moth erby, 130 "Rejected Addresses," 131 William de 
Burgh, 132 "Titus Andronicus" : Ira Alclridse, Ib. 
Milton's " Areopajritica " " Vanity Fair " Walthamstow 
(Slip) Parish Land " Dora " Milton's " L' Allegro " 
Poem in Black Letter Divorce " Go to Hed. says 
Sleepy-head," &e. '' In Western Cadence Low " D : D. 
Curious Mode of Interment Shakspere and the Dog 
"I know a Hawk from a Handsaw" Old Proverbs 
Death- Warrant of Charles I. Mr. Klaes, the King of 
Smokers Robertson's " Sermons " Halstead's " Suc- 
cinct Genealogies " Count Marcellus Worms in Wood 

Programme A Vine Pencil " That tall Flower," &c. 

Henry Howard Well of Manduria Arms assumed 
by Advertisement Letter of Addispn to Mr. Worsley 
Beak: a Magistrate An old Handbill Col. John Jones 
the Regicide Burials in Gardens " When I want to 
read a Book," &c. Beever, &c., 133. 

INotes on Books, &c. 


" While cloister'd piety displays 
Her mouldering roll, the piercing eye explores 

New manners, and the pomp of elder days 
Whence culls the pensive bard his pictur'd stores ; 

Nor rough, nor barren are the winding ways 
Of hoar antiquity, but strewn with flowers." 

Joseph Warton. 

Without endorsing- the idea of quaint old Fuller, 
ihat because Yorkshire is the largest it is there- 
fore the best county in England, few would deny 
that at any rate it is one of the most interesting, 
possessing as it does such cathedrals as York, 
Beverley, and Eipon ; battle-fields like Towtou, 
Marston Moor, and Wakefield; abbeys like Foun- 
tains, Rievaulx, and Bolton. Let me now describe 
a few hours spent at a Yorkshire abbey, compara- 
tively speaking, not so well known as these, but 
in some points of interest yielding to none. 

Recently I had been spending a few days in 
Wensleydale a district of Yorkshire as rich in 
fine scenery as in objects of antiquarian interest 
and leaving the romantically situated town of 
Middleham, went to explore the ruins of the Cis- 
tercian Abbey of Jervaulx, primarily called Yore- 
valle from its situation on the banks of the Eure or 
Yore. The afternoon was lovely; the sunshine 

streaming down, the blue sky mantling overhead 
like sapphire, a breeze occasionally coming up the 
valley pure, balmy, and charged with what Mil- 
ton calls " the smell of tedded grass," for it was 
the middle of haytime, and all the strength of 
Wensleydale was out in the fields at work. How 
graphically does Tom Hood chant 

"All sweets below, and all sunny above, 
O there's nothing in life like making love, 
Save making hay in fine weather." 

After walking a mile along the dusty highroad 
:(> Cover Bridge Inn, a gate at the side of the 
bridge leads to a path running along the side of 
Lhe river Eure ; and pleasant it was to get again 
into the green fields. There was a landscape of 
exquisitely Arcadian beauty. On the left hand 
flowed the rippling river, sometimes babbling over 
tones, at another settling into the quiet still pool, 
where the trout kept rising. The insect world 
was on the wing, making what Virgil would have 
called a " susurrus " the butterflies and dragon- 
flies glanced across the sunbeams, and the leaves 
of the trees were stirred by the breeze. The 
kingfisher flew across the river, and at intervals 
was heard the call of the partridge and the cooing 
of the wood-pigeon. The cattle were cooling 
themselves in the stream, which seemed to afford 
a very enviable " frigus amabile." There was an 
indescribable charm in such a prospect as this : 
for around was a landscape of English scenery such 
as Gainsborough and Hofland would have de- 
lighted to paint, and Cowper and Wordsworth, 
have loved to describe. 

Resting briefly, " sub tegmine fagi," and think- 
ing with Horace (happiest of poets) how pleasant 
it was thus, " partem solido demere de die," the 
walk along the river's bank was continued for 
about two miles, and soon the gateway of Jer- 
vaulx Abbey is seen. x This abbey was founded 
primarily at'Fors near Askrigg in Wensleydale^ by 
Acharius Fitz Bardolph, about 1 144 ; but the monks 
finding that situation too cold and bleak removed 
to this place in 1156, selecting a site beautifully 
sheltered on the banks of the Eure, and surrounded 
by rich pastures. This, like the other Yorkshire 
abbeys of Fountains and Rievaulx, belonged to 
the monks of the Cistercian order, and here they 
reared a noble pile. " Taken aside," as it were, 
" from the multitude," they were separated from 
the world, and held converse with the things 
unseen. There they devoted themselves to the 
service of God, and to a life of prayer and praise. 
For nearly four hundred years there continued to 
rise the pealing anthem and the loud hosanna from 
the choir of Jervaulx. 

On entering the ruin the fine lines of Words- 
worth occurred to my mind, said to have been 
inscribed in Latin in a conspicuous position on the 
wall of every Cistercian abbey : 



S. X. AUGUST 17, 72. 

" Here man more purely lives, less oft doth fall, 
More promptly rises, walks with stricter heed, 
More safely rests, dies happier, is freed 
Earlier from cleansing fires, and gains withal 
A brighter crown. On yon Cistercian wall 
That confident assurance may be read." 

But at the present moment, instead of the smoke 
of incense ascending, there arises the sweet smell 
of summer flowers; and instead of the hymns, 
" Jamlucisortosidere" and "Ales dieinuncius,"the 
song of the linnet and thrush welcomes the morn. 
Jervaulx flourished, and its possessions increased, 
until Henry VIII. laid his rapacious hands on the 
greater monasteries of England, and it, like 
others, surrendered in 1538. The gross income 
of the abbey was then 455J. 10s. 5d. ; the nett 
2347. 18s. od. The last abbot was Adam Sed- 
bergh, probably so called from the place of his 
birth (a small town in North Yorkshire), who, 
for the share he had taken in the Pilgrimage of 
Grace, and for his denial of the King's supremacy, 
was executed at Tyburn in 1537. A carving by 
his own hand is yet to be seen in the Tower of 
London, where he was imprisoned prior to his 
execution; and a fine screen now in Aysgarth 
Church, the largest ecclesiastical structure in 
Wensleydale, was most probably, from the initials 
A. S. inscribed upon it, originally erected by him 
either there, or removed from Jervaulx Abbey. 

At the Dissolution the leaden roof was stripped 
from the Abbey, and so completely was it buried 
that only a few arches and green mounds in- 
dicated its position. Of it might well be said, 
"Deus venerunt gentes in haereditatem tuani: 
polluerunt teniplum sanctum tuum: posuerunt 
Hierusalem in pomorum custodiam." This con- 
tinued until 1807, when the ruins were cleared 
out by order of the proprietor, the Earl of Ailes- 
bury, so that the site of the different conventual 
buildings can now be clearly traced. 

The church has been a noble building, measur- 
ing 270 feet in length, and in it is a fine collection 
of sepulchral slabs, once covering the remains of 
the abbots. Round the edges of a very fine one, 
on which is incised a beautiful floriated cross, 
with a chalice and consecrated wafer, is cut : 



The site of the high altar is clearly marked out, 
and at its east end is the chapel of Our Lady, very 
much resembling the Chapel of the Nine Altars at 
Durham Cathedral, and a similar structure at 
Fountains Abbey. In front of it was buried, in 
1424, Henry Lord Fitzhugh, who attended King 
Henry V. in his French campaign, who made a 
pilgrimage to Jerusalem, and fought against the 
Turks and Saracens. By his side rests his lady 
Elizabeth Gray, heiress of the Marmions of Tan- 
field, who desired to be buried before the high 

altar. By her will, twenty-four torches were to 
burn round the hearse, and fifteen tapers, each a 
pound in weight, before the high altar at Jervaulx. 
She left to her son Robert, who was destined to the 
bishopric of London, a psalter covered with red 
velvet, and a ring with a relic of St. Peter's 

The Chapter House has been a fine room, mea- 
suring forty-eight feet by thirty-five, and has had 
its roof supported by columns, and within its walls 
some of the abbots found a sepulchre. Here is 
the slab of John de Kingston, the first abbot and 
builder of Jervaulx, bearing this epitaph, inscribed 
more than seven hundred years ago : 

On another 

and several others. 

Seated on a broken pillar in the ruined Chapter 
House I indulged in a retrospect, and thought 
how, within the once hallowed walls of the abbey, 
the Cistercians had dwelt, regarding themselves as 
the stewards of God's bounties. How, in the 
Scriptorium, many a valuable manuscript had been 
transcribed, and the passional and breviary under 
cunning hands glowed with illumination. One 
brother, whose talent lay in that direction, had 
carved the crucifix for the high altar or the capi- 
tals of the pillars ; another meditated over that 
most spiritual of books, the De Civitate Dei of St. 
Augustine. But then comes the time when the 
11 ire of a despotic king rides forth upon destruc- 
tion's wing " 

"Threats come which no submission may assuage, 
No sacrifice avert no power dispute ; 
The tapers shall be quenched, the belfries mute, 
And 'mid the choirs unrooted by selfish rage, 
The warbling wren shall find a leafy cage, 
The gadding bramble hang her purple fruit." 

To the east of the Chapter House are the abbots* 
lodgings, and further on the great kitchen ; its 
huge fireplaces still surrounded by fenders made 
of stone, and the marks of the fires are still 
visible at their backs. The arched places in the 
walls through which the smoking viands were 
handed to the Refectory may yet be seen, and close 
at hand is the Refectory a noble room. The man- 
ner in which the Ruin is kept reflects the highest 
credit on the proprietor, the Marquis of Ailesbury. 
Jervaulx Abbey, indeed, does not possess the 
magnificent proportions of Fountains or the noble 
Choir, the distinguishing feature of Rievaulx, or 
the beautiful foreground of Bolton Priory, yet in 
some of its features it is second to none of the 
Yorkshire abbeys, and its fine collection of se- 
pulchral slabs must ever render it attractive to 
the antiquary. The situation of it is sweet, and 
the surrounding scenery of great' 1 sylvan beauty. 
Close by, the lofty hill, Witton Fell, rears its head 
against the summer sky, and the silvery Eure 

4* S. X. AUGUST 17, 72.] 



flows on as in days of old by Jervaulx, now aban- 
doned to the owl and the bat, and no longer occu- 
pied by the monk and novice. But the day of 
"merrie England " has for ever gone when, as our 
Laureate says, 

"Sometimes a troop of damsels glad, 
An abbot on an ambling pad ; 
Sometimes a curly shepherd lad, 
Or long-hair' d page in crimson clad, 

Goes by to tower'd Camelot ; 
And sometimes thro'" the mirror blue 
The knights come riding two and two." 

A last lingering look of regret was bestowed on 
the once famous Abbey, and my steps retraced by 
the same path along the river bank in the direc- 
tion of Middleham, the towers of whose stately 
Castle stood out proudly against the evening sky, 
tinted by the setting sun ; though no longer does 
St. George's banner, broad and gay, spread its folds 
to the breeze on the Donjon Keep of Middleham, 
or the Bull, the ensign of the Nevilles, float on 
the wind. This was the abode of the Nevilles, one 
of the most ancient and powerful families in the 
North of England, and often the residence of the 
King-maker, the Earl of Warwick, the last of the 
barons. Of this Castle, one of our most distin- 
guished modern novelists* has said "the mighti- 
est peers, the most renowned knights gathered to 
his hall. Middleham, not Windsor nor Shene, nor 
Westminster nor the Tower, seemed the court of 
England." This Castle, too, was a favourite dwel- 
ling of the Duke of Gloucester (afterwards Richard 
III.), and within its walls was bora and also died 
his youthful heir, Edward Plantagenet, Prince of 
Wales. Much obscurity enshrouds this point of 
English history ; and one chronicler, t by mention- 
ing his having "died an unhappy death," would 
seem to indicate that it was caused either from 
an accident, or in some sudden or unexpected 
manner. This circumstance occurred in the month 
of April, 1484, whilst his royal parents were at 
Nottingham. The place of his burial is unknown 
up to the present time, though conjecture points 
strongly to Sheriff Hutton church as his sepulchre. 
On the north of Middleham stands the antique 
church, and within its altar-rails is buried Caro- 
line Amelia Halstead, authoress of Richard III. 
-as Duke of Gloucester, and King of England, who 
became the wife of the Eev. William Atthill, the 

This has been but a sketch of one of the 
many interesting objects with which Wensleydale 
abounds. A week might be very pleasantly spent 
in exploring its objects of antiquarian interest, 
and in finding " sermons in stones, books in the 
running brooks." There is Bolton Castle, once 
the abode of the Scropes, and for a time the 
prison-house of Mary Queen of Scots. Some three 
miles beyond it is Aysgarth Force, one of the 

* Bulwer-Lytton in the Last of the Barons. 
t Rons., p. 216. 

finest waterfalls in England, an unequalled place 
by which to spend a hot July afternoon smoking the 
lazy pipe, and watching the variations of sunshine 
and shadow. Near Askrigg is Semerwater, a fine 
sheet of water covering a hundred and five acres, 
but, like all lakes, to be seen to advantage it must 
be looked down upon from the hills. The ruins 
of Coverham Abbey are well worth a visit also ; 
and not beyond a long walk are Richmond Castle, 
and St. Agatha's Abbey at Easby. As Beaumont 
and Fletcher say : 

" Here be woods as green 
As any : air, likewise as fresh and sweet 
As when smooth Zephyrus pla} r s on the fleet 
Face of the curled streams, with flowers as many 
As the young Spring gives, and as choice as any ; 
Here be all her delights, cool streams and wells, 
Arbours o'ergrown with woodbines ; caves and dells 
Choose where thou wilt." 

And the lines of Ariosto are applicable to Wens- 

"Culte pianure, e delicati colli, 
Chiare acque, ombrose ripe, e prati molli." 

Orlando Furioso, vi. 20. 

Pickering, Yorkshire. JOHN PlCKFOKD, M.A. 

bu& { 

~~ orfJ .Jo. 


Webster is quoted both by Marsh (Lectures on 
the Eng. Lang. ed. Smith, Lond. 1862, p. 350), 
and by Max Miiller (Lectures on the Science of 
Lang., 2nd Series, Lond., 1864, pp. 168, 169), as 
having stated in the edition of his large Eng. 
Diet., published in 1828 l , that " the letters cl 
answering to kl are pronounced as if written tl- 7 
ctear, c/ean, are pronounced /ear, tle&n. Gl is 
pronounced dl; glory is pronounced dloiy." Marsh 
looks upon these remarks of Webster's as an 
" extraordinary instance" of the " confusion" of 
k = (c hard) and t-, and Max Miiller doubts 
" whether any one really says dlory instead of 
glory ", and adduces poor Webster as an instance 3 
"that even with a well-mastered tongue and a 

1 I have the edition by Goodrich and Porter, London, 
1864, but I cannot discover these remarks upon the pro- 
nunciation of cl or gl. Nothing more is said than that c 
has the sound of k, and that g is hard before /. 

2 Max Miiller can, perhaps, scarcely be accepted as a 
high authority with regard to the pronunciation of Eng- 
lish. I feel pretty sure, from my knowledge of German, 
thatcZ and<7/ (and indeed all double consonants) are very 
distinctly enunciated in that language and the proper 
value given to each consonant ; and Prof. Miiller can 
scarcely have abandoned this distinct enunciation in pro- 
nouncing English, excepting indeed where he was abso- 
lutely obliged to do so. We, in English, sometimes drop 
one letter of a double consonant, as in gnome, psalm, but 
this is not done in German, where the gn in Gnade, and the 
ps in Psalm, are pronounced almost as if written Gcnade 
and PSsalm (e as in French petit nearly =p'tit), the break 
being, however, much greater in Gnade. This introduc- 
tion of a short vowel or vowel sound is a fault, but 
cannot be avoided, as will be shown further on. 



[4 th S. X. AUGUST 1 7, 72. 

well- disciplined ear there is some difficulty in dis- 
tinguishing between guttural and dental contact." 

Upon reading these criticisms, I naturally pro- 
ceeded to examine rny own pronunciation of initial 
cl and gl, and I discovered to my great surprise that, 
as far at least as I myself was concerned, Webster 
was perfectly right, and that my habitual pronun- 
ciation of clear, clean, and glory was tlear, tiean, 
and dlory. 1 could, indeed, pronounce the c and 
g in these words as k and g hard, but it required 
an effort, and the difference, though quite per- 
ceptible, did not strike me as at all marked, and 
accordingly I have since, as before, continued to 
pronounce tl and dl, and I feel pretty sure that 
the great majority of Englishmen do as I do. 
Perhaps some of them will speak out in "N. & Q." 

But whatever may be the case with regard to 
English, there is no doubt whatever that in other 
languages cl and gl have proved a stumbling- 
block. Why else has the Lat. cl become eld in 
Italian, as in chiaro from darns, -&c. ; and the 
Lat. gl become ghi } as in ghiaccio from glades, &c.? 
Or why have the Spanish substituted //, for both 
cl and gl, as in Have (Wavis), llande (glims), and 
the Portuguese cli for cl, as in chave (c/avis) ? 

An English lady who had spent some time in 
Italy told me (without any reference to this 
question) that she had noticed that the uneducated 
Italians frequently say Inyresi for Inglcsi no 
doubt because they unconsciously find yr easier to 
pronounce than gl* Diez (op. cit.) p. 199, gives 

3 These are not the only changes which cl and gl have 
undergone in these three languages (see Diez, Gramm.d. 
roman. Sprachen, 2nd ed., 1st part, pp. 195-199) ; and tl, 
pi, bl, andy?, which to me seem very much easier to pro- 
nounce, have likewise commonly undergone change. The 
substitution of ft in Italian for the Lat..// seems to me an 
argument in favour of the position which I have lately 
been contesting in " N. & Q."(see Index under '" Realm") 
that the Lat. I has never, as is commonly maintained, 
been changed into u in French, but that the I has dropped 
and the u been added. And here I have Diez with me, 
for he distinctly says (pp. cit. p. 195) that in the Ital. 
jiamma, from jiamma, the I does not seem to him to have 

been changed into i, but that i was first introduced, 
making fliatwna, and that then the / dropped. This is pre- 
cisely the view I have been maintaining with regard to 
the French ti, excepting that I do not maintain the u 
was always introduced before the / dropped. And so 
again Diez, when discussing the Fr. faire fromfacere 
(ibid. p. 237), cannot decide whether' the c has been 
changed ("resolved, aufgelost is the word he uses) into i, 
or whether the c has not first fallen out and then the i 
appeared, "facere, faere, faire." But, if I and c have 
fallen out and i has been introduced, why may not Jhave 
fallen out, and u been introduced ? 

4 During a recent excursion to Italy, made since this 
note was written, I have noticed the analogous substitu- 
tion of cr for cl. Near Venice there is an island, S. CVe- 
mente, and I noticed that my gondolier always called it 
S. Cremente. C (=k) and g hai'd and r are all gutturals 
(i. e. pronounced with the aid of the soft palate), and this 
is why cr and gr are easier to pronounce than cl and gl. 
See concluding remarks in text. 

instances of the change in Italian dialects, and 
also in Spanish and French, of I, immediately 
preceded by a consonant, into r. 

Again, Max Miiller himself allows (op. cit. 
p. 168) that the Hawaians substitute t for our k, & 
and that the lower classes of the French Cana- 
dians habitually confound t and k, and say mekier r 
moikie for metier and moitie ; from which we see 
that if k cannot be, or is not easily pronounced, t 
is naturally substituted for it, and vice versa, even 
when there is not the additional difficulty of an I 
immediately following. 

But the examples most nearly in accordance 
with Webster's statement I find in Diez, who (op. 
cit. p. 198) informs us that in the Lorraine dialect, 
diaice = Fr. glace, and diore gloire, whilst tio=* 
clou, and liore clore though here the / has also 
undergone change or has disappeared, whilst in. 
English, whatever the pronunciation may be, the 
spelling has not been altered. 

Tl and dl would, so it seems to me, be easier to 
pronounce than cl and gl, because t, d, I all belong 
to the same class (dentals], and therefore but a 
trifling change in the position of the vocal organs- 
is required in passing from t or c? to I. C ( = A) 
and g hard, on the other hand, are gutturals, and 
the transition, therefore, from these letters to I 
(i. e. from guttural to dental contact) involves a 
very considerable change both in position and in 
organs, and this change gives rise to a percepti- 
ble hiatus, which is filled up by the e (or Urvocal) 
sound mentioned in note ~. In tl and dl there i& 
no doubt also an hiatus, but it is very much less 
perceptible. See Max Miiller, op. cit. pp. 138-145. & 


Svdenham Hill. 

A CENSUS OF 1789. 

On the death of the Rev. Dr. Bennet, late In- 
cumbent of the parish of Closeburn in Upper 
Nithsdale, all the documents in his possession con- 

5 We may compare our asked, very frequently pro- 
nounced as* (though here probably the" k is dropped and 
not changed into t), and also the turn = come of young 

6 When cl and gl occur at the end of a word (as they 
sometimes do), followed by e, e. g. in miracle, gargle, &c", 
the difficulty seems at first sight to have been got over in 
a different way viz. by pronouncing as though the e 
(with the Urvocal sound," which it usually has when final, 
= the u in but) were not at the end but between the two 
consonants. But of course there is no real transposition 
of thee ; it is merely silent, and the Urvocal sound is in- 
troduced just as I have shown thaf it is and must be in- 
troduced more or less when these double consonants are 
initial (even when they are pronounced tl and dl). Only 
that, doubtless, the Urvocal is heard more distinctly at 
the end of a word when there are no more letters to 
follow, and that terminal cl and gl are, in English, never 
changed into tl and dl. 

These remarks apply also to terminal tl, dl, pi, bl, and 
tf, as in bottle, waddle, maple, table and muffle. 

4 th S. X. AUGUST 17, '72.] 



nected with the parish were placed in my hands, 
and in looking over them, I was much interested 
to find a census of the parish taken in 1789 by the 
Rev. Andrew Yorstoun, then minister of Close- 
burn. He had gone most minutely to work, in- 
serting the names of all the parishioners to the 
number of 1460, specifying the religious sect to 
which each belonged, and marking those who were 
under six years of age. Is any other census of a 
parish in Great Britain, of so early a date, taken 
so systematically, known to any of your antiqua- 
rian correspondents ? Of these 1400 then alive in 
1789, I have discovered from my own personal 
knowledge, and assisted by a friend who has lived 
all his life in Closeburn, that there are six still 
alive after eighty- three years. In 1789 I see that 
there were 142 under six years of age, and all 
these are dead except the six to whom I refer. 
There are four of the male and two of the female 
sex. Two of them have been farmers all their 
lives, one cf them in a moorland farm under the 
Dukes of Queensberry and Buccleuch. Of the 
females, one was a farmer's wife, and the other 
was married to a labouring man. 

I may observe that Closeburn is a rural parish, 
a fair enough specimen of the kind of life led by 
the inhabitants in all the parishes in the South of 
Scotland. It is partly moorland and partly arable, 
so that, like many other parishes in this part of 
Scotland, there is a great mixture, and I think, 
therefore, that we may assume it, as I have said, 
to be a fair specimen of all. This census, then, 
of Mr. Yorstoun, shows that in such a parish we 
may calculate of 100 children, who are of different 
ages from birth to six years of age, but all being 
under six, there will be living at the end of the 
eighty third year 4 per cent, of the children. I 
know nothing of the per centage allowed by actu- 
aries for 100 children at their eighty- third year. 
Perhaps some of your correspondents acquainted 
with this subject will tell us how many of 100 
children, ought to be alive after eighty-three years, 
and thus allow us to compare it with this deduc- 
tion from the census of Mr. Yorstoun. Of course 
I see that these 100 children of Mr. Yorstoun are 
partly selected lives, and how many are so we 
cannot tell, but no doubt the weak will have died 
off before they have reached their sixth year, to 
a certain extent, by the failure of nature. But 
notwithstanding this, I think that it is a curious 
subject for our consideration, and if we could 
find any other list somewhat of the .same kind, it 
would be interesting to compare it. 

In regard to the population which 'was 1460 in 
1789, it was 1612 by the census of 1871, showing 
the population to be nearly stationary, but in 
reality it is gradually receding, like all rural 
parishes in the South of Scotland, from a variety 
of causes which are well known, but cannot be 
enumerated in your pages. 

In regard to the number of Dissenters from the 
Established Church, I find that in 1789 there were 
98, what Mr. Yorstoun calls Seceders, who were 
what is now known to us as United Presbyterians. 
Then there were 23 Cameronians, now known as 
Reformed Presbyterians, and lastly, 9 Episco- 
palians, consisting of the family of "the Rev. Dr. 
Stuart Menteath, rector of Barrowby in Lincoln- 
shire, who had a few years before (1783) bought 
the estate of the historical family of Kirkpatricks. 
The Dissenters from the Kirk were in all 130, and 
they continued much the same in number till the 
Secession in 1843. C. T. RAM AGE. 


" Or bs alive again, 

And dare me to the desert with thy sword ; 
If trembling I inhabit then, protest me 
The baby of a girl." 

Macbeth, Act III. Sc. 4. KM. 

I am reluctant to add another to the many con- 
jectural emendations of " inhabit," but I cannot 
help thinking that the key to the mystery is found 
if we suppose that the pronoun " it," referring to 
the " sword " of the previous line, has gone to 
make the last syllable of " inhabit," and must be 
restore^ thence. I would suggest 

" If trembling I flinch at it, then, &c." 
If the letters/, I, c were in any way illegible, a 
careless printer, by substituting b for" t' in "at," 
would most easily arrive at a word with which 
he might make shift. But other conjectures based 
upon the same supposition, have occurred to me, 
and a better than this one may suggest itself to 
some readers of " N. & Q.," to whom my theory 
of the absorbed " it " may still seem probable. 
Ib. Act III. Sc. 6, 7-10 

tf Men must not walk too late. 
Who cannot want the thought, how monstrous 
It was for Malcolm and for Donalbaia 
To kill their gracious father ? " 

Here the negative in " cannot " is awkward 
with the present punctuation, and has to be ex- 
plained away. I suggest that we should punctuate 
thus : 

'* Men must not walk too late, 
Who cannot want the thought, how monstrous 
It was for Malcolm and for Donalbaia 
To kill their gracious father." 

The note of interrogation after " father " belongs, 
I believe, to " how " and not to "who." It was 
a heresy witn the printer of the first folio that 
ft how," even when it expressed mere surprise, 
was followed by a note of interrogation. Thus in 
Winter's Tale, Act I. Sc. 2, the First Folio gives : 
" How sometimes Nature will betray its folly? 
It's tendernesse ? and make it selfe a Pastime 
To harder bosomes ? " 

I should like to conclude this note with two 
instances of " cannot want " (in the same sense as 



S. X. AUGUST 17, 72. 

" cannot be without ") curious enough 
to find a place in our dictionaries : 

" But as the church is a visible society and body politic, 
laws of polity it cannot ivant." Hooker, Eccl. Pol iii. 
xi. 14. 

" Effective and strong medicines which man s life can- 
not want" Milton, Areopagit. 29. 

MENTAL LABOUR. A useful note for the readers 

" The Boston Journal of Chemistry cites an interesting 
calculation as to the comparative exhaustion produced 
by mental and by muscular labour. It is reckoned that 
three hours of hard study wear out the body more than a 
whole day of bodily exertion." St. James's Chronicle. 


"A fish they (the Italians) honor with the name 11 
Janitors, a name that we have converted into Johnny 
Dory, with the same happy ingenuity that has twisted 
the qirasol or turnsol into a Jerusalem artichoke." 

But the latter does not agree with the deriva- 
tion given in N. & Q." 2" d S. xii. 253, 297 : so 
that the former may be equally incorrect. 


ALLITERATION. Johnson, in his definition of 
this term, assigns it to the co-initial letters of 
consecutive words; still, I believe, its popular 
acceptation, instancing Milton's 

"... Behemoth, Mggest 6orn," 
as he might also have instanced Gray's 

" High-born Heel's Harp," 

and a thousand others from our best and our worst 
writers. Ex vi, it is derivative from litera, or 
from iterum, or from both. Discreetly used, it 
aids the rhythm both of prose and of poetry ; not 
in the initials only of words, but in their accent, 
their consonance, and, necessarily, in their rhyme. 
Whether by chance only, or by purpose, neither 
are two lines of poetry or two clauses of prose 
without one or other of these several alliterations; 
nor can any reader, habituated to the exercise of 
his mentarear, fail of their perception. 

E. L. S. 

PHOTOGEAM. Would not this be a better word 
than photograph to express the picture or delinea- 
tion of an object taken by photography: just as 
telegram has now become established in lieu of 
telegraph, the word once commonly used for a tele- 
graphic message ? Photograph might then be used 
exclusively as the verb. The dictionaries are 
rather deficient in terms relating to photography, 
as might be expected, the art itself bein^ of such 
recent origin. In Johnson' 1 s English Dictionary by 
Latham, 1870 (perhaps the best we have) photo- 
graph is given, both as a verb and substantive ; 
also in Smith and Hall's English Latin Dictionary ; 
but the noun only, not the verb, in Webster's Dic- 
tionary by Goodrich and Porter, and its abbrevia- 
tions;' and in several other dictionaries there is 

neither noun nor verb, although photographic, 
-phical, -phist, -phy, one or the other, or all, are to 
be found, as in Wright's Univ. Pron. Dictionary 
(1856 ?) ; Mayne's Expository Lexicon, and Ogilvie 
and Cull's Eng. Diet. (1864) ; and the same omis- 
sion occurs in foreign dictionaries, as in Besche- 
relle's Diet. National, there is photographe (celui 
qui s'occupe de photographie), photographic, 
-phique, but no noun, no verb answering to our 
photograph ; and so in Baretti's English- Italian 
Diet, (by Davenport, 1854), and the Technological 
Diet., Eng., Fr. Germ., of Tolhausen and Gar- 
dissal (Paris, 1854), and in Reif s Eng., Russ.j Fr. 
Germ. Diet. (vol. iv.) and others. 

Park Place, Margate. 

"THE CENCI." In Mr. W. M. Eossetti's Poet- 
ical Works of Percy Bysshe Shelley, edited, on the 
whole, so admirably, and attended throughout by 
such laudable industry and loving care, there is 
one passage to which I venture to call a moment's 
attention. In the speech of Beatrice to Marzio 
(Act IV. Sc. 3), one of the two assassins of her 
father, she is made to say : 

" If thou hast crimes, repent: this deed is done" 
In earlier editions of the tragedy, I read 
" If thou hast crimes, repent : this deed is none." 
This latter version appears to me to be the true 
reading, to have the genuine Shelleyan stamp, and 
to be in perfect accordance with the belief which 
a father's unimaginable brutality had wrought in 
the mind of his hapless victim. It is impossible 
that she could intend to imply that Marzio had 
been guilty of a crime in killing the Count. As- 
suming that such was the implication, why the 
"If"? But she had persuaded herself that the 
destruction of so unnatural a monster was not a 
crime; and to hint, in the very moment of its 
consummation, that it was such, would be incon- 
sistent with that conviction. Therefore, it seems 
that the line thus printed is pointless and un- 
meaning. The entire speech shows Beatrice's 
confidence in the necessity and innocency of the 
act : 

' ; Beatrice (giving them a bag of coi/i). 
Here take this gold, and hasten to your homes. 
And, Marzio, because thou wast only awed 
By that which made me tremble, wear thou this. 

[ Clothes him in a rich mantle. 
It was the mantle which my grandfather 
Wore in his high prosperity, and men 
I^nvied his state : so may they envy thine ! 
Thou wert a weapon in the hand of God 
To a just use. Live long and thrive ! And mark, 
If thou hast crimes, repent : this deed is none." 

Richmond, Surrey. 

respondent MB. OLPHAR HAMST should make a 
note of the following for the next edition of his 

"> S. X. AUGUST 17, 72.] 



Handbook of Fictitious Names. In a memoir of 
Madame Trebelli-Bettini, in The Graphic, July 27, 
p. 79, it is stated that her maiden name was Zelie 
Gillebert ; but, when she appeared in 1860 at the 
Opera House, Madrid 

" Her family name had been inverted a custom by no 
means rare leaving out for the perfect Italianisation of 
the -word the letter G., and the musical world was made 
acquainted with Mdlle. Trebelli." 


HARP. I shall feel obliged to any cor- 
respondents who will furnish me with references 
in the greater poets, either English or foreign, to 
the yEolian harp. At present I can only call to 
mind three one in Tennyson's Two Voices, a 
couple of stanzas in Thomson's Castle of Indolence, 
and two lines, I think, by Sir Walter Scott 
"Like that wild harp whose magic tone 
Is wakened by the winds alone." 

I mean of course the literal instrument, not the 
figurative ^Eolian lyre alluded to by Gray in the 
first line of the Progress of Poesy. 


well's Life of Arthur Wellesley , Duke of Wellington, 
I see with what acrimony and pertinacity the ad- 
ministration of his gifted brother, the Marquess 
Wellesley, Viceroy in India, was attacked by Mr. 
Paull (a Perth man), by Lord Folkestone, Lord 
Archibald Hamilton, and others in Parliament, 
but that ultimately the noble lord came off with 
flying colours on a motion of Sir John Anstruther. 
Bart., carried by an overwhelming majority, and 
which u established more strongly in public opinion 
that firmness and ability which, under very trying 
circumstances, had been evinced by the Marquess 
Wellesley in his Indian government." 

I have a clever portrait of Sir John engraved 
by Wm. Daniell in 1809, after a drawing made 
by Geo. Dance in 1797. It is in profile. What 
relation was Brigadier-General Anstruther (Vi- 
miero) to Sir John Anstruther ? P. A. L. 

P.S. In a letter to Miss Anstruther (1815) Sir 
John speaks of Coutts' house, of C. Grant, Mr. 
G. Buchan, Sir George Barlow, and Alex. Thomp- 

GIBBER (SIBBER) OR KIBBER. I think that the 
question of the soft or hard pronunciation of the 
name of George the Second's poet laureate has 
never been discussed in " N. & Q." 

Gibber intimates in his Life that his enemies 
called him "Minheer Keiber ; ' to annoy him. 

Bramston, in his Art of Politicks, says, as a 
parody of if Non ego inornata," &c. 
" Try not with jests obscene to force a smile, 
Nor lard your speech with Mother NeedhanSs stile ; 
Let not your tongue to n,\0teA5io-^os run, 
And Kipfiepur/j.os with abhorrence shun." 

We undoubtedly find two of the leading actors 
of the period, in a thin Greek disguise, in very 
bad company. Mother Needham was pilloried 
about this time as the well-known mistress of a 
house of unsavory report, and we have contem- 
porary allusions to the vile carelessness of her 
remarks. As to the female performer mentioned, 
a select vocabulary was not thought to be one of 
her chief graces. But it is perhaps going too far 
to attribute to the manager and actor of Drury 
Lane a similar freedom from becoming restraints. 

The line shows at least that there was a habit 
of. calling this partly foreign actor " Kibber,'' and 
there are other circumstances which countenance 
the hard pronunciation. Pope, indeed, does not 
seem to have descended altogether to this species 
of badinage, although the alliteration is doubtful 

" Cibberian forehead or Cimmerean gloom." 
That the alphabetic dispute was as violent then 
as now is plain from his line in the same book of 
The Dunciad 

" Or give up Cicero to C or K." 

Gibber himself says " Cinna (or Gibber) vult 
videri pauper et est pauper,'' but probably at that 
time the name of the great Roman was never pro- 
nounced hard. 

It is difficult to calculate the time when c or k, 
followed by a slender vowel, became ch or s. 
There seems to be an affinity between c and the 
vowel a pronounced as in cab, cabinet, &c., which 
preserves the hard sound. When a natural re- 
finement takes place, and ca becomes ce or ct, a 
softening of the consonant is apt to occur along 
with the change, and the sound stumbles into chi 


ANCIENT GEOGRAPHY. I beg to send you 
curious note from the " Diary of the King's Ma- 
jesly, Edward VI." The royal ideas were not 
entirely modern: July 14, 1550. " Andrew dory 
[Doria] toke the cyti of Africa from the pirat 
Draguntia, who in the meane season burnt the 
country of Genoa'" (Cott. MS. Nero, c. x. fol. 21). 
Sept, 16, 1550. " . . . The towne of Africa " (Ib. 
fol. 23 b). 

Does his majesty mean the town of Algiers? 
or are we really to conclude that he honestly 
supposed Africa to be a town ? 


JUSTICE CLODPATE. In what old play is there 
a character called Justice Clodpate ? . ^Pl 

[Justice Clodpate is one of the characters in Thomas 
ShadwelPs comedy, Epsom Wells, 1673, 4to, acted by that 
jolly and droll fellow Cave Underbill.] 

REY. THOMAS GISBORNE. Can any correspon- 
dent of "N. & Q." give me information as to an 
author of the above name ? lie is mentioned in 
Haydn as "theologian and philosopher/' as heiv- 
ing been born 1758, died 1846 j and as having 



[4" S. X. AUGUST 17, 72. 

written, inter alia, Poems, 1798. In very early 
youth I was acquainted with these poems. 
principal one was a story of an assassin, who 
stabbed somebody, not for gain, but revenge ; and 
who, years afterwards, revisiting the place of the 
crime, discovered the knife, with which he there- 
upon destroyed himself. The poem opened 
" ' There, lie for ever there,' the murderer said, 
And prest his heel contemptuous on the dead : 
' No terrors haunt the [well-concerting] mind ! 
Vengeance my aim, thy gold I leave behind.' " 

In another poem is a curious phrase : 
" What though the [Indian?], in the fields of day, 
The harmless amulet of caste display ? " 

The lacuna are due to the fact that I have not 
seen the book since 1830. SHIRLEY BROOKS. 

[Thomas Gisborne, prebendary of Durham, and theo- 
logical and miscellaneous writer, was born at Derby 
Oct. 31, 1758 ; educated at Harrow and Cambridge ; ob- 
tained in 1792 the living of Barton in Staffordshire, and 
in the same year removed to Yoxall Lodge, near Barton. 
He died on* March 24, 1846, aged eighty-seven. For a 
biographical notice of him consult the Gentleman's Maga- 
zine for June, 1846, p. 643 ; and for a. list of his works, 
Watt's Bibliotheca and the London Catalogue of Books. 
The first quotation is the commencement of the poem 
" Conscience," Poems, second edition, 1799, p. 1.] 

A. HEMSTED. Can you or any of your readers 
supply any information as to this writer, by whom 
are the lines " Could but our tempers," &s., 
quoted by F. C. H. (4 th S. viii. 539) ? 

Newcastle-on-Tyne. J. MANUEL. 

HAIR BRUSHES. Can you or any of your corre- 
spondents tell me where I am likely to find any 
information as to the earliest use of hair brushes ? 
I know they are of comparatively modern inven- 
tion, but when were they first used ? Any other 
notes about the use of brushes in former times 
would also oblige. Q. R. S. 

an enamel medallion on which the date is given as 
' LXVI years after the first Jubilee of the Reform- 
ation of Luther." I should be glad if any one 
would inform me what year that means, and when 
the first jubilee of Luther's Reformation was cele- 
brated, and from what particular event it dated. 

10, Charles Street, St. James's. 

RICHARD (BEAU) NASH. Are there any auto- 
graph letters of the above known to be in 
existence ? if so, where can they be seen ? 

Bath. W. P. RUSSELL. 

ving been published of the prehistoric bas-reliefs 
in the recently discovered grottoes in the depart- 
ment of the Marne ? The Morning Post (July 19), 
quoting from Galignani, says that one of 'these 
represents a hatchet provided with its handle and 
a sling. This must be extremely rare and inter- 
esting. JOHN PIGGOT, JUN. 

"PRETTY FANNY'S FUN." Can any of your 
readers tell me the origin of the expression "Pretty 
Fanny's fun," which has lately been frequently 
applied to Mr. Ayrton ? F. H. H. 

ROWNCE. Has it been remarked that the rough 
and briary ground on the Undercliff, in the Isle 
of Wight, is popularly called the rownce or 
roiunces? Is this a word known elsewhere in 
England? And is it not probably the French 
word ranee, a bramble, from whence *ronceval, &c. ? 


OLD SEA CHARTS. I have a large folio book of 
these, but the title page being lost, I am unable 
to ascertain the period of publication. Perhaps 
some of your correspondents can help me, when 
I state that some of them are dedicated to Mr. 
John Machin, professor of astronomy at Gresham 
College, by C. Price. They were published by 
Wm. Mount and Thomas Price (? Page), on 
Tower Hill. G. T. F. 


" ST. BREES, BVRIED AT ; 1634 " inscription on 
a gravestone with the effigy of a lad} 1 -, with a 
spade by her side ; the shield with the arms worn 
out. Will any reader of " N. & Q." oblige by 
giving the locality, and some account of St. Brees ? 


WHISKER = FALSEHOOD. In a book published 
1(372, entitled " Mr. Hobbs's State of Nature con- 
sidered; in a Dialogue between Philantus and 
Timothy. To which are added five letters," &c., 
at p. 257 (in the third letter) occurs the follow- 

". . . . do not absolutely pronounce such things to be 
flams, forgeries, and whiskers, which, for ought you know, 
may be .... truths." 

Again, in the following page 
.... this is a very flam ; that's a most deadly whisker ; 
nere's right down corning and forgery." 

Is it known how the word ivhisker came to be 
used in this sense ? G. F. B. 

[Whisker is an old slang word used when a great 
falsehood is uttered : " The dam of that was a whisker " ; 
and when an improbable story is told, the remark is, 
' the mother of that was a whisker," meaning it is a 

"Wno MURDERED DOWNIE ? " A story ap- 
peared some years since, in Chambers'* Journal, 
entitled "Who murdered Downie ? " 1 am anxious 
to learn in what number of that journal the said 
story appeared. I think it was in the second 
series. W. M. 

WILLIAM OF OCCAM. This great English 
schoolman, who prepared the way for Wicliff and 
Luther, was born at the village of Ockham, in 
Surrey; but what was the date of his birth? 
He died at Munich in 1347, under the ban of 
Rome. A masterly article in the British Quarterly 

4th S .x.AuQi:sTiV72.] NOTES AND QUERIES, 


Review (July, 1872) describes his opinions how 
they paved the way for the Reformation. 


me any information respecting Christopher \Vor- 
thevale, who in his will, dated August 30, 1708 
(proved March 11 following), describes himself as 
of Hammersmith, Esq. ? I believe him to be the 
ion of Christopher Worthevale of Worthevale, co. 
Cornwall, by Philadelphia, daughter of Richard 
Billing of Hengar, in the same county. Chris- 
topher Worthevale, of Hammersmith, left cer- 
tain annuities to his wife, Katherine; and after 
her decease to his cousin, Mary Kelly, daughter 
of John Kelly, Gent. I am desirous of establish- 
ing the identity of this Christopher, of ascertain- 
ing the parentage of Katherine his wife, and, if 
he left any issue. He does not mention any chil- 
dren in his will, and I conclude he died s. p. 

There is another Christopher Worthevale, de- 
scribed as of Newtown in co. Waterford, Esq., in 
1745. Any information respecting him would 
also oblige. The family of Worthevale, of Wor- 
thevale, was of great antiquity. The pedigree 
recorded in the Heralds' College extends twelve 
generations before 1620. Arms : Gu. three pheons 
4ir. garnished or. Any communication forwarded 
to me direct will be thankfully received. 



SAMUEL WRIGHT. On an old book-plate (the 
property of a friend), and beneath which is in- 
scribed " Samuel Wright," I find the following- 
arms : Sable, three horses' heads erased, proper, 
2 and 1 ; On a chevron argent three spears' heads 
rect, proper. Can this plate have belonged to 
the Rev. Samuel Wright, D.D., alias Papal 
W T right? 

1 will here drop a hint to "collectors." I have 
had access to several collections of "arms," &c. ; 
but I have rarely found that any note was attached 
to show from whence a plate was obtained. 

VIATOR (1). 

(4 th S. viii. passim.) 

Referring to the paper of C. G. H. (4 th S. viii. 
114), I think I can satisfy him that in some points 
he is mistaken. According to C. G. H. the re- 
presentatives of Sir William Russell of Strensham 
-are the Horny olds of Blackmore Park and Sir 
John Pakington. 

If he inquires in the proper quarter I believe 
he will find that Sir John Pakington is the repre- 
sentative of the Russells of Powick, and not of 
the Russells of Strensharn, and that the Russells 

of Powick and the Russells of Strensham are dif- 
ferent families, and in" no way related ; and with 
regard to the Hornyolds, it seems clear, according 
to their pedigree in Burke's Landed Gentry, that 
they are not representatives of Sir William Rus- 
sell of Strensham. , 

According to Nash's Worcestershire, Sir William 
left issue five sons and two daughters. Two of 
his sons, Francis and William, are known to have 
left issue. The descendants of Francis have now 
all died out j of the descendants of William some 
still remain. William, a stanch Royalist like his 
father, was knighted and made an alderman of 
London by King James II. He held office, how- 
ever, for a very short period, as he resigned shortly 
after his appointment, and not long before his 
royal patron left the country. I am indebted 
to the very kind courtesy of Mr. Woodthorpe, the 
Town Clerk of London, for the foregoing particu- 
lars, from whom also I first heard that on resign- 
ing the "alderman" was required to pay four 
hundred pounds to the corporation, and twenty 
pounds to the ministers who visited the prisons, 
and that he was thereupon released from all fur- 
ther responsibility in the matter. Mr. Wood- 
thorpe also told me that Sir William Russell was 
neither a freeman nor a liveryman of London. 

The alderman had issue at least three children- 
Elizabeth, my great-great-grandmother, a daugh- 
ter (whose name is not known to me), and a son 
William. The only lineal male descendants of 
the alderman that I know of were the Russells of 
Stubbers. I have no copy of their pedigree, but 
believe it to be as follows : 

William, baronet, 1626; William, knight and 
alderman, the baronet's third son ; William, the 
alderman's son ; William, the alderman's grand- 
son or great-grandson, who married Mary, a lady 
of the Brantill family, and had issue William, 
John, and Joseph all of whom died without 
leaving issue. 

Although none of the alderman's descendants 
ever assumed the title, I believe there would be 
no difficulty in proving that each of his heirs 
male, after the death of Francis the second baronet, 
was dejure a baronet of the 1626 creation. 

The present Mr. Russell of Stubbers, who de- 
scends from the Bran fills and not from the Rus- 
sells, kindly tells me that the line of descent from 
Sir W 7 illiam Russell, knight and alderman, to the 
late Mr. John Russell might, he believes, be made 
out from the parish registers; that he has no 
doubt that all the Russells of Stubbers were de- 
scended from the alderman ; that the alderman's 
portrait is among the family pictures at Stubbers, 
and that he has always heard that the family 
claimed to be the elder branch of the same family 
with the Dukes of Bedford. I have always heard 
the same, and believe they were so regarded by 
the then Dukes of Bedford j and that one of the 



[4*hS.X. AUGUST 17, 72. 

Russells of Stubbers endeavoured by process o 
law to recover Strensham. How he came to fai 
is not known to me. 

From the above it will be seen that the alder 
man's eldest daughter has representatives stil 
living, and that if his other descendants have die 
out, they represent the alderman as well. 

Who may now represent Sir William Russel 
of Strensham is a different question. If the de 
scendants of his other children have all died out 
the representatives of the alderman must be the 
representatives also of his father; but, in the 
absence of any valid proof of the fact, we hav 
clearly no right to assume that neither of the 
first baronet's three youngest sons left issue 
male. As far as I know, all three may have mar- 
ried and left issue : hence the balance of probabi- 
lities seems strongly in favour of the baronetcy' 
not being extinct, but dormant. If so, the present 
dejure baronet would, I submit, be the rightful re- 
presentative of Sir William Russell of Strensham. 
The Testa de Neville might tell us when the 
Russells first came to Strensham, but I have no 
copy to refer to. According to Nash, Roger de la 
Ware was lord of Strensham in 1278, and Jame 
Russell in 1300; but the Russells seem to have 
been at Strensham before it belonged to De la 
Ware, for in 1272 Sir James Russell had license 
from the Bishop of Worcester to build an oratory 
"in his own house." 

The name Russell is obviously an importation. 
Some derive it from Rosel, a fief in Normandy 
others from colour or complexion. It is so 
common that I think it can only to a slight 
extent be local, but must mainly derive from 
colour: in which case the numerous families of 
Russell, like the numerous families of Brown,* 
would not necessarily be related. The Russell 
who came over with the Conqueror, whose name 
is spelt Rosel in Leland's copy of the roll of 
Battel Abbey, would, I conceive, almost certainly 
come from Rosel. The holder of the fief, as a 
matter of course, would attend his sovereign to 
England, and, once here, would probably not 
return. The Russells of Strensham, Woburn,+ 
&c. &c., would probably get their name from the 
fief. Rouge, Rous, Rouse, Rosseau, and, in a 
general way, Roselle, Russell, &c., obviously come 
from the old Latin word russus and its diminutive 
russullus, the name of the fief may come from the 
same original. 

The same correspondent also says of the Coke- 
seys, that for 150 years, " dating from 1280," they 
were the most opulent family in Worcestershire. 

* In the year ending June, 1838, the births, deaths, 
and marriages among the Browns are said to have 
amounted to 5585 ! 

f I am credibly informed that some twenty years ago 
the church at Rosel was restored by the then Duke of 

According to the only notice of the name of 
Cokesey in the Testa de Neville, temp. Henry III., 
Walter Beauchamp was the overlord, holding of 
the king ; William Beauchamp held the barony 
under Walter; Walter de Cokesey held three- 
quarters of half a knight's fee under William in 
the place he took his name from. In the Calendar 
of Inquests, to inquire what lands any person died 
seized of, Walter de Cokeseye appears to have 
died in the reign of Edward I. seized of Goldicote 
Manor (i. 95). This is the only property he 
then seems to have held of the crown. 

According to the Testa de Neville, pr 44, " Peter 
de Wyke and William de Goldicote hold of us "" 
(the king) " half a fee in the vill of Goldicote." 
So that Walter de Cokeseye acquired Goldicote 
before his death. 

In the time of Edward II., among the immense 
possessions of Guy Beauchamp, occurs " Cokeseye, 
one fee " ; so that the Cokeseys still held their 
principal property under the Beauchamps (Inquest. 
i. 277). In 1357 died Hugo de Cokesey, a very 
wealthy man. But that the Cokeseys possessed 
property before this appears from the fact of Wal- 
ter de Cokesey's being sheriff of the county some 
thirty years before Hugo's death. It seems clear, 
then, that there is no reason to suppose that, 
" dating from 1280," the Cokeseys were the most 
opulent, &c. 

The fact that the first Cokeseys held land 
under the Beauchamps is noteworthy, it being 1 
common for offshoots of a family to hold land 
under its leading member. The fact, too, that 
Hugo succeeded to so many estates held before 
by the Beauchamps, added to previous proba- 
Dilities, perhaps almost warrants the conclusion 
;hat, by extraction, he was one of them. It is- 
noteworthy also that the connection of the Beau- 
champs with the manor of Cokesey seems to- 
have commenced not long before the connection 
of the Cokeseys with the same ; and, noteworthy 
again, that whereas the first-mentioned Cokesey 
died in the latter part of the thirteenth century,. 
;he first mention Dr. Prattinton, the antiquary, 
net with of the Cookeses of Tardebigg was on a 
omb in Tardebigg old church. I forget the pre- 
ise date, but believe it was not later than 1310. 
On this latter subject I may, with your permis- 
ion, address you once more. 

Astley Rectory, Stourport. 


(3 rd S. ii. 77.) 

Allow me to correct some errors in the reply 
f DR. BELL under the above heading and refer- 
nce. It is only lately that I have had the 
pportunity of referring to the back volumes of 

4'fc S. X. AUGUST 17, '72.] 



your interesting pages, or I would have addressed 
you before on the subject. 

1. Capt. John Motherby's father, Mr. Robert 
Motherby of Konigsberg, merchant, was not a 
Scotchman, but English by both parents, being 
the fifth son of Mr. George Motherby of Hull, 
who married Ann Hotham, daughter of Robert 
Hotham, Esq., of Welton near Hull, a descendant 
of Sir John Hotham, Bart., Governor of Hull in 
the Civil Wars. My great-grandfather, Mr. 
George Robinson of London, married Mary, eldest 
daughter of the said George Motherby of Hull ; 
and I have a pedigree of the Hotham and Motherby 
families which sufficiently proves they were York- 
shire. Motherby itself, from whence no doubt 
the latter family originally derived, is a small 
township in Cumberland. There appears to have 
been no Scotch connection whatever. 

Another error of DR. BELL'S is his attributing 
the authorship of the Medical Dictionary to Dr. 
William Motherby of the Prussian army, the 
elder brother of Capt. John Motherby. * This 
work, so celebrated in its day that it passed 
through three editions, was by Dr. George 
Motherby, second son of Mr. George Motherby 
of Hull, and uncle to the two above-named officers 
of the Prussian army. I do not know if Dr. George 
was ever at Konigsberg at all, but it is evident 
he was for a long time in practice in London. 
There is a copy of the third edition of the Diction- 
ary in the British Museum, with some additions 
by George Wallis, M.D., S.M.S., published in 
1791. There is no mention of any translation 
from the German. On the contrary, it was well 
known in our family that he wrote it while resid- 
ing at the country-house at Streatham, belonging 
to the above-named Mr. George Robinson, who 
published it; and I have an old print of the 
house showing the window of the room the Doctor 
used to occupy. But I must not take up your 
space, and only hope, in conclusion, you will find 
room for inserting these corrections, but I can 
give more particulars if they are of sufficient in- 
terest to any of your correspondents. 

S. H. R. 

P.S. I would just add, there* is a biographical 
memoir of the above George Robinson in Nichols' 
Literary Anecdotes. He was a deservedly cele- 
brated man, and well known amongst the literati 
of his day. 


(4 th S. x. 68.) 

The answers required may easily be found in 
the preface and notes attached to the eighteenth 
(12mo, 1833), and subsequent, editions published 
by the Murray firm. 

The " S. T. P." address is the genuine one sent 

to the Committee by Horatio Smith, and was 
inserted under these initials " for the purpose of 
puzzling the critics." 

From a foot-note we learn that T. H. does 
represent Theodore Hook, "the cleverness of 
whose subsequent prose compositions has cast his 
early stage songs into oblivion." "This parody " 
(according to the same note) " was in the second 
edition transferred from Colman to Hook." No 
explanation of " Momus Medlar " is given other 
than an inserted quotation from the Edinburgh 
Revieiv in which Jeffrey says that " these three 
parodies remind us of the happier efforts of Col- 
man." Accordingly, in the absence of either 
affirmation or negation of this presumption, we 
may suppose that Celman was, if any one were, 
the original whom the satirist in these travesties 
held in view. TEDCAR. 

Your correspondent's copy of the Rejected Ad- 
dresses must be an imperfect one, as mine (1865) 
explains who S. T. P." and "T. H." are. I 
extract the following passage from the preface to 
the eighteenth edition for MR. PRESLEY'S benefit : 

" One of us (Horace Smith") had written a genuine 
Address for the occasion, which was sent to the Com- 
mittee, and shared the fate it merited, in being rejected. 
To swell the bulk, or rather to diminish the tenuity of our 
little work, we added it to the Imitations ; and prefixing 
the initials of S. T. P. for the purpose of puzzling the 
critics, were not a little amused, in the sequel, by the 
many guesses and conjectures into which we had ensnared 
some of our readers." 

T. H. is stated in a note (p. 102) to be Theodore 

It is not stated who Momus Medlar is, but from 
an extract from the Edinburgh Revieiv (p. 93) I 
presume it is meant for Colman. 


All, probably, that can be known about this- 
book is to be found in the eighteenth and subse- 
quent; editions, to which the authors themselves 
furnished an explanatory preface and notes. 

In the twenty-second edition (1851) "T. H." is 
stated to be Theodore Hook (p. 185), as the editor 
of " N. & Q." timidly conjectured. 

" S. T. P." is SanctaB Theologize Professor, or 
what we call D.D. This writer was Horatio 
Smith, one of the authors of the book, and the 
lines were a real' Rejected Address : the sham 
initials were put to puzzle the public. See Pre- 
face (as above), p. xxiii. * 

"Momus Medlar" clearly means no one person: 
it is a triple travestie, of the works of three dif- 
ferent persons Macbeth, The Stranger, and George 
Barnwell, and Momus M. is the spirit of travestie. 
James Smith wrote it. LYTTELTON. 



[4' h S. X. AUGUST 17, 72. 

(4 th S. x. 67.) 

The De Burgh family have long held lands and 
possessions in various parishes of Suffolk Hubert 
De Burgh had the lordship of Westhall (co. Suf- 
folk), 18 Henry III. (1233) and in Old Newton 
(co. Suf.) in 1246 ; also at Neyland (co. Suffolk) 
about the same time. After his disgrace with 
Henry III. he was obliged to part with many of 
his possessions. The family afterwards became 
settled at Fakenham Aspys (now Great Faken- 
ham), in Suffolk. I have an interesting deed, 
whereby the manor, as also the advowson ; of the 

parish church of Fakenham Aspyes is let unto one 
Nicholas Kookewood for 40/. yearly, to be paid 
upon the Feast of the Annunciation of the Blessed 
Mary, and upon St. Michael's day within St. 
Paul's Cathedral in London, " uppon the torabe- 
stone in the south He of the same." This bears a 
very perfect signature of " Wyll m Burgh," Lord 
Burgh, and is dated last day of December, 5 Ed. 
VI. (1550). It is also ratified and attested by Sir 
William Cordell, Master of the Rolls. The facts 
may be of interest to your querist, although the 
deed is too long to copy entire in your pages. 



William De Moreton, Earl of Cornwall, 
who rebelling against Henry II., died 
a prisoner, having his eyes put out by 
order of that monarch, and his earl- 
dom of Cornwall transferred to Stephen 
de JBlois. 

A-ldelme or Adelm. 

John de Bourglv 

Hubert, Earl of Kent, 
Justiciary of Eng- 
land temp. Henry 
III., died 1243. " 

Sir John = Hawyse, da. and heiress 
I of Wm. de Lanvala}'. 

Sir Hubert; 


Eobert de 


Eobert Fitz- 

Margerie, a nun 
at Chicksand 
in Bedfordshire. 

William de Burgh = 
summoned to 
Parliament 1st 
Edw. HI. (1327). 

= Elizabeth, d. and 
h. of Fulk, Lord 
of JVIawddwy. 

John, ancestor of 
the Lords Burgh 
of Gainsborough. 

Sir Hugh = 

de Burgh. 

Sir John 
de Burgh. 

: Joan, da. and coheir, of Sir 
William Clopton, Knt., of 
Clopton, Warwickshire. 

Four daughters and coheiresses. 



(4 th S. ix. 422 ; x. 35.) 

N., after a few observations, asks for "some 
reliable account " of the late Mr. Ira Aldridge. A 
close intimacy of thirty years' standing with that 
remarkable man enables me to comply with this 
request. But first, I must correct some errors into 
which N. has run. Mr. Aldridge never played 
Hamlet, and he was a veritable negro. He never 
called himself Mr. Kean, but early in his theatrical 
career some country manager styled him " The 

African Keened It has never been stated in any 
play bill that he was the son of the king of an 
unnamed kingdom. It used to be stated that he 
was the grandson of a king or chief of a tribe in 
Senegal on the west coast of Africa. The version 
of Titus Andronicus in which he acted was very 
much curtailed and altered from the original of 
Shakespeare. I remember at least that one great 
scene from a play called Zaraffa, the Slave King, 
(written in Dublin for Mr. A.), was imported into 
it. The musical farce in which Mr. A. was so 
inimitable as Mungo is The Padlock. 

4th s. X. AUGUST 17, 72.] 



That his ancestors were princes of the Pulali 
tribe, and much more that may be read in a work 
entitled Memoir and Tlieatrical Career of Ira 
Aldridge, the African Roscius, published many years 
ago by Onwhyn, Catherine Street, Strand, belongs 
to the region of romance, there can be little doubt. 
The father of the subject of this notice was the 
Rev. Daniel Aldridge, Calvinistic Minister of 
Green Street Chapel, New York, his congrega- 
tion being of the coloured race. This gentleman 
died in September, 1840. Ira, his son, was born 
at New York in 1807, and was destined for his 
father's sacred profession; but the fates would 
have it otherwise. At an early age he imbibed a 
strong taste for declamation ; later on he became 
the " star " of a goodly private company of coloured 
amateurs, and in the end he would be an actor. 
This just mentioned body of sable artistes dis- 
played their histrionic talents in a large room or 
loft over a smithy or blacksmith's shop, before 
audiences of their own complexion. Besides 
Mr. A., I have met with one or two other mem- 
bers of that sable troupe. Our youthful Thespian 
managed to " scrape an acquaintance " with the 
late James Wallack, then manager of a theatre at 
New York, and when that gentleman resolved 
upon returning to England, he conceived the 
idea of introducing young Aldridge to his fellow 
country people, and thus making money by him. 
Arrived at Liverpool, Wallack was silly enough 
to state that his protege had been his servant in 
America ; a rupture and a newspaper war ensued, 
and the "Child of the Sun " was left to his own 
resources in a strange land, and without much 
money in his purse. He soon found his way to 
London, where he "starred" in the characters of 
Othello, Zanga, Gambia, Bertram, Oroonoko, &c. 
at the Royalty, Coburg, and other theatres. 
He then took to the provinces, and in time be- 
came a splendid actor, drawing large audiences in 
all the great towns of Great Britain and Ireland, 
and occasionally revisiting London. In April, 
1833, he appeared as Othello at the Theatre 
Royal, Covent Garden, Miss Ellen Tree being the 
Desdemona. At the close of the first perform- 
ance, Mr. Sheridan Knowles, the great dramatist, 
rushed into his arms, exclaiming, " For the honour 
of human nature let me embrace you." His suc- 
cess now was complete, but unfortunately M. 
Laporte, the manager, was in a state of bank- 
ruptcy, Covent Garden was soon closed, and the 
Black Roscius transferred his services to the 
Surrey Theatre. For the last dozen or fourteen 
years of his life he visited Germany, Russia, and 
other continental kingdoms, and had honours con- 
ferred upon him by almost every crowned head 
in Europe, besides valuable presents innumerable 
from the nobles. His villa residence at Upper 
Norwood was literally crammed with costly articles 
of every description received by way of presents. 

He was made a Knight of Saxony or Chevalier, 
he became a member of a number of distinguished 
literary and scientific bodies on the Continent, and 
he held the large gold medal (first class) of the 
Prussian Academy of Arts and Sciences, which 
was presented to him by King Frederick William 
IV. at Berlin, Jan. 25/1858. The Chevalier Ira 
Aldridge died at Lodz in Polonia, on his way to 
St. Petersburg, on August 7, 1807. His funeral 
was attended by the governor of the place, the 
public officers, military, &c., and business was 
entirely suspended during the passage of the 
mournful cortege through the town. 


MILTON'S " AEEOPAGITICA " (4 th S. x. 107.) 

It is singular how little the want of clearness 
and even of grammar has impaired the fame of 
some great writers and speakers. These opening 
sentences of the Areopagitica are as ungrammatical 
and obscure as anything in Thucydides ; and I 
apprehend the questions nere put admit only of a 
conjectural answer. 

The very first word "they" has no verb after 
it, and the construction is changed by what in 
Greek is called an anacoluthon. 

The two passages referred to can only be 'ex- 
plained' by some form or other of what would, 
likewise in Greek, be called irp^s rb a-n^aw^^vov. 

The grammatical nominative to " likely might 
disclose" is "each of these dispositions." But 
this is hardly tolerable for the sense, and I should 
guess, though very doubtfully, that the writer 
really meant that the disposition at the moment 
uppermost would have shown itself in his opening. 
This fairly suits the context of the first clause. 

I am not sure if " I " is not sometimes omitted 
before the verb, as in Latin or Greek. 

The other passage is still more difficult : and it 
seems hardly possible to refer "it" in the two 
places to the same subject. I should guess (look- 
ing at what precedes and what follows) that the 
second "it " means in effect the fact, the circum- 
stance, that it was to the Lords and Commons 
that his address, and any such address, had to be 
made. The earlier part, I think, would be para- 
phrased in modern language somewhat in this 
way: "I shall be excused for my strong feeling, 
on account of the joy which produces it, and 
which itself springs from the fact," &c. 
" Si quid novistis," &c. 


Haglej*, Stourbridge. 

"VANITY FAIR" (4 th S. x. 88.) The answer to 
C. W. S. is, I think, to be found in Johnson's 
Dictionary; " APE. To imitate ludicrously." -What 
a pity it is that the public has lost the pleasure of 
seeing the clever sketches of Mr. Pellegrini, for 
he is no longer the artist to Vanity Fair, but, as 



[4 th S. X. AUGUST 17, '72. 

I understand, drawing the members of a club, but 
these not for publication. T. L. 6. 

Garrick Club. 

vii. 344.) The only reference to this in print 
that I know is in The History of WaUhamstow: 
its Past, Present , and Future. (Walthamstow, 
1861.) The author says : 

" This slip we can find no account of in history, or 
how the parishioners became possessed of it. Tradition 
says, however, that a dead body was found in the river 
Lea at this point, and that the parishioners of Lej'ton 
would not pay the expense of burial ; that in those days 
it was customary in such cases for the parish who buried 
the body to claim as much of the land from the other 
parish as those persons who carried the body could reach, 
stretching out their hands in a line and walking together. 
They were allowed to walk from the point where the 
body was found to the greatest extremity of the parish, 
and" claim the land ; if so, they certainly availed them- 
selves of the privilege, for they walked through Leyton to 
the Eagle Pond at Snaresbrook." P. 13. 



"DoRA" (4 th S. x. 8.) In one of the second 
series of Miss Mitford's letters she mentions with 
pride and pleasure having heard that Tennyson 
had versified a story from her writings. A. S. 

MILTON'S " L' ALLEGRO " (4 th S. x. 45.) I do 
not think MR. PKOWETT'S ingenious emendation 
will be acceptable to many of those who are well 
versed in Milton's poetry. It certainly simplifies 
matters ; but then Milton is not very simple in 
his constructions, and there is no external authority 
for such a change. In the second edition (1673) 
as well as in the third (1695), "he" does not 
appear, and " she " tells the whole story, for the 
passage runs thus : 

"She was pincht, and pull'd she sed, 
And by the Friar's Lanthorn led 
Tells how the drudging Goblin swet "... 

This is still more crabbed : yet MR. KEIGHTLEY, 
a very great authority, thinks the change was 
made by Milton himself, and that it was not likely 
to be a printer's error, a word being inserted to 
make up the measure. J. H. I. OAKLEY. 

The passage does not seem very hard to " con- 
strue." There were " stories told " by the people 
gathered together at " the nut-brown ale" 
"How faery Mab eat (ate) the junkets"; and 
"she" one woman of the party ^ ^v " was 
pincht and pull'd, she said ; and he " a man of 
the party 6 8e " tells how he ivas led by the 
frier's lanthorn, and how the drudging goblin 
swet," &c. CCCXI. 

POEM IN BLACK LETTER (4 th S. x. 68.) 
" Lyke thy audyence | so vtter thy language." 

This is one of the best known poems of Lyd- 
gate, and has been, printed from MSS. by Mr. 
Halliwellin his Minor Poems of Dr. John Lydgate 

(Percy Society), and myself in Political, Religious, 
and Love Poems (E. E. Text Soc.) 


DIVORCE (4 th S. ix. passim; x. 57.) I find that, 
to " speak by the card," this question was first put 
in " N. & Q." by X. Y. Z. ; concisely and cor- 
rectly answered by R. S. CHARNOCK ; and the 
authority for that answer required by BARRISTER- 

Although, as I have already said (ix. 520), there 
is no rule of law affecting the question, I am of 
opinion not only that a woman when divorced 
generally does best to retain her marriage name; 
but that she is as much entitled to do so in that 
case as when she becomes a widow. I cannot 
imagine upon what ground a man could maintain 
an action, as suggested by BARRISTER-AT-LAW, 
against his divorced wife merely for continuing to 
bear his surname. 

Need I remind my learned friend that a woman 
divorced does not necessarily lose her social posi- 
tion ? certainly not in the cases in which she 
obtains a divorce by reason, of her husband's mis- 
conduct, without any blame attaching to herself. 

For reasons too obvious to require comment, a 
woman surely does best -to retain her marriage 
name where she has children ; if she has no child, 
different considerations may apply. For instance, 
I remember a case in which I was counsel for 
a young lady, who having obtained a divorce, 
properly resumed her maiden name and style of 

Miss , her intention being to resume her 

vocation of a governess. Could she with any 
propriety have done so if she had had a child ? 

1 trust that I have said enough to show that 
this question, which is a social and not a legal 
question at all, is best left to individual taste and 
convenience. ERNST BROWNING. 

Inner Temple. 

x. 49.) There is surely nothing, in any of the 
varying versions of this " saying," to justify calling 
it "proverbial." It is merely a bit of nonsense 
for a nursery ditty. As such I was taught it when 
a child ; but a little differently, thus : 

" To bed, to bed, says Drowsy-head ; 

Not so fast, says Slow; 
Put on the pot, says Greedy-gut, 
We'll sup before we go." 

Mr. Halliwell, in his Nursery Rhymes, very 
appropriately places it among his Fragments, or 
Relics j but he gives it somewhat differently : 
" Come let's to bed, 
Says Sleepy-head ; 

Tarry awhile, says Slow ; 
Put on the pot, 
Says Greedy-gut, 

Let's sup before we go." 

No doubt other localities could furnish other 
varieties of this ditty. F. C. H. 

4 th S. X. AUGUST 17, '72.] 



"!N WESTERN CADENCE LOW" (4 th S. x. 68) 
the phrase intended to have been quoted, occurs i 
Paradise Lost, book x. line 92. An unconsciou 
slip of the pen (which I did not observe until 
saw MR. TEKRAM'S query) lays me open to cen 
sure for carelessness, or "just sufficient learning 
to misquote." The passage he will now doubt 
less recollect runs 

" Now was the sun in western cadence low 
From noon, and gentle airs due at their hour 
To fan the earth now wak'd, and usher in 
The ev'ning cool." 
Mea maxima culpa. H. H. W. 

D : B. (4 th S. x. 47.) MENTONIA says he has 
" frequently met both letters on several of our 
Roman milestones along our coast." Will he 
supply a few instances, and mention the presem 
situs of each stone? A list of all in Great Britain 
is a desideratum to the antiquary. J. S. E. H. 

CURIOUS MODE or INTERMENT (4 th S. x. 68.) 
The parish coffin atEasingwold church was noticed 
in "N. & Q." 4 th S. v. 510. The custom of the 
parish, thus providing a coffin for general use, 
was by no means uncommon. In the church- 
wardens' accounts of the parish of St. Michael, 
Cornhill, London, published by Mr. Waterlow, is 
the following item : 

" 1554. Itm paide for mendynge of the coffen that 
carrys the corsses to churche for bourde, neylles, & 
\vorkemanshippe, xii d ." 

I may refer your readers to an article in The 
Reliquary (v. 18) "On Interments without Cof- 
fins," which contains several allusions to parish 
coffins. H. FISHWICK. 


SHAKSPERE AND THE DOG (4 th S. x. 69.) 
Although Shakspere has not done that justice to 
"the friend of man," which is expressed in the 
works of Homer, ^Eschylus, Plfftarch, Arrian, 
Pope, Cowper, Byron, Burns, Southey, Scott, 
Porsdn, and other illustrious men, he is, I think, 
hardly open to the remark made 1 by Lord Nugent, 
that no passage is to be found in his writings 
commending, directly or indirectly, the moral 
qualities of the dog. For example, see Timon of 
Athens (Act IV. Sc. 3), where the devoted and 
unalterable affection of the dog, which survives 
so many human friendships, is thus given : 

"Apemantus. What man didst thou ever know un- 
thrift, that was beloved after his means ? 

Timon. Who, without those means thou talk'st of, 
didst thou ever know beloved ? 

Apemantus. Myself. 

Timon. I understand thee ; thou hadst some means to 
keep a dog." 

For testimony to the courage of the creature 
see Henry V. (Act III. Sc. 7) : 

" Rarnbures. That island of England breeds very 
valiant creatures; their mastiffs are of unmatchable 

In the Midsummer Nights Dream (Act II. Sc. 2) 
the most fond and much abused nature of the 
spaniel is strongly drawn ; and also the ingrati- 
tude it too frequently receives as a reward. Re- 
fer likewise to the Two Gentlemen of Verona. 
Launce compares his sweetheart to a dog : " She 
hath more qualities than a water-spaniel which 
is much in a bare Christian." 

Doubtless, in Shakspere, as in the Bible, the 
unthankfulness of man to his most loyal servant 
who, to use the words of Beckford and others, 
"^is beyond all example constant, faithful, and 
disinterested; who guards him by night, and 
amuses ^ him by day; and is, perhaps, the only 
companion that will not forsake him in adver- 
sity " is amply exhibited ; because the people of 
most countries, though so greatly indebted to 
the creature, who is the greatest pattern of the 
highest gift of God and the sum of his divine 
attributes love, prostitute his name as a term of 
abuse to express scorn and hatred. 

Henbury, Cheshire. 


ix. 358, 514 ; x. 57.) It is fortunate that I hap- 
pened to intrude with my "pleasant novelty" 
between MR. ADDIS and the " present generation," 
or the extraordinary treat provided in his "ill- 
chosen culinary-references " would have been lost. 
[ enjoyed it, I can assure him, as the most precious 
norsel of Shaksperiana that I ever yet met with. 
[t was in fact so rich, that it induced me for once 
: o try what this "index ferreting" was like, and 
' did as he recommended your readers, viz. " see 
Gloss, to Bebees Book, E. E. T. S."; when, sure 
enough, it appeared to be as he says, i, e. heronseive, 
a diminutive of heron. I did not, as he did, 
ump to the conclusion that it was so ; but con- 
;inued like a good u ferret" down page after page 
f the index, until I arrived at letter S, under 
which I found the word " Sewe," and that it was 
simply a contraction of stew. One of the lines 
that he quoted from Chaucer for my " instruc- 
tion/' told me that it must be so, viz. 

" I wol nat tellen of her straunge sewes." 
So much for Shakspeariana ! 

Castle Bromwich. 

OLD PROVERBS (4 th S. ix. 423.) "The old 
saying, ' Well is spent the penny that getteth the 
pound'" (Letter of Thomas Warley to Lady 
Lisle, Lisle Papers, xiv. art. 40, July 2, 1536). 

" That vulgar saying, < A thing done can not be 
vndone'" (Letter of George Norton to John 
Foxe, Harl. MS. 416, fol. 119). 


74.) In transcribing my rough extracts from my 




S. X. AUGUST 17, '72. 

grandfather's " genealogy" of the Lenthalls, 1 
committed a pen-slip, which the ninety-sixth 
year now noting my birth-day can alone excuse". 

Sir John Lenthall's third son, Thomas, married 
the daughter of Colonel Moles ; the granddaugh- 
ter of lais fourth son Francis, Elizabeth Lenthall, 
married in 1704 Deane Swift, grandson of Crom- 
well's admiral and my great-grandfather. I stand 
in the fourth, not in the third, degree of filiation 
from Sir John Lenthall, as I had heedlessly 
represented myself. 

Let me also set right the misprint of "ille" for 
ilia, in the second distich of my epigraph j and, 
more especially, of " EDWARD " for the baptismal 
name EDMUND, in my signature ; which has be- 
longed to both my races through many centuries. 

466, 524.) It may be well to state that a second 
article on this subject appears in Cope's Tobacco 
Plant for August. The entire story is therein 
denounced as a fiction, and a reward of lOCtf. is 
offered to 

". any person or persons who shall afford such informa- 
tion as shall lead to the identification of Mynheer Van 
Klaes, the Smoking King of Rotterdam, and establish 
the correctness of the history propounded by the Daily 


ROBERTSON'S " SERMONS " (4 th S. x. 10.) The ( 
soldier in question was Sir David Baird, who, on pose havin 
the failure of CoL Wellesley (Wellington) in the 
night attack on Serin gapatam, when offered the 
next day the command of the attack on the Tope, 
agreed with Lord Harris, the commander-in-chief, 
that it would be but fair to give the colonel 
another trial. He got it, and succeeded. How 
scurvily poor gallant, but ill-tempered, " Davie " 
was afterwards used by his supercession in the 
command of Seringapatam by Col. Wellesley, is 
a matter of history. (Vide Alison, vol. vii. 

Taylor's copy, of Halstead's Genealogies, sold, as far 
as I recollect, about forty years ago at Mr. R. H. 
Evans's Auction Room, or sold it to Mr. Botfield. 
What I do know with some certainty, is, that 
the copy he had is not in the library at Norton 
Hall (as was, no doubt, intended by him when 
he bequeathed that valuable collection to a son 
of the Marquis of Bath), but was sold by direc- 
tion of his widow at Sotheby's Auction Rooms, 
Jan. 20, 1864, for 1857. ; and at the same time 
several other rare genealogical and antiquarian 
books, on which he was working in London just 
before his death. HENRY G. BOHN. 

COUNT MARCELLUS (4 th S. ix. 385.) It is 
indeed to Count Marcellus we are indebted for 
that antique of inestimable value, one of the finest 
gems in the Louvre. When this splendid work 
of art came to light again in the island of Milo, 
the French Consul-General having given notice 
of it, the Due de Riviere, who was then minister, 
at once dispatched Count Marcellus (Augusta 
Martin du Tyrac), deputy of the Gironde, the 
enlightened son-in-law of Count de Forbin (the- 
director of the museum), who was so forcibly 

chap, xlix.) H. HALL. 

Woolston, Hants. 

ix. passim; x. 18, 75.) Sir Simon Taylor's sale 
took place in 1838, but I have not the catalogue 
by me. Mr. R. H. Evans, of Pall Mall, was the 
auctioneer ; arid I believe a complete set of his 
sale catalogues is in the British Museum. I cannot 
trace the price Mr. Botfield paid for the book, 
but think it was sixty guineas. Messrs. Sotheby, 
Wilkinson, & Hodge, through my brother Mr. 
H. G. BOHN, can furnish MR. TAYLOR with par- 
ticulars as to date of sale, and purchaser of the 
copy, after the death of Mr. Botfield. 


Having recently sold all my priced auction - 
catalogues, I have now no means of reference, nor 
do I remember whether I bought Sir Simon 

struck with its beauty, that the statue was at 
once purchased and shipped to France. 

It was Count Marcellus, also, who in 1819 first 
discovered the comet. 

Another French savant, M. Ravaisson, member 
of the Institut, has had the fortunate idea to pro- 
tlie Venus de Milo placed somewhat 
more erect; so that now "the Grecian bend" is 
infinitely more graceful. Two casts of it have 
been put by the side of it, so that the great- 
improvement at once strikes the eye. P. A. L. 

WORMS TN WOOD (4 th S. x. 30.) Dissolve cor- 
rosive sublimate in spirit : apply with a thick 
brush, so that it should soak into the wood. The 
present race of "worms will die : and, as far as my 
experience goes, no future generation of worms 
will disturb the ashes of their ancestors. Pro- 
batum est. Small children should not have access 
to the mixture, unless their parents should have 
too many of them. E. L. 

PROGRAMME (4 th S. x. 43.) This being the 
English or Gallic form of the pure Greek com- 
pound irpoypapua, it seems something like a waste 
of time and labour to search for its derivation 
elsewhere. Its strict etymological meaning is, 
something written before matter introductory to 
other matter to come after; and hence, by an 
easy gradation, it comes to have its ordinary sig- 
nification as now used, viz. a short and general 
statement of something to be done "a pro- 
gramme," as we say, "of the proceedings." 

When truth floats palpably upon the surface, is 
it wise to seek for it at the bottom of the well ? 

In Trpo&ov\vp.a, we have a kindred word = <e a 
preliminary decree of the Athenian senate, which 

4S. X. AUGU.-T 17, '72.] 



became a &ov\tvna, or law, when passed by tb 
Ecclesia" (Liddell and Scott). 


A VINE PENCIL (4 th S. x. 40.) Brockett, in 
his Gloxxarif of North Country Words, gives tin 
following definition : 

" Vine Pencil, a blacklead pencil. Perhaps from th 
ore being first embedded in vine, as it is now in cedar 

Wsr. DODD. 

" THAT TALL FLOWER," ETC. (4 th S. x. 49.) 
This, or a similar line, has been discussed before 
The crown imperial is a tall flower, and each peta 
has a natural cup inside full of water; if you 
shake the stalk, you will see some of the drops 
fall. The water is sweetish. P. P. 

' [See N. & Q." 4* S. v. 490, 5G9 ; vi. 183, 308.] 

HENRY HOWARD (4 th S. x. 63.) With refer- 
ence to Query 2, Sir Robert Howard, fifth son oJ 
the first Earl of Berkshire, and father of the 
above, married rather late in life (circa 1648), 
Katherine, daughter of Sir Henry Nevill, seventh 
Baron Abergavenny of Birling, by whom, besides 
Henry, he had two younger sons (Add. MS. 5834, 
fol. 17, Brit. Mus. Lib.). His second son, Robert, 
married Winefred, daughter and heiress of 
Cassey, by Mary, daughter and heiress of John 
Welles of'Horecross, co. Stafford, and had several 
children (vide Shaw, Hist. Staffordshire, with 
MS. Add., i. 105, Brit. Mus. Lib.). The allega- 
tion of the death in youth, or without issue, of 
Sir Robert Howard, whose early years had been 
rendered notorious by the scandal of his connec- 
tion with the Lady Frances Villiers, Viscountess 
Purbeck, is disposed of by the petition of his 
relict Dame Katherine Howard, as guardian 
of Henry Howard his son and heir, an infant ; 
by which, on July 7, 1663, she met the second 
reading of the bill brought up from the Commons 
" to confirm the sale of certain lands in Shrop- 
shire, made by Sir Robert Howard to raise money 
to pay his debts" (Lords' Jour., vol. xi. pp. 549, 
552). Your correspondent might obtain some in- 
formation new to him from that amusing biogra- 
phical production, The Howard Papers, by H. Iv. 
S. Causton (1862), from which the above parti- 
culars are derived. W. E. B. 

WELL OF MANDURIA (4 th S. x. 63.) In A Tow 
through the Southern Provinces of the Kingdom of 
Naples, by the Hon. Richard Keppel' Craven 
(1821), there is an account of the well of Man- 
duria which is very similar to the one sent you 
by DR. RAMAGE, except that it says that " one of 
the inhabitants informed me that he remembered 
it once to have failed/' There is a copper-plate 
of it, engraved by Hawkins, from a sketch by Hon. 
K. Craven. L. C. R. 

64.) D. P. seems ignorant of one "of the simplest 
rules* of heraldry. My father married an heiress, 
consequently, he carried her coat of arms in an 
escutcheon of pretence on his own. On the death 
of our father and mother, not only my brother 
and myself, who inherit the property, but all my 
brothers and sisters have a right to quarter both 
the paternal and maternal coats. My brother 
and myself make no new claim, we simply adver- 
tise as a fact that we have done what we have 
an undoubted right to do. 

Eullington Vicarage, Micheldever. 

x. 65.) Apropos of the letter of Joseph Addison 
which P. A. L. communicates to "N. & Q.," 
and which, as he omits to mention, was hitherto 
unpublished, your correspondent inquires for some 
account of Mr. 'Worsley to whom the letter is 

Mr. Worsley, I gather from Addison's official 
correspondence, was envoy in Portugal at the 
same time that the notorious Bubb Dodington 
was minister at Madrid. In a letter from Addison 
to the latter personage, dated April 22, 1717, the- 
secretary writes : 

" I am to desire you, in case any further conversa- 
tion shall pass between you and Monsieur de Alberoni, 
on the subject of an accommodation between the "Em- 
peror and the King of Spain, to send me an account of 
it on a separate letter,'' &c. 

This letter is couched in much the same lan- 
guage as that brought to notice by your corre- 
spondent, and the dates coincide sufficiently to- 
enable us to suppose that they both relate to the 
same negotiation ; and that the distinguished per- 
sonage alluded to in the one, is the Cardinal 
Alberoni openly mentioned in the other. 


BEAK : A MAGISTRATE (4 tb S. x. 65.) May not 
beak be connected with beagle, brack, bracket f 
Florio has (I quote from Wedgwood sub 
'Beagle ; '): 

" BRACCO, any kind of leagle, hound, bloodhound, &c.; 
>y metaphor, constables, beadles, or sergeants, and catch- 
polls in the rogues language." 


AN OLD HANDBILL (4 th S. x. 67.) Since for- 
warding you the query on this subject, I have 
,aken counsel of one of the first paper-makers in 
he world (his works are the most prominent in 
he National Exhibition of 1872) ; and also of other 
gentlemen in the paper trade. The technical 
erm for the serrated edges, which show the size 
f the paper, is " deckle edge." And the Bank of 
England notes of this very day are made in simi- 
arly sized frames. Size, consequently, is 15| in. 
y 5|. The handbill, at the present moment, 



[4 th S. X. AUGUST 17, 72. 

LS in the temporary museum of the Royal Archae- 
ological Institute of Great Britain, &c., at South- 

490.) In my reply (p. 490) I gave a vague re- 
ference to the Cambro-Briton. The passage I re- 
ferred to will be found in the Cambrian Quarterly 
Magazine, iii. 201-3, 1831. A. R. 

Croeswylan, Oswestry. 

BUEIALS IN GAKDENS (4 th S. ix. passim ; x. 76.) 
Tombstones in gardens cannot be always taken as 
proof that burials have been made there, as, un- 
fortunately, too many cases occur where the old 
gravestones of our ancient churchyards have been 
utilised in repairs to footways, &c. ; e. r/., in the 
garden of the principal control officer, Gun Wharf, 
Portsea, may be found a gravestone with the fol- 
lowing inscription: "Lieut. W. Campbell, obiit 
1762. 21st Regiment of Infantry." Now this 
Lieut. Campbell is not buried in the garden in 
question, but when the ruthless clearance of the 
old gravestones took place from the burial-place 
of the the garrison chapel a few years ago, poor 
Campbell's covering stone was amongst them, 
and was moved with a heap of similar rubbish to 
the War Department Storeyard, where a due and 
proper official economy utilised them in patching 
and repairing footpaths and pavements where 
necessary. Campbell's stone has a resting place 
in the garden I have mentioned, close to the 
greenhouse as pleasant a site as can be desired ; 
but where his bones are is another question. 


Woolston, Hants. 

Beckford, the eccentric author of Vathek, de- 
sired to be buried in his garden, at Lansdown, 
but the idea not falling in with the religious views 
of his daughter, the Duchess of Hamilton, his 
body was > placed for some time in the burial 
ground of the Bath Abbey, while the duchess 
caused his garden to be laid out as a cemetery, and 
there he was finally interred in a plot of unconse- 
crated ground, separated by a circular trench from 
the consecrated portion around, so that his disbe- 
lief in a deity of any kind might be known. He 
lies in a massive red granite tomb, designed by 
himself, and the body is placed above the ground 
to mark his descent from the Saxon kings, who 
were, it is said, buried in the same fashion.* 


x. 10, 74.) Archbishop Thomson, in one of his 
literary addresses, made some remarks which were 
condensed a few days later in a leading article in 
The Times into this form : " The best way to 
clear our thoughts upon any subject is to write a 

[* For a notice of his sarcophagus and its inscriptions, 
see Burke's Patrician, ii. 253. ED.] 

book about it." I quote from memory, but am 
sure of the speaker, and of the point of the ob- 
servation. * W. D. S. 

BEEVER(4 th S. x. 47,113.) A Winchester boy 
in olden time could easily have answered this 
query. It was the custom some fifty years since 
whether continued to the present time I know 
not that the afternoon school iii summer should 
be interrupted by a quarter of an hour's relaxation 
called beever-time, during which the college boys 
were supplied with a small portion of bread and 
beer called beevers. Mr. Albert Way inserts the 
word " Beuer, drinkinge tyme, Biberrium" from 
Pynson's edition of the Promptorium ; and Mr. 
Halliwell gives it in his Glossary as " bever." I 
presume that bibo was its root j from whence came, 
according to Du Cange, bibarium, biberagium, be- 
ver agium; Ital., beveraggio; Fr., breuvage ; and 
lifngl, beverage. C. W. BINGHAM. 

IOLANTHE (4 th S. ix. passim ; x. 37, 96.) 
D. P. is probably right, though I am still inclined 
to think that Violante comes immediately from the 
Latin, and lolantlie from the Greek. But the pur- 
port of my note was to show that the latter name 
was not a mediaeval variation of the Spanish name 
Violante. CCCXI. 

" As STRAIGHT AS A DIE " (4 th S. ix. passim ; 
x. 51.) To say that the impression on a well- 
made coin produces such a general feeling of 
wonder, that level as a die has passed into a pro- 
verb seems to me rather far-fetched. Bailey's 
Dictionary gives, " Die, the middle of a pedestal, 
the part lying between the basis and the cornice." 
May not, therefore, the term have arisen, as so 
many popular sayings have, from a professional 
mode of speaking, in which, when the idea of 
levelness or of straightness was to be conveyed, it 
naturally occurred to builders to give as an ex- 
ample that which should, I presume, always be 
perfectly straight and level ? V. 

IlORNECK AND JESSAMI' (4 th S. ix. pttSSim.) 

In confirmation of my interpretation of the word 
"Jigg" as a giggling girl, see Babees Booke 
(E. E. T. S.), p. 40, line 82, and references in 
Index. C. CHATTOCK. 

Castle Bromwich. 

SHEEN PRIORY (4 th S. ix. 536 ; x. 78.) I can- 
not say how it may be with the Carthusian house 
of Syon, but certainly there is nothing in the 
charter of foundation of this priory (see Dugdale, 
Monast. p. 94, 1682), to show that it was a 
chantry " where sad and solemn priests still sing 

The object of it is stated to 

for Richard's soul.' 

" Pro orationibus et aliis divinis officiis inibi faciendis, 
pro salubri statu nostro, dum vixerimus, ac anirna nostra 
cum ab hac luce migraverimus, et animabus parentuna et 
progenitorum nostrorum, et omnium fidelium defuncto- 
rum, necnon pro pace tranquillitate et quiete populi et 

4 th S.X. AUGUST 17, '72.] 



regni nostri ; nc insuper pro aliis pietatis operibus ibidem 
sustinendis ministrandis et supportandis juxta ordinaci- 
onem nostram, hrcredum vel executorum nostroruin, 111 
hac parte plenius faciendum.'*- 

The amount of land given for the site, and the 
situation of it, is stated in the charter with great 
minuteness. EDMUND TEW, M.A, 

CANONIZATION (4 th S. x. Go.) A quotation 
from Lea's History of Sacerdotal Celibacy states 
that St. Ulric of Augsburg was "the first subject 
of papal canonization, having been enrolled in the 
calendar by the Council of Rome in 993." St. 
Ulric was canonized by Pope John XV., in the 
above year. In ancient times, however, all bishops 
canonized saints j so that a canonization by a pope 
was nothing unusual or exclusive. But Pope 
Alexander III., who succeeded Adrian IV. in 
1159, reserved the right of canonization to the 
pope ; and St. Gauthier, Archbishop of Rouen in 
1153, is the last example of a saint not canonized 
by the sovereign pontiff. F. C. H. 

MASTIFF (4 th S. x. G8.) An amusing derivation 
(decidedly untrue) seems worth noting : 

" They excel for one thing, there dogges of al sorts 
spanels, "hounds, maistiffes, and diuers such, the one they 
keepe for hunting and hawking, the other for necessarie 
vses about their houses, as to drawe water, to watch 
theeues, &c., and there-of they deriue the worde mastiffe 
of Mase and theefe." Euphues and liis England, Arber's 
ed. p. 439. 


Rustington, Littlehampton, Sussex. 

"VARIETY/' A SONO (4 th S. x. 69.) Having 
written down this song from my father's lips more 
than five and thirty years ago, I send it with 
much pleasure : 

" Variety. 

" Ask ye who is singing here ? 
Who "so blythe can thus appear ? 
I'm the child of mirth and glee, 
And my name's Variety. 
" Xe'er have I a cloudy face, 
Swift I range from place to place, 
Ever wandering, ever free, 
Such am I, Variety. 
" Crowded scene and lonety grove 
All by turn I can approve, 
Follow, follow, follow me, 
Friend of life, Variety." 

It goes to a pretty tune, and each half of the 
verse is repeated. L. C. R. 

LONDON SWIMMING BATHS (4 th S. x. 83.) One 
of the largest in London, long since closed, was 
what was afterwards known as the " Holborn 
Casino," now also lately closed. I am sorry to have 
to differ with your correspondent as to the daily 
change of water. In one of the best of the Lon- 
don baths the state of the water is so disgraceful 
and the dirt so nauseating that I seldom venture 
now to enter it. I should have written to The 

Titties years ago about it, but for the thought that 
the letter would not have been inserted. I 
heartily hope every parish in London will event- 
ually have a light (air and light are essentials) 
swimming bath. 


HECLA IN ICELAND (4 th S. x. 87.) With defer- 
ence to Vigfusson, I cannot but think that the 
name " Hecla " is the Gothic word jokla, icy top 
or hill ; the Hcklufjnl of the Old Icelandic annals 
being the equivalent of our English " Mount 
Hecla." Gothic jokla, jokul, Icel. jokull, Persian 
yekhkuU; Gothic jok } Persian yukk, ice, Icel.jatii. 
a lump of ice. J. CK. R. 

(4 th S. ix. 505; x. 34, 70.) My note has had the 
good fortune to elicit a very interesting communi- 
cation of letters and comment on the same, for 
which my best thanks are due both to the Marquis 
of Bath and to CANON JACKSON. I was aware; 
although I have but the signature of Lord Buck- 
hurst, that " he wrote a bold dashing hand/' but 
the body of the long letter, signed by him, which 
I possess, and some words of which, at the end. 
I transcribed for " N; & Q." appeared to me so 
like Sir Thomas Gresham's given by Mr. Burgon 
in his Life and Times of Sir Thomas Gresham, 
that I thought it very possible it might be bv 
him. P. A. L." 

{ uoia&b ocf n/iD aceJi si ia^acsfq s& SBDpoaeaig 

EDGEHILL BATTLE (4 th S. x. 47, 99.) Dr. Rees 
in his Cyclop&dia, in an article headed "Bannerets" 
(Knights), says : 

"The last knight banneret was Sir John Smith by 
Charles I. after the battle of Edge-hill, where he rescued 
the royal standard from the rebels." 

luhird erfJ in omr _ (q ' T.;V- 

&89jIOJ)t Olft Slid?" ii.t lo jj. 


Bible Truths, with Shakspcarian Parallels. By J. K.. 

Selkirk. Third Edition, with Illustrative Notes and an 

Index. (Hoclder & Stoughton.) 

When a work has reached a third edition, it may be 
very fairly considered as requiring but few words to re- 
commend it to further attention on the part of the read- 
ing public. But this boi'k deserves fuller recognition. 
Its author contends, that one of the most interesting 
characteristics of the standard literature of our country 
is the sterling biblical morality it reflects a character- 
istic specially noticeable in the'works of Bacon and Mil- 
ton. Out of the fifty-eight Essays of the former, Mr. 
Sterling has found in the twenty-four which treat more 
exclusivel}' of moral subjects upwards of seventy allu- 
sions to Scripture. The same richness of scriptural 
parallelism will be found in Milton ; and that not in hi* 
controversial writings only, but also in "the immortal 
part of him " his poems. " But," says our author, " by 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [4* s. x. AUGUST 17, 72. 

far the most prominent example of this deference and 
homage paid to revealed truth will be found in the 
works of Shakspere. As he excels in all other points, so 
also is he greatest in this." To prove the truth of this 
is the object of the work before us ; and if in some few 
instances we may think the connection between the 
*' quoted Scripture " and the post's application less evi- 
dent than it appears to Mr. Sterling, the book will never- 
theless be found one to interest not Shakspearian 
students only, but all who would desire to know how 
our English Bible has leavened the mass of our English 
The Herald and Genealogist. Edited by John Gough 

Nichols, F.S.A. Part XLI. August, 1872. 

This new number of Mr. Nichols's excellent periodical 
is peculiarly rich in pedigrees and genealogies, but less 
so than usual in cognate miscellaneous articles. 

INTERNATIONAL SYMPATHY. The decoration of the 
Order of the " Sanitats Kreuz Militar " of Hesse Darm- 
stadt has been conferred upon Miss Pearson and Miss 
M'Laughlin. This is a new Order, founded in Aug. 1870, 
by the Grand Duke, for the recognition of services ren- 
dered to the wounded in the Franco-Prussian war. The 
decoration consists of a 12-pointed cross of bronze, gilded 
and suspended from a crimson riband, with silver edges. 



Particulars of Price, &c.. of the following books to be sent direct to 
the gentlemen by whom they are required, whose names and addresses 
are given for that purpose : 
Any NEW TESTAMENTS by Tyndale. 
BIBLES and TESTAMENTS before 1700. 

'BIBLES by -T. Fry & Co., London probably between 1770 and 1730. 
Wanted by Mr. Francis Fry, Cotham, Bristol. 

A copy of the Engraving of " Sir Philip Sidney, at the Battle of Zut- 
phen," engaged in combat with three horsemen. 

Wanted by Mr. James'.M. /,'>?, care of C. D. Cazenove, 15, Beaufort 
Buildings, Strand. 


E. V. (Cambridge.) The book of songs is entitled The 
"Vocal Enchantress, 1783. See the full title in the Euro- 
pean Magazine, iv. 52. The translation of the Works 

of Virgil, 1743, frc., is usually called Davidsons, for whom 
it was printed. (Bohn's Lowndes, p. 2781.) Probably he 
u?us James Davidson the partner of Thomas Iludiman 
of Edinburgh, the publishers of cheap school-boohs. (Tim- 
parley's Hist, of Printing, p. 638.) 

particulars, with the pedigree, of the Oldershaio family of 
Kegworth, are given in Nichols's Leicestershire, vol. iii. 
pt. ii. pp. 857-859. Arms, azure, three annulets or. Crest, 
a snake twisted between three arrows, one erect, and two 
in sal lire. Motto, " Certanti dabitur." 

S. SHARP (Blackburn). The song of " Slaadburn 
.Fact/-" has recently been reprinted. "N. & Q." 4 Ul S. 
viii. 362. 

M. Sterne (SentimentalJourney) makes Maria to say 
' God tempers the ivind to the shorn lamb." The same idea 
occurs in Jacula Prudentum by George Herbert, " To a 
close-shorn sheep God gives wind by measure." 

BELISARIUS. The line, "And waft a sigh from Indus 
to the Pole," is by Pope, Eloisa to Abelard, line 58. 

M. W. (VVoolland.) By later bibliographers De Imita- 
tione Christi is attributed to Joannes Gersenius, a Bene- 
dictine monk of Vercelli. Consult a treatise of Dottore 
Alessandro Torri, published at Florence in 1855 and 
-' N. & Q." lt S. ix. 202 ; xi. 516. 

H. J. FENNELL (Dublin). Application should be made 
to the booksellers for any serial now in course of publica- 
tion containing Narratives of Shipwrecks. 

W. H. B. (Manchester.) An Inquiry into the Consti- 
tution, Discipline, Unity, and Worship of the Primitive 
Church, 1712, is by Peter King, afterwards Lord C/ian- 
cellor. William Sclater, the nonjuror, replied to it, in his 
work The Original Draught of the Primitive Church, 

JAMES BRITTEN. Spy Wednesday (the Wednesday 
before Easter day} had its origin in the fact, that Judas 
made his compact with the Sanhedrim upon that day for 
the betrayal of our Blessed Saviour. 

CANTOR. The text prefixed to the 336th hymn in 
Hymns Ancient and Modern, is taken from Tobit, xiii, 18. 

ERRATA. 4 th S. x. p. 83, col. ii. line 15 from bottom, 
for " Moorgate " read " Newgate " ; p. 105, col. ii. line 
26 from bottom, for " Leattle " read " Seattle." 


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NOTES : French Verses on Death of Major Andre-, 141 
" The Cartulary of Cambuskenneth," 142 Theodore Hook, 
Ib. Francois' de la Noue, dit Bras de Per, 143 Shak- 
spere's Marriage Sydney Smith and Taxation Another 
Centenarian : Mrs. Truswell Notes on Fly-leaves 
Relic of the Penal Laws The Ballot, 143. 

QUERIES : Sotheron als. Southern, als. le Sureys : Mitton : 
Bayley:De Surdeval, vel. Sutton, 145 Adel Church, 
Yorkshire Old Altar-piece at Santa Croce, Florence 
Bible Plates Canoe Correct Date wanted Henry 
Durcy [Darcy?], Lord Mayor of London, 1338 "Don 
Francisco Sutorioso " John Felton Gustavus Adol- 
phns Heraldic Horoscope John Leland Locks 
containing Bells The English Maelor Mardol, Mythe, 
Birdlip, Cruckbarrow Porter and Steel Repairs of 
Government Buildings Sanders : Sandars Sheldon, 
Vernon, and Lee Families Joseph Thurston, &c. " True 
Nobility " Vaughaus, Earls of Carbery John Lord 
Wake, 146. 

REPLIES: Heads on London Bridge, 149-Thor Drinking 
up Esyl, 150 The Tontine of 1789, 151 " Old Bags," 152 

Napoleon at St. Helena, Ib. Cater-Cousiris Caglio- 
stro Biography Milton Queries Christian Names Red 
and Blue Costumes, &c. Ninon de 1'Enclos and Diane 
de Poictiers " La Belle Sauvage " The Permanence of 
Marks or Brands on Trees Foreign Inventories Lady 
Kitty Hyde St. Hilda and Rock Hall Bell Inscription 
Ley land and Penwortham Churches Symbolum Marise 

Draught = Move Persicaria Lairg, Largs, &c. 
Chatterton The Miserere of a Stall "What though 
beneath," &c. " Here pause ; these Graves," &c. Cen- 
tene of Lyng " Haha," &c., 153. 



A volume was published anonymously at Paris 

in 1828, entitled Les Memoires du Comte de M . . . . 

of which the author, as it appears by the contents, 

was an aide-de-camp to La Fayette during the 

American War of Independence. On searching 

for the authorship (see Les Frangais en Amcrique, 

Paris, 1S73, p. 15), it was supposed to be the 

Comte More de Pontgibaud, and his grand- 

nephew, the present chief of the fcnnily, authorised 

the authorship to be attributed to M. de Pontgi- 

baud. At p. 137 of these Memoires, which are 

very interesting, are to be found some verses con- 

cerning Mai or Andre", which show the profound 

sympathy felt by the French army for that un- 

fortunate young officer. I copy the lines and the 

observations with which the Cointe More de Pont- 

gibaud prefaces them. Of course the name of 

Sophie in the verses is fictitious, as it is well 

known that the lady to whom Major Andre was 

attached was Honoria Sneyd ; but as Major Andrd, 

in his well-known lines calls her Delia, 'the use of 

the name of Sophie may be considered a poetic 

license of the day. I note them as having refer- 

ence to a person who has always been an object of 

interest in modern history, and should be glad to 

be informed if they have appeared elsewhere, and 

if possible the name of the author. I should be 

inclined to suppose that M. de Pontgibaud was 
himself the author, because in a private letter his 
grand-nephew says : 

II avait ecrit sous le voile de Fanonyme diverges 
comedies qui furent represente'es sur les theatres de Paris. 
La finesse des allusions en rendit quelquefois la vogue 
tres-brillante. Mais il ne voulut jamais faire profession 
d'homme de lettres, pour ne pas de'roger au me'tier de 
1'homme de guerre. Aussi, disait-on malicieusement, 
qu'il y avait par ci, par la, des fusees qui ^clataient dans 
sa giberne." 

But besides his own disavowal, there is a hiatus 
in the verses which would have hardly occurred 
had he been the author. 

" Le major Andre appartenait & une famille de ban- 
quiers do Paris, dont plusieurs, je crois, s'e'taient etabli* 
en Angleterre, MM. Cottin.* II parait qu'on lui avait 
promis la main d'une jeune et belle personne s'il avancait 
dans la carriere militaire. Cette reunion de circon- 
stances avait rendu universel I'inte'ret qu'on lui portait 
jusques en France. V A mon arrived, pour renouveler la 
compassion que j'avais eprouvee de son sort, dont j'avais 
etc le temoin, je n'entendis chanter partout que cette 
romance historique, moins remarquable par le talent que 
par 1'interet dont elle etait le temoignage ; elle est tres- 
connue. Je ne la place pas dans mes souvenirs comme 
etant de moi, mais comme faisant e'poque ; car je n'aurais 
pas eu le coeur de la composer." 

Ciel ! 6 ciel ! quel supplice infame ! 
Ciel ! 6 ciel ! releve mon ame. 
Et vous, guerriers, amants, vrais juges de 1'honneur, 
J'ai voulu servir ma patrie, 
Et j'aspirais par ma valeur 
A meriter ma Sophie ; 
Donnez des pleurs a mon malheur, 
Rendez 1'e'clat a ma vie. 
Helas ! un jour me dit son pere 
' On t'aime et ta flamme m'est chere, 
Mais mon sang est illustre, et tu n'as pas d'ai'eux ; 
Fends les mers, vole a la victoire ; 
Reviens charge d'un nom fameux ; 
J'accorde tout h la gloire.' 
Sophie ajoute : ' Sois-heureux 
Et iidele a ma memoire.' 
' Plein d'honneur, brulant de courage, 
Imprudent, on Test a mon age, 

J'apprends que dans le caiup on demands un guerrier, 
Que la mort, que rien n'intimide. 

Devant moi, ma chore Sophie, 
Marchait ton image che'rie ; 
Du fantome brillant j'avancais entoure, 
L'amour, la gloire, la patrie, 
Me guidaient & 1'autel sacre 
Oil tu m'allais etre unie. 
Dieux ! quel voile affreux s'est tire' 
Sur une aussi belle vie. 
' Un gibet ! tout mon sang se glace. 
Je n'y a plus Ih, d'audace; 
Mon coeur a cette horreur n'e'tait pas prepare. 
Gruels ! sauvez-moi 1'infamie. 
Ah ! je meurs assez dechire ; 
Je meurs de Sophie adore, 
C'est perdre trois fois la vie ! 

* I think 

that the Cottin familv is of Lausanne in 



. X. AUGUST 24, 72, 

" Ose-je raoi pleurer, ma Sophie ? 
Non ! je ne crains pas, 1'infamie ; 
En signant mon arret, gen^reux Washington, 
Des pleurs ont baigne ton visage. 
La Fayette a sa nation 
Fera plaindre mon courage. 

Americains, Fra^ais 

J'aurai vos pleurs pour hommage." 



Thougli the number of copies is limited, n 
doubt many readers have seen this magnificen 
volume, lately presented by the Marquess of But 
to his fellow members of the Grampian Club. A 
was fitting in giving to the press the archives o 
a religious house which was the scene of not a 
few great historical events, the book contains an 
elaborate and interesting preface by the editor 
Mr. William Fraser of Edinburgh. In this, how- 
ever, there are (as is perhaps inevitable in a work 
of this kind) one or two errors which ought no 
to pass unnoticed. The first of these occurs a 
p. viii. of the Preface, where a description is given 
of the arms (beautifully illuminated between 
pp. x. and xi.) of Abbot Mylne and James Foulis 
of Colinton, the two officials principally concernec 
in the transcription of the original charters in the 
year 1535. Mr. Fraser is correct in regard to the 
Foulis arms, but he has made an extraordinary 
mistake in regard to the other shield which he 
calls that of Abbot Mylne. This, according to 
him, is " a shield resting on a cross, argent three 
cushions, 2 and 1, gules, and for crest a cross, with 
the motto on a scroll beneath, 'Confido.' " 

Now the remarkable point is, that although 
Alexander Mylne was an eminent personage in 
his day, having been the first President of the 
College of Justice in Scotland, when founded by 
James V. in 1532, his arms are unknown, and 
when it was desired to find them, in order to their 
being emblazoned in the new stained glass window 
in the Parliament House of Edinburgh some years 
ago, no trace of them could be found in the Lyon 
Office or anywhere else, and the abbot's effigy is 
simply ornamented by a mitre and initials. The 
truth is that the shield emblazoned in the MS. 
chartulary is that of Archbishop Gavin Dunbar, 
who was then the Lord Chancellor of Scotland, 
and of course even a higher official personage than 
Mylne. The three cushions within the double trea- 
sure, to which last Mr. Fraser has not drawn at- 
tention, are the well-known arms of the Dunbars 
(successors of Randolph), Earls of Moray, of 
which family the archbishop was a scion. If any 
additional proof were needed, it is afforded by the 
fact that what Mr. Fraser has called a " crest " is 
the head of a crosier, the emblem of an archbishop, 
on which ^ the shield is displayed, the pointed foot 
of which is shown distinctly at the bottom of the 

The second point is one of a nature relative 
to the byepaths of history, and a curious one. 
Mr. Fraser, in his account of the eminent states- 
man and scholar David Pantar, the twenty- 
seventh Abbot, afterwards Bishop of Ross (page 
xcviii. of Preface), styles him "son of David 
Pantar, the elder brother of Patrick Pantar, 
who has been noticed as Abbot of Cambusken- 
neth, and Margaret Crichtoun his wife, for- 
merly Countess of Rothes." This is indeed v 
strange mistake for Mr. Fraser in respect to two 
men of such eminence as these Pantars, who were 
the authors of the celebrated Epistolce Regum 
Scotorum. He has evidently followed Bishop 
Keith, who in his History (p. 114) makes the two- 
abbots uncle and nephew, while they were in 
reality father and son. This is proved by a docu- 
ment in 1539 (Privy Seal Register) confirming a 
previous legitimation in 1513, of Abbot David and 
his sister as the natural children of Abbot Patrick, 
the Royal Secretary of James IV. Who their 
mother may have been is quite another matter , 
but if she was Margaret, Countess of Rothes, she 
certainly could not have been married to Abbot 
Patrick, the undoubted parent of Abbot David. 
Mr. Fraser must have known these facts, but pos- 
sibly the authority on which they rest may not be 
held a trustworthy one by him. (RiddelPs Tracts 
on Scotch Peerage Law, $-c. 1833, pp. 191-2.) 
Still it would have been better to have stated it, 
and let readers form their own opinion. It is 
gratifying to notice that Mr. Fraser has the courage 
and good taste to defend this learned and eminent 
man David Pantar from the gross and foul 
aspersions of Knox, which, as he points out, pro- 
bably originated in religious malevolence. 



In that charming professional autobiography, 
which is one of the books of the season both from 
is authorship and the attractive scenes with which 
t deals The Recollections and Reflections of J. 
R. Planche, Somerset Herald I find the following 
mssage : 

" His fame as an improvisators is a matter of social 

ristory ; but I cannot refrain from giving one instance of 

iis powers which is as creditable to his heart as his 

head. There had been a large party at the house of 

ome mutual friends of ours and Hook's neighbours at 

Fulham. It was late, but many remained, and before 

eparating another song was requested of him. He was 

weary, and really suffering, but good-naturedly con- 

entedon condition that somebody suggested a subject No 

ne volunteering, he said, Well, I think the most proper 

ubject at this hour would be "Good Night"' And 

ccordingly he sat down to the piano, and sang several 

verses, each ending with Good Night,' composed with 

is usual facility, but lacking the fun and brilliancy 

ch had characterised his former effusions. Some 

ddity of expression, however, in the middle of one of his 

erses, elicited a ringing laugh from a fine handsome boy 

on of Captain the Hon. Montague Stopford, who was 

4* S. X. AUGUST 24, '72.] 



staying with his parents in the house, and who had 
planted himself close to the piano. Hook stopped short, 
looked at him admiringly for an instant, then, completing 
the verse, added with an intensity of expression I can 
never forget 

' You laugh ! and you are quite right, 
For yours is the dawn of the morning, 
And God send you a good night ! ' 

The effect was electrical, and brought tears into the eyes 
of more than one of the company, while cheer upon cheer 
arose in recognition of that charming and touching burst 
of feeling." 

Truly a most affecting incident. But turning 
to A Book of Memories by Mr. S. C. Hall, pub- 
lished, if I remember rightly, shortly before last 
Christmas, there is corroborative evidence and 
-something more that poor Hook, under all his 
brilliant superficiality, had a fountain of mingled 
pathos and moral disquietude in restrained play. 
Mr. Hall, who was also an eye-witness, writes : 

" There was a fair young boy standing by his side 
while he was singing ; one of the servants opened the 
drawing-room shutters, and a flood of light fell upon the 
lad's head. The effect was very touching, but it became 
a thousand times more so, as Hook, availing himself of 
the incident, placed his hand upon the youth's brow, and 
uttered a verse, of which I remember only the concluding 

* For you is the dawn of the morning, 
For me is the solemn good night.' 

He rose from the piano, burst into tears, and left the 
room. Few of those who were present ever saw him 

Having presented the two versions of the same 
story by two different experts to the notice of 
your readers, I naturally leave them to judge 
^hich is the superior. ROB. HOWIE SMITH. 



Born in 1531, he was killed in 1591 at the 
storming of Lamballe. They called him " of the 
iron arm " from his having lost a hand in an 
engagement, but likewise on account of his auda- 
cious valour. His two sons were christened the 
eldest by the name of Odet, after Odet de Chas- 
<fcillon, brother of the illustrious and ill-fated 
Admiral de Colligny ; the second, Theligny, after 
the noble son-in-law of the admiral, who, like him, 
was murdered on the atrocious St. Bartholomew's 

One is struck with admiration and respect in 
reading the life of this heroic Breton gentleman, 
p simple in his mode of life, so full of imagina- 
tion and eloquence, so tolerant, full of fortitude 
and Christian resignation during a long and cruel 
captivity of five years. Montaigne distinguishes, 
amongst the finest characters of his day 

" La constante bonte, douceur de moeurs et facilite* 
onscientieuse de Mons r de la None en une telle injustice 
de parts arm^s oil toujours il s'est nourri grand homme de 
guerre et tres- experiment^." 

De la Noue's was indeed " une ame frappe"e a 
la vieille marque." 

I have before me two autograph letters of his 
of political import, and an historical document 
relative to his being set at liberty. It is a dupli- 
cate, which had been sent to the staunch friend 
of Henry of Navarre Duplessis-Mornay, who 
wrote at the back : " Poincts de la Deliurance de 
M r de la Noue, 28 juin 1585," and is headed as 
follows : 

"Poincts et Articles ayant este respectiuement con- 
ditionnez promis, jures et acceptes entre Monss r Le P ce de 
Parme et de Plaisance (Alex r Farnese), L* Gouv r et 
Cap ne Gen 1 pour le Roy Catholique en Pays-Bas, etc., et 
le Seig r de la Noue sur sa deliuerance, en la forme et 
maniere qui s'ensuict." 

Then follow the very hard conditions De la 
Noue had to subscribe to, one of which, and not 
the least painful, was his having to give up as 
hostage " un sien fils qui luy reste," the other 
was " not dead, but gone before," in captivity. 

In a small pamphlet of the period Declaration 
de Monsieur de la Noue sur la prise des Armes, 
pour la iuste defence des Villes de Sedan et Jametx, 
etc., printed at Verdun by Mathurin Marchant, 
1588, De la Noue confirms his having previously 
taken the engagement : " Que je leur consignerois 
aussi mon second fils pour estre un an en ostage." 
This was Theligny, but Odet had also been taken 
prisoner, as we see in a fine long autograph letter 
of his, dated London, May 8, 1591 (shortly before 
his glorious father's death). It is addressed to 
the Vicomte de Tureune * ; he says : " Depuis ma 
sortie de prison vous n'auez eu qu'une de mes 
lettres " and again : ' ' Vous m'auez tousiours 
promis de parole bonne part en v re amitie et vous 
m'en auez fait de tres dignes preuues aussi quand 
1'occasion s'est presented, coinrw nagueres au traite 
de ma deliurance" 

I should like to know when and where he was 
a prisoner. P. A. L. 


" Rare Lymninee with us dothe make appere 
The marriage of Anne Hathaway with William Shake- 
spere. 15." 

I send you a photograph taken from a very old 
picture recently discovered showing the marriage 
of Shakespere. It being difficult to get a clear 
photograph in consequence of the age and rough, 
canvas, the photograph is partly painted in oils. 
The above writing, on the left-hand of the picture 
near the top corner, was invisible until the pic- 
ture was lined and cleaned. 

The two figures seen in the foreground seated 
close to the table I take to be Hathaway and his 

* Henri de La Tour d'Auvergne, who that same year 
became Duke of Bouillon and Prince of Sedan, by his 
marriage with Elizabeth de la Marck. 



. X. AUGUST 24, '72. 

wife, the parents of Anne Hathaway, weighing out 
the marriage portion for their daughter. As Hatha- 
way weighs in the scales the gold and silver on 
the table, his wife lets drop a link of the chain 
she holds in her right hand, each link marking each 
amount weighed ; and she points with her fore- 
finger in her left-hand to Hathaway that the gold 
and silver in the scales are marked off by another 
link. The keys of the gold and silver casket are 
fixed to the bottom of the chain. In the inner 
room, seen through the open doorway in the centre 
of the picture, is seen the marriage ceremony, the 
hands of Wm. Shakespere and Anne Hathaway 
being joined together by the priest standing be- 
tween them, the person behind Shakespere being 
no doubt a friend of his. 

The house in which the marriage took place I 
conclude to be Hathaway's from the various 
details painted in the two rooms the subjects of 
the paintings on the walls, the cabinet with statu- 
ary on the top of it, the tessellated pavement, the 
chair off which Hathaway is seated, and the 
green cloth with the fringe at the bottom of it, 
and on which the gold, silver, &c., are seen. 

It was in last May that this most interesting 
and valuable picture came into my possession, 
proving Shakespere'g marriage to have been a 
private ceremony. I purchased the picture from 
Mr. Holder, picture -restorer- here, who, after 
cleaning it, discovered the writing in the top 
corner of the left side of the picture. Mr. Holder 
bought the picture from Mr. Albert, 39, Museum 
Street, Bloomsbury, London, to whom it was sent 
for sale with three others ; and Mr. Albert has 
written to get information about the picture from 
the parties who sent them to him for sale. The 
size of the picture is twenty-two inches by eigh- 
teen inches. JOHN MALAM. 

Strada Villa, 1, West Street, Scarborough. 

\_If satisfactory evidence can be obtained of the genuine- 
ness of this picture, it would throw a new and startling 
light not only upon the condition of Shaksper* and Annf; 
Hathaway at the time of their marriage, but also, from the 
tesselated pavement and ancient cabinets, pictures, and 
sculptures which adorned the cottage of the Hathaways, 
upon social life in Warwickshire at that period ! ED. 
"N. &Q.] 

at p. 329 of Huish's Public and. Private Life of 
George III. I find the following : 

" A foreigner in a humorous manner gives this whim- 
sical statement of English taxation : ' In England the 
people are taxed in the morning for the soap that washes 
their hands ; at nine, for the coffee, the tea, and the sugar 
they use for breakfast ; at noon, for starch to powder 
their hair ; at dinner, for the salt to savour their meat, 
and for the beer they drink; after dinner, for the wine 
they drink ; in the evening, for the spirits to exhilarate ; 
all day long, for the light that enters their windows ; and 
at night, for the candles to light them to bed.' " 

This, I surmise, is the original of Sydney Smith's 
famous paragraph about the Englishman taxed 

from his cradle to his grave when he is gathered 
to his fathers to be taxed no more. The date of 
the foreign publication is not given, but the allu- 
sion to starch for the hair as common leads me to 
put it in the last century, as I think starch and 
its concomitant hair-powder were discarded in 
1793 by Queen Charlotte and the royal family, in 
consequence of which they disappeared from the 
ordinary toilet-table". Huish's book before me is 
of the edition 1821. W. T. M. 

Shinfield Grove. 

The enclosed slip, cut from a local paper, I have 
authenticated by referring to Mr. Grimmer, the 
old lady's grandson, whose office of registrar of 
births renders his testimony the more reliable: 

" A CENTENARIAN. There is at the present time an old 
lady living at Egmanton, near Tuxford, ' Ann Truswell,' 
who attained the ripe old age of 100 years on Wednesday, 
the 17th inst. She was born on the 17th of July, 1772, 
and has occupied the house she now lives in for upwards 
of seventy years. The old lady has seven daughters and 
one son living, the eldest being seventy-five years of age, 
her children, grandchildren, and great, great grand- 
children numbering somewhere over 170. Mr. Thomas 
Grimmer, of Retford, registrar of births and deaths for 
the Eetford district, is one of her grandchildren, and 
the old veteran lady actually in November last walked 
from Egmanton to Tuxford station, a distance of near 
upon three miles, and afterwards walked home again. 
Her faculties are remarkably good, and her eyesight such 
that she is enabled to read the newspaper without the aid 
of glasses. She usually rises about six in the morning, 
attends to her little household duties, and afterwards sits 
down and reads her bible, &c., and then enjoys her pipe 
with a hearty zest. Fortunately, although she has 
several teeth, she neither suffers from toothache or head- 
ache. The lion. Lumley Saville, of Rufford Abbey, gave 
the villagers a treat on her 100th birthday." 

The following is the letter I have received from 

" East Retford, August 1, 1872. 

" Rev. Sir, lam very glad to be able to confirm as a fact 
what you have seen in the paper, that my grandmother is 
now over 100 years of age. She is my mother's mother, 
and was born and baptised at TuxfoTd, in this county, her 
father's and mother's names being Edward and Grace 
Berrand ; she was married before she was twenty. We 
are going to try and raise a meeting of all her relations, 
some of whom she has never seen. Any other informa- 
tion I shall be glad to give, and am, Rev. Sir, 
" Your obedient servant, 

" T. GRIMMER, Registrar, &c. 

" I forgot to say grandmother was born on July 17, 

" Rev. E. L. Blenkinsopp, 
The Rectory, Springthorpe." 


[Mrs. Truswell is probably a hundred, but there is no 
evidence that she is so. There is no baptismal certificate 
of Ann Berrand no proof of the identity of Ann Ber- 
rand and the present Ann Truswell. ED/" X. & Q."] 

NOTES ON FLY-LEAVES. Written in a copy of 
Bay's Philosophical Letters, 1718, I find the fol- 
lowing : 

4 th S.X. AUGUST 24, '72.] 



An Acrostick. 

" F ree from all cares here I sit and I read, 
R ather for pleasure than profit or need ; 
A nd when I am tir'd I walk in the field, 
N o pastime like this such comfort do's yield. 
C ontent in my station, I thus spend my time, 
I n which, as I' think, there can be no crime : 
S ome men for Riches may spend all their Days ; 
S ome men for Honours, and others for praise. 
M uch good may it do 'm, such trifles I hate, 
Y et to my Foes, I wish them that State. 
T ho' it is a wish, I know not a Worse ; 
H e that enjoys 'em, enjoys but a curse. 


It is in old writing, and I should think must 
have been written shortly after the publication of 
the work. L. J. NORMAN. 

cutting from the Leeds Mercury of August 3 is 
worth a corner in " N. Q." : 

"An interesting application to the Land Tax Commis- 
si^mers for the Wapentake of Claro, sitting at Knaresbro', 
was made on Monday by Mr. S. E. Maskell (of the firm 
of Constable and Maskell, solicitors, Otley) on behalf of 
Mr. William Middelton, of Stockeld Park and of Myd- 
delton Lodge, for relief from a double assessment of land 
tax upon the manors and estates of Myddelton and 
Stockeld. The following facts appeared from Mr. Mas- 
kell's statement : The first imposition of land tax in its 
present form was imposed in the year 1692, when a tax 
of 4s. in the pound upon the annual value of lands was 
directed by Act of Parliament to be imposed. And it 
was enacted that the estates of ' Papists ' refusing to take 
the oaths of supremacy should be doubly assessed, and in 
every subsequent year down to 1794 similar taxes were 
imposed by annual statutes, estates held by Roman Cath- 
olics being alwaj's doubly taxed. In 1715 was passed a 
statute whereby, in order probably that the estates of 
Roman Catholics might not escape the taxes specially 
imposed upon them, Roman Catholics were compelled, on 
pain of forfeiture, to register their names and estates with 
the clerks of the peace of their county, and in 1717 they 
were further compelled to enrol all deeds and wills passing 
lands held by them in one of the superior courts at West- 
minster. These enactments remained in force till 1791. 
In 1794 the annual land tax statute for that year pro- 
fessed to relieve Roman Catholics from the double tax, 
but contained no adequate provision for the purpose, and 
Roman Catholics continued to be subject without redress 
to the double or 'Papist' tax until the year 1831. In 
that year an Act was passed whereby the Land Tax 
Commissioners were empowered, upon proof that estates 
were still charged with double tax, and that they had 
been continuously held by Catholics, and duly registered 
under the Act of 1715, to discharge the estates from the 
double assessment. In pursuance of the Act of 1831, 
Mr. Middelton complained that his estates were still 
paying double tax, and in support of the complaint it 
was shown by documentary evidence, much of which was 
of great historical and antiquarian interest and value, that 
the Middelton family was among the most ancient in 
the kingdom, their descent being traced in an unbroken 
line to Hipolitus Brayme, in the reign of Henry II., and 
that the Myddelton and Stockeld estates had been held 
by them since the time of Sir Adam de Middelton, who 
flourished in the reign of King Edward I., and whose 
monument in Ilkley Church is well known. It was also 
proved that the Middeltons had always remained staunch 
adherents to the Roman Catholic religion, and several 

records were produced from the family muniments of 
fines, sequestrations, and other penalties suffered by the 
Middeltons under the rigour of the Penal Laws. The 
formal proof required by the Act of 1831 having also been 
put in, and it having been shown by comparisons between 
rateable values and otlfcrwise that the land-tax paid 
bv the estates in question were actually double that paid 
by surrounding townships, the Commissioners (Mr. B. 
Woodd, chairman) without hesitation held that the case 
been proved, and that Mr. Middelton was entitled to the 
relief he claimed." 

K. P. D. E. 

THE BALLOT. Now that we have btained the 
inestimable privilege of voting by ballot, it may 
be interesting to recall what James Harrington 
has to say about the expenses of that glorious 
institution, worked as he would have had it work. 
In the first edition of his Oceana, published in 
1656, and dedicated to His Highness Oliver, he 
describes (at p. 69) how the people of his ideal 
Commonwealth came together to vote in a wide 
plain, wherein were pavilions builded, and before 
each pavilion three urnes for the ballot : " horse- 
urnes " for horsemen to vote without dismount- 
ing, and " foot-urnes " for footmen ; and how the 
surveyors "returned to the Lord Archon with this 
Accompt of the charge" of that august cere- 
monial : 
" Imprimis, Urns, Balls, and Balloting 

Boxes for ten thousand Parishes, the L s. 
same being woodden ware . . . 20,000 

Item, provision of like kind for a thou- 
sand Hundreds ..... 3,000 

Item, Urns and Balls of Metall, v;ith Bal- 
lotting Boxes for Fifty Tribes . . 2,000 

Item, for erecting of Fifty Pavilions . 60,000 

Item, Wages for Four Surveyors-Gene- 
ral, at 1000/. a man " 4,000 . 

Item, Wages for the rest of the Surveyors, 
being 1000, at 250Z. a man . . . 250,000 

SumTotall . . . 339,000 0" 
James Harrington adds, in effect, that some 
people of Oceana thought this total rather large. 
But he does not, I think, say that he himself 
thinks so. Let us -hope that the simple and modest 
requirements of that great statute which received 
Her Majesty's assent on July 18, 1872, may be 
" screened from observation" (vide s. 16), at a 
rate not much higher than the above. 



a. In the account of Mitton, co. York, in Whit- 
taker's Craven, allusion is made to the family of 
Sotheron, ah. Southern, als. le Sureys, Lords of 
Mitton, temp. Edw. II. Rich. II. ; also in Whit- 
taker's Whalley, as well as in his Craven, to the 



[4* S. X. AUGUST 24, '72. 

Mittons and Bayleys, who were former Lords of 
Mitton and Bayley respectively. I should be glad 
of further information of these three families than 
is to be found in the above-named works, and 
also to learn whether a descent can be proved of 
Sotheron from Mitton ? It has been supposed the 
two are identical, which is very probable, owing 
to their tenure of the same manor. I should 
point out the strong resemblance between the 
ancient arms of Sotherne, Mitton, and Bayley, the 
eagle being the principal charge on each : 1. 
Sotherne, " Gules on a bend argent, three eaglets 
displayed sable." This is described by Sir Wil- 
liam Segar, Garter, A.D. 1628, in the grant of 
Sotherne crest (" an eagle displayed, &c/'), as 
"Coat Arms," which the family "doe beare 
from theire generous ancestors." ( Vide Howard's 
Miscellanea Genealogica et Heraldica, Monthly 
Series, vol. i. p. 217.) 2. Mitton, " per pale az. et 
purp. an eagle displayed with two heads, arg." 3. 
Bayley, " vert, an eagle displayed, arg." It is also 
believed that the Sotherons of Mitton were the 
progenitors of the various branches of the names 
seated in the adjoining counties of Shropshire and 
Lancashire. There can be but little doubt that if 
this be not actually the case, that there must 
have been a very strong family connection from 
the fact that one Thomas Sothern of Newport 
in Shropshire, who was living there at an early 
period, confirmed all his lands and messuages in 
Chipping in Lancashire, and Bolland in Yorkshire, 
to Thomas Mawdesley, Rector of Chipping, as a 
provision for the chantry priest of Chipping. 
Mitton, Bolland, and Chipping are adjacent, and 
only divided by the Eibble. 

I am aware of the alliance of Isabel, the daughter 
of Sir John Sotheron, Knight, Lord of Mitton, 
with Walter Hawkesworth of Hawkesworth, co. 
York, Esq., given in Thoresby's pedigree of the 
Hawkesworths ; of the Sherburne of Stonyhurst 
descent from Bayley, and consequently from Mit- 
ton, in Baines's Lancashire, and Whittaker's 
Whalley ; and of Aleisa Mitton's will in Raine's 
Testamenta .Eboracensia. As to this last, Mr. 
Raine states that but very little is known "of the 
ancient house of Myton of My ton," and that the 
will of Aleisa Myton (dated April 16, 1440), 
" makes no addition to our scanty stock of in- 
formation." He believes she was a daughter of 
" John Aske of Ousethorpe, Esq., the Seneschal 
of the Bishop of Durham for Howdenshire, who 
died in 1397," from her will being "made at 
Aughton, the then residence of the family of 
Aske," and likewise from several Askes being 
mentioned in it. 

b. According to Dugdale's Monasticon Angli- 
canum, Byland and Rievaulx Abbeys, in York- 
shire, were both greatly indebted to the generosity 
of early benefactors, who were members of the 
house of de Surdeval, vel Sutton of Ampleforth, 

co. York. What is known further of this family, 
which apparently from their gifts of land must 
have been of considerable local importance ? 

BYLAND. " In Ampleford one cavucate of land given 
by William, the son of Huicte, with other lands there 
given by William de Surdeval, Roger the son of William, 
de Surdeval, and Ralph de Surdeval." 

RIEVAULX. "Alan de Surdevalle confirmed the grant of 
Robert his brother, of common pasture for three hundred 
sheep in the territory of Bothlum .... William, son of 
William, Peter Rabbas, aud Julian de Sutton heirs of 
Robert de Surdevale, their uncle, confirmed the grants of 
the said Robert of lands in Nagolton, alias Nalton. He 
also gave common pasture of three carucates here, as 
described by the boundaries, for three hundred sheep ; 
and also common of pasture in Bothlum, with free egress 
and regress, from their sheepfold of Schirpnum to the 
said pasture as far as their land continued." 

In the calendar of the Rievaulx chartulary men- 
tioned amongst the Cottonian manuscripts are : 

" 87. Carta Roberti de Surdeval. 

" 125. Carta Petri de Surdevall et Willielmi fratris 
ejus de Theokemarais." i 

The meagre accounts of the early history of 
Ampleforth, in Gill's Vallis Eboracensis and the 
other published authorities, take no notice of 
this family. Are the historical manuscripts of 
Dodsworth, Hutton, Torre, Hopkinson, Brooke, 
De la Pryme, Johnstone, and the other Yorkshire 
collections likewise silent ? 

Particulars as to the foregoing, forwarded to me 
at the address below, will be most acceptable and 
thankfully acknowledged. CHARLES SOTHERAN. 

6, Meadow Street, Moss Side, near Manchester. 

London News of Jan. 1, 1870, under the heading 
"Archaeology of the Month," has the following 
notice : 

" Mr. D. Waite has taken seven photographs of sculp- 
tured stones discovered in the foundations of Adel Church, 
Yorkshire, which seem to have some Pagan character- 

Will any one who has seen these kindly favour 
me with an accurate description of the symbols or 
" characteristics " which are considered " pagan " ? 
Judging from portions of the structure which I have 
seen, Adel Church, if I remember rightly, was of 
the style of architecture known as the Roman- 
esque, or debased Roman of the Norman period. 


Can any obliging correspondent say whether the 
panel-pictures, by Ugolino da Siena, which con- 
stituted the altar-piece in Santa Croce, and were 
formerly in the Ottley collection, have been en- 
graved or described in detail ? 


Kelly Street, Kentish Town. 

[Some notices of Ugolino's altar-piece at Santa Croce 
will be found in Vasari, Lives of the Painters, -c., edit. 
1850, i. 138, 139 ; Waagen, Treasures of Art, edit. 1854, 
ii. 461 ; iii. 374; and Supplement, p. 285.] 

4*h S . X. AUGUST 24, 72.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


BIBLE PLATES. I have lately met with a vol- 
ume of Bible plates in the style of Callot. The 
volume itself is small 4to, without any title or 
text, and appears to be large paper, as the en- 
graved portion measures about three by two and 
a quarter inches. The only indication of an 
engraver's name is t( P. De Vel. fc." I cannot 
find it in Bryan, and shall be glad of any ipfor- 
mation on the subject. A. H. BATES. 


CANOE. About the j T ear 1843, a canoe of great 
size was found in Deeping Fen, Lincolnshire. Can 
any one oblige me with particulars of this ancient 
war vessel, its size, &c. ? A paragraph in the 
Stamford Mercury gave all necessary information 
on the matter, but this 1 cannot lay my hands on 
just now. EGAE. 

' CORRECT DATE WANTED. William, third Earl 
of Ulster, is stated to have died in 1333, leaving 
an only daughter the Lady Elizabeth de Burgh 
born in 1332. This great heiress was brought up 
in the family of King Edward III., and early 
betrothed to her distant cousin Lionel, the king's 
fourth son, who, being born in 1338, was six years 
her junior. Mrs. Green, in her Lives of the Prin- 
cesses, states that the wedding took place' in 1359 ; 
but as the young couple had a daughter born in 
1355, that date can hardly be accepted, although 
several quotations and references are given in its 
support. Others state that the wedding took 
place in 1352, but the groom was then only four- 
teen ; and, even by this reckoning, the putative 
father would be but seventeen at his daughter's 
birth. What are the correct dates ? A. H. 

LONDON, 1338. I find in the valuable collection 
of a friend the engraved arms of this individual, 
which consist in the lower part of the shield of 
an eagle displayed. In the chief are the letters 
"I. 0. M. I. S.," which a MS. note by some un- 
known scribe explains: f( Jovi Optimo Maximo 
Inimortali Sacra." The heraldical lines to dis- 
tinguish the colours are not given. From whence 
are the above letters derived? Are there other 
examples of capital or initial letters in the shields 
of private personages ? Such things are common 
enough in the arms of towns, cities, and episcopal 
sees. I have numerous examples. N. 

"DoN FRANCISCO STJTORIOSO," a poem. London, 
printed for H. Hills, 1710, 8vo, pp. 24. ' Who is 
the person satirized ? SENNOKE. 

JOHN FELTON, the murderer of the Duke of 
Buckingham, was probably of the same family as 
the Feltons of Playford, in Suffolk. But is there 
any authority for the statement (Smythe's Wor- 
thies of England, p. 32) that he had an hereditary 
morbid predisposition, being the grandson of that 
Felton who, in 1570, had affixed to the palace 

gates of the Bishop of London the Pope's bull of 
excommunication against Elizabeth ? 


GTJSTAVTJS ADOLPHUS was joined by many Eng- 
lish and Scottish officers, who were glad to learn 
the art of war in so excellent a schpol. After 
their numbers had been somewhat reduced he 
combined them (writes Harte) into one brigade. 
" There is reason to think " (adds the same writer) 
" that this brigade was one of the finest bodies of 
troops that ever appeared in the military world." 
(Harte's Gustavus Adolphus, ii. 153.) But I do 
not find that Harte gives any list of the English 
volunteers, and I should be glad to be informed 
where their names are to be found. J. G. N. 

HERALDIC. Is there any printed or MS. autho- 
rity giving the arms of the sheriffs of London, 
from the earliest times ? Also, is there any record 
of those who bore coat armour at the battle of 
Agincourt, with a list of arms ? TOPOGRAPHER. 

[For the arms of the sheriffs of London see Harleian 
MS., No. 1349, fol. 55, &c. Those to 11 James I. in the 
College of Arms, Philipot MS. 22, Pb. See also Fuller's 
Worthies, art. "London." Harl. MS. 782, pp.49, 72, 
contains a list of the knights made at the battle of Agin- 
court, with the names of the dukes, earls, barons, knights, 
esquires, &c., who accompanied Henry V. Consult also 
Nicolas's History of the Battle of Agincourt, edit. 1832, 
pp. 332-389.] 

HOROSCOPE. Can any one inform me where the 
following story is published? A gentleman in 
Edinburgh had his horoscope cast. His future was 
foretold briefly thus That at a certain hour on a 
certain day (as far as I remember), within one 
year from that time, that he would die at the feet 
of a certain statue in Rome. * As the time drew 
nigh he resolved to go there, and subsequently 
on the appointed day and hour sat down calmly 
prepared to undergo the fate foretold to him ; but 
the hour passed, and he went away, having for the 
future less faith in horoscopes. E. S. 

JOHN LELAND. Can any of your readers give 
me the date of John Leland's (the father of Eng- 
lish antiquaries) birth ? WM. WEIGHT. 

31, Pepler Road, Old Kent Road. 

[Messrs. Cooper (Athence Cantalrigienses, i. 110) state, 
that " John Leland was born in London in the month of 
September. The year is unknown, but it was probably 

August 9, in a report of the proceedings of the 
British Archaeological Association at Wolver- 
hampton, it is stated that a paper was read in the 
Town Hall by Mr. J. C. Tildesley, " On the earlier 
Industries of Staffordshire," in which, among 
other matters, the author showed that " lock- 
making was a recognised industry in "Wolyer- 
hampton .... at the commencement of the six- 
teenth century Miniature locks for cabinets; 

locks containing bells (like the one mentioned in 



.X.AUGUST 24,72. 

the Odyssey, 21), and locks for bridles for scojding 
women, were among 1 the curiosities of the craft at 
that time." Now the only passage in the twenty- 
first book of the Odyssey about a lock occurs in 
lines 46-50, viz. : 

At'TiV up' rjy J Ijjiavra Qous cnreAucre Kopcovris, 
'Ev 5e /cA7j?5' r/tfe, Bvptuv 8' aveKoirrev ox^ay, 

rjure ravpos 
a Bvperpa 
8e ol 3>nx. 

"Then quickly she unloosed the handle's latchet, 
And with straightforward aim thrust in the key, 
And struck the door-bolts back ; whereat the door 
With loud noise creaked again, like a bull bellowing 
At pasture in a meadow ; yea, so loud, 
When smitten by the key, the good dour creaked 
And opened quickly to her." 

I should be glad to learn whether any different 
reading of the above Greek lines is known, such 
as to convey an idea of bells being contained in 
the lock. T. S. NOEGATE. 

Sparham Rectory, Xorwich. 

THE ENGLISH MAELOR. I should be much 
obliged if any readers of " N. & Q." would give 
me the names of books which throw light on the 
early history of this debateable ground. From 
the number of moated sites of houses still remain- 
ing, it would seem to have been once held by 
many families of importance. H. 

Wanted, the etymology of the following words: 
Mardol, a part of Shrewsbury ; the My the, a hill 
near Tewkesbury, overhanging the Severn ; Bird- 
lip, a hill of the' Cotswold range, six miles from 
Cheltenham ; Cruckbarrow, a place in Worcester- 
shire. H. S. SKIPTON. 

POETEK AND STEEL. Have the lives of these 
Nonconformist divines been published ? Thomas 
Porter, who died at Shrewsbuiy in 1667, had 
been minister of Hanmer and of Whitchurch. 
Richard Steel succeeded him at Hanmer, and re- 
signed in 1662. Are any descendants of either of 
the above now living ? H. 

[There is an extended account of the Rev. Richard 
Steel, M.A., in Wilson's History of Dissenting Churches, 
ii. 448-457. The Rev. George Hamond preached his 
Funeral Sermon, which contains a list of his works.] 

what office were the estimates, accounts, and 
books of repairs executed on account of govern- 
ment buildings deposited from 1660 to 1760, and 
have they been transferred to the Public Record 
Office ? The object of my inquiry is to ascertain 
the nature of the repairs and alterations of the 
Government House at Portsmouth (previously a 
portion of the old Domus Dei or hospital of St. 
Nicholas) from about 1720 to 1760. M. 

SANDERS : SANDAES. How is it persons are 
spelling Sanders or Saunders with an a San- 

drs instead of an e, and at the same time taking 
the arms and crest of the Sanders of Charlwood 
and Ewell, one of the oldest Saxon families in the 
county of Surrey ? C. S. B. 

any reader of " N. & Q." tell me anything of the 
antecedents of William Sheldon, who was born 
in Wilts about 1763, and who married Anne, 
daughter of William Vernon, about 1790-4, after 
which they went to America ? Also, of the ante- 
cedents of William Vernon, the father of Anne, 
who is said to have come from Derbyshire, but at 
the time of his daughter's marriage lived in the 
parish of Marylebone. Who was William Ver- 
non, who had a military warehouse in Charing 
Cross from 1793 to 1827, and whose sons carried 
on the business till 1839 ? 

I want to find out the antecedents of Lee Seymour, 
daughter of John and Sarah Seymour of Stratton, 
Cornwall. William Sheldon returned to London 
and died in 1822. He had half-brothers of the 
name of Lee. One of these was Richard Lee, who 
is said to have held a government appointment. 
There were a Richard and Edward Lee of the 
Levant Company, living in Old Broad Street, and 
St. Helen's Place, City, in 1821 ; and there was 
a Richard Lee, who died at Beech Hill, Hants, 
1835. Any information on the above will be 
thankfully received by H. BRIDGE. 

136, Gower Street, N.W. 

JOSEPH THURSTON, ETC. Can any one give me 
information of the authors of the following 
works ? 

Poems on several Occasions, in which are included 
" The Toilette, and The Fall." By Joseph Thurston, Gent. 
Printed in London by Motte and Bathurst, at the Middle 
Temple Gate, Fleet Street, 1737. 

[Died on Dec. 23, 1732, Joseph Thurston, Esq., of the 
Inner Temple, author of the poem called The Toilette. 
Historical Register, xviii. Chron. Diary, p. 5.] 

The Revelations of a Dead-alive. Simpkin and Mar- 
shall, 1824. 

S. W. T. 

" TRUE NOBILITY." In an old engraved sheet, 
entitled " A Type of Trew Nobility, or y e Armes 
jf a Xptian* Emblazoned," I find the following 
lines at the foot. By whom were they composed? 
My copy is verbatim et literatim : 

'' Though our Earthe's Gentry vaunt herf self so good, 
Gevinge Coat Armes for all y e World to gaze on 
Christ's bloud alone, makes Gentlenes of Bloud 

His shameful! passion yealds y e fairest Blazon 
For hee's of Auncyent'st*& of best behaviour, 
Whose Auncestry and Armes are fro' his Saviour." 

VIATOR (1). 

* Why is the p introduced here ? Is it a blunder of 
the engraver ? 
f Should not " her " be their or them ? but if so, why 

is "se^f" in the singular ? 



your readers tell me the intermediate generations i 
between Eineon Efell and Hugh Vaughan, in the ' 
pedigree of the Vaughans, Earls of Carbery, of i 

Ecclesfield, Sheffield. 

[The following names successivel}' appear in the pedigree 
as given in Lewys Dwnn's Heraldic Visitations of Wales, 
ed. 1846, i. 213, and in Robert Vaughan's British Anti- 
ynlties Revived, ed. 1662, p. 43 : Einion Evell. Run. 
Kyhelyn. levaf. Madog Koch. Madog Kyffin. David. 
David" Vaughan. Gruffyd (Griffith). Hugh Vaughan.] 

JOHN LORD WAKE. Can any one furnish par- 
ticulars as to the wife of John, Lord Wake, who 
died 28 Edward I. Thomas their son married 
Blanche of Lancaster; Mary, the daughter, mar- 
ried Edward Earl of Kent. The lady is described 
as ft Joane,' ' and she obtained permission to hold a 
market at Deeping, Lincolnshire, after the baron's 
death : of what family was she ? A. H. 

(4 th S. x. 67.) 

For nearly three centuries the eyes of the pas- 
sengers in this locality were constantly offended 
by the sight of human heads upon poles, black, 
nnd rotting in the sun. They were originally 
placed over the gate at the City, or north end of 
the bridge ; but in 1577 the site was altered to 
the drawbridge at the Southwark entrance to the 
bridge, thence called " Traitors' Gate." It is not 
commonly known that the heads of many of the 
regicides were exposed here ; but the fact is proved 
from the Voyages de Mans, cle Monconys (Lyons, 
1695, ii. 14), where, speaking of London Bridge, 
he says : 

" At the other extremity of the Bridge, above the 
towers of a Castle, are many of the heads of the mur- 
derers of King Charles." 

This old gate and drawbridge was burnt in the 
fire which consumed about sixty houses on the 
bridge in 1726. The author of the Chronicles of 
London Bridye (who quotes the passage in Mon- 
conys just alluded to) says : 

" I imagine that, upon the removal of the old gate, 
this custom of erecting the heads of traitors there was 
discontinued, as I find no subsequent notice of it ; and 
the last heads which probably were placed upon its 
tower^ are said to have been those of the regicides in 

A later instance, however, occurs in the case 
of one William Stayley, who was executed for 
high treason in 1678, and his head placed upon 
London Bridge. 

In the days of Charles II. Temple Bar became 
the modern "Traitors' Gate." The first actual 
tenant of the new locality was Sir Thomas Arm- 
strong, who was executed at Tyburn, Jan. 20, 

1684, for participation in Monmouth's rebellion. 
His head was set up on Westminster Hall, and 
upon Temple Bar was spiked one of his quarters. 
In 1696 the head of Sir William Perkins, another 
" plotter," was placed on Temple Bar; and the 
Pretender's rash proceedings of 1715 added a 
head or two to the collection. "Counsellor 
Layer's head " (who suffered in 1723) was long 
known as an "old inhabitant" of the Bar, until 
one stormy night it was blown down into the 
street below. The heads of the Jacobites, who 
suffered in 1745 were placed here. On Aug. 16, 
1746, Horace Walpole writes : 

" I have been this morning at the Tower, and passed 
under the new heads at Temple Bar, where people make 
trade of letting spyglasses at a halfpenny a look." 

Mr. Green's picture in the Royal Academy has 
been painted in mistake, as the heads of the 
Jacobites were not exhibited upon London Bridge, 
but upon Temple Bar. Referring to the catalogue 
of the Academy (No. 1081) I have discovered 
the source of Mr. Green's blunder. He gives the 
following extract from Hentzner's Journey : 

" London Bridge is covered on each side with houses, 
so disposed as to have the .appearance of a continued 
street. Upon this is built a tower, on whose top the 
heads of such as have been executed for high treason are 
placed upon iron spikes." Paul Hentzner's Journey into 
England, 1757 [stcj." 

Not knowing that Paul Hentzner travelled in 
England at the end of the sixteenth century, he 
copied the date of Walpole's publication of the 
Journey, and concluded that the mention of heads 
on the bridge in 1757 was sufficient to warrant 
their being in the same locality in 1745. By this 
mistake Mr. Green has rendered his picture his- 
torically worthless. EDWARD F. RIMBATJLT. 

There is a tract in the British Museum (515, 
1. 2, No. 21) describing the execution of William 
Stayley, who was found guilty of high treason 
Nov. 21, 1678, and sentenced to be drawn on a 
sledge, executed, and quartered ; his bowels to be 
burnt and his head set on London Bridge, and his 
quarters on the City Gates. On the 26th the 
sentence was carried out, and his quarters left at 
Newgate; but he having behaved very penitent, 
and his friends having prayed the king to grant 
them his remains, the prayer was granted. No 
sooner did they obtain them, than, they set about 
having mass said, and other Romish ceremonies 
performed, finishing with a pompous funeral from 
his father's house to the church of St. Paul, 
Covent Garden. Of course, the king was dis- 
pleased at this exhibition, and ordered the coroner 
of Westminster to take up the quarters from the 
churchyard; and the coffin being broken open, 
the sheriffs were directed to carry out the original 

Any further notes relating to the London 
Bridge "Traitors' Gate," in the reign of Charles II., 



X. AUGUST 24, 72. 

would prove of interest. Thomson's Chronicles 
do not mention Stayley. Temple Bar, "The 
Modern Traitors' Gate/' was first adorned with 
a traitor's head in 1684 that of Sir Thomas Arm- 
strong, one of the Eye House conspirators. See 
a complete list in my Memorials of Temple Bar 
(pp. 58-67) recently published. T. 0. NOBLE. 

(4 th S. x. 108.) 

It seems to me that to connect the word eisel 
(or esil) in the phrase of Shakespeare with 
an Anglo-Saxon word meaning " vinegar " in- 
troduces a ludicrous bathos. There may be 
a word like in sound to esil, meaning vinegar, 
which I am told is found in Chaucer and Skel- 
ton (where ?). Let it then be left to its pro- 
per place, and not dragged in by the ears for 
the purpose of illustrating, but with the result 
(as I take it) of debasing our author. Hamlet is 
wild and reckless with grief, love, and remorse, 
and dares Laertes to some possible and furious 
deeds, and some equally furious, but impossible. 
Take the first three lines of his speech : 
"'Zounds, show me what thou'lt do : 

Wou'lt weep? wou'lt fight? wou'lt fast? wou'lt tear 
thyself ? 

Wou'lt drink up * Esil ? eat a crocodile ? 

I'll do't." 

Here we have a climax culminating in line 
three. If esil means vinegar, the steps of the 
climax are quite spoilt, for to drink up vinegar 
is a childish silly deed compared with weeping, 
fighting, fasting, or l( tearing thyself." If we had 
would drink up hemlock or henbane, it would be 
a great improvement on l( vinegar," yet it would 
seem out of place here. We must bear in mind 
that a crocodile was an animal of unknown power 
and strange report alike to Hamlet and the audi- 
ence. It did not sound ludicrous and familiar to 
men's ears then, as it does now. Certainly I will 
not deny that something can be said in favour of 
explaining the word as l( vinegar." Sonnet cxi. 
may fairly be quoted : 

" Whilst, like a willing patient, I will drink 

Potions of eysell 'gainst my strong infection." 
Here certainly the explanation of " eysell " as 
vinegar seems to be right. Certainly here no river 
is meant, but rather a " desperate drink." Aysell 
was one of the ingredients of the bitter drink 
given to Christ on the cross, but it must not be 
strictly confined to vinegar, for the nature of that 
draught is a disputed point. I am informed that 
these words are to be found in the Salisbury 
Primer, 1555 (8th Prayer of 15th Oos ; whatever 
that may be) 

* " Drink up " is a term that suits a river or any large 
quantity of water well. Speaking of vinegar, 'surely 
" drink " simply is more natural ? 

" Blessed Jesu ! sweetness of heart and ghostly plea- 
sure of souls, I beseech thee for the bitterness of the aysett 
and gall that thou tasted," &c. 

Esil no doubt once was a term for vinegar, as 
can be seen from Promptorium Parvulorum (4to r 
1514, Wynkyn de Worde), or Ortus Vocabulor. 
4to, 1514. Here we quote Mr. Caldecott: 

"Yet though this was the use of the word (= vinegar) 
as low as Shakespeare's day, it is not to be conceived, 
that even in his rant a madman could propose to drink 
up all vinegar or all water. It was indeed his purpose to 
rant, to propose something wild and extravagant some- 
thing not practicable ; but still not anything so absurd 
as well as impossible, that even the most perverted un- 
derstanding must revolt at it. He therefore dares Laertes 
to the deed of Xerxes' myriads, the drinking up of a 
large river; and then a monstrous inhabitant of a river 
a crocodile naturally presents itself to his mind." 

What river then is meant by Esil ? Probably 
the Yssel of Over-Yssel, which flows into the 
Zuyder-Zee. Under the form Issell or Izel I am 
informed the river is to be met with "in Stow 
and Drayton." The Weissel is another candidate 
for notice. This river,* alias the Vistula, is the 
largest that flows into the Baltic ; and moreover 
(King Alfred's "Anglo-Saxon Version of Orosius" 
printed with Ingram's Lecture on the Saxon Lan- 
(juage, 4to, 1808) the country from Pomerania to 
the Frisch-Haff was once subject to Denmark^ 
therefore it is conjectured the river was familiar 
to Hamlet. Good, that may be ; but probably it 
was by no means familiar to Shakespeare. 

Z. Jackson (Shakespeare's Genius Justified* 
Major, Svo, 1819, p. 358, 14s.) would read Nile 
[or rather NisleJ t with Sir T. Hanmer : 

" Nile," he says, " was formerly spelt Nisle, which the 
reader to the transcriber sounded Nis-le [ = Nis-sel ?], or 
if the dot was not over the i, taking it for an e, he said' 
Nees-le [Nees-il ?]. As the emphasis was stronger on the 
e than the N, the JVgot lost, and the transcriber wrote 
[and heard] only Esil or Esile. The crocodile," he adds, 
"is peculiar to "the Nile [at least in Shakespeare's time 
it was thought to be], which proves that the poet's fancy 
was confined to one source for both figures ; for why; 
should he transport imagination to a distant region for 
drink, when he had it at the same place that produced 
his dish of fish " ? 

A kettle of fish would be a more appropriate 
term for this ingenious and vague explanation. 
Mr. Jackson also thinks that " the chiming 
sound, for which our author displays a strong par- 
tiality, is conspicuous in the words Nile and cro- 

Steevens is in favour of explaining the Esil 
as the Yssel, or the Oesil, or the Weissel. It is 
not for me to decide authoritatively whether the 
remarks of these learned commentators, much 
more whether my own, are right or no. Criticism 

; The mouth of the Vistula is still called Wesselmunde. 
King Alfred calls Poland Wisleland. Weissel or Weich- 
sel = Polish Wisla= Latin Vistula. 
t The brackets are mine. 

4th S. X. AUGUST, 24 '72.] 



and illustration I cordially invite, and retire under 
shield of the old Greek saw 

oirov 5' '-\7ro\Aoly ovccu'oy 

Tivoli Cottage, Cheltenham. 

ivfs ff6<poi ', 


MR. DE SOYRES is not quite accurate in saying 
that " nearly every commentator explains the 
word esil or eisel (Hamlet, Act V. Sc. 1) as derived 
fromAng.-Sax. out?** vinegar." Several have sug- 
gested that Esil is a river, and the word is printed 
with a capital in many unannotated editions. Mr. 
Knight has the following note on the passage : 

"Esil was formerly in common use for vinegar; and 
thus some have thought that Hamlet here meant, Will 
you take a draught of vinegar ? of something very dis- 
agreeable. There is, however, little doubt that he re- 
ferred to the river Yssell, Issell, or Izel, the most northern 
branch of the Rhine, and that which is the nearest to 
Denmark. Stow and Drayton are familiar with the 

Mr. Staunton's note is also worth consulting ; 
he refers to a note by Gifford on a passage in 
Every Man in his Humour, where he dogmati- 
cally pooh-poohs the river solution. That pro- 
pounded by MR. DE SOYRES is so much the most 
likely to be the right one, that it would be a vast 
service to literature if he could find out the 
legend to which he alludes. CCCXI. 

The idea that by eisel was meant, not vinegar, 
but some river, is very old. Theobald says : 

'^This word has through all the editions been distin- 
guished by italick characters, as if it were the proper 
name of some river ; and so, I dare say, all th'e editors 
have from time to time understood it to be." 

He mentions the river " Yssel, from which the 
province of Overyssel derives its title in the Ger- 
man Flanders." Johnson remarks "Hanmerhas 

' Wilt drink up Nile or eat a crocodile ? ' " 
Of the more modern editions, Steevens and Ma- 
lone's text, the Chandos edition, and Thomas 
Keightley's Handy Volume edition all write the 
word with a capital letter to denote that it is the 
name of some river. But, for my own part, I 
think the " vinegar " would go down better with 
" the crocodile," and that we must go back to old 
Theobald's explanation : 

"Hamlet is not proposing any impossibilities to Laertes, 
as the drinking up a river would be ; but he rather seems 
to mean, Wilt thou resolve to do things the most shock- 
ing and distasteful to human nature ? and, behold, I am 
as resolute. I am persuaded the poet wrote 

* Wilt drink up eisel, eat a crocodile ? ' 
t. . Wilt thou swallow down large draughts of vinegar ? 
The proposition, indeed, is not very grand [and here he 
anticipates MR. DE SOYRES' objection] ; but the doing 
it might be as distasteful and unsavoury- as eating the 
flesh of a crocodile. And. now there is neither an impos- 
sibility nor an anti-climax, and the lowness of the idea is 
in some measure removed by the uncommon term." 

18, Kensington Crescent, W. 

(4 th S. ix. 486 5 x. 12, 72.) 

It may interest those who are curious on this 
subject to know that a life in this tontine has 
just dropped, aged ninety-three; that he was 
ten years old at the date of the tontine, and that 
his last year's share amounted to 2381. I have 
sufficient authority for this assertion ; and believe 
I am also correct in stating that the survivors are 
now only eighty in number. 


YLLTJT has very properly corrected an absurd 
and rather palpable blunder in my figures, when 
I was, perhaps in too offhand a way, illustrating 
the operation of a tontine. I can only make an 
unqualified apology to the editor, being conscious 
that haste and pressure of professional avocations 
are not valid excuses for sending any incorrect 
communication to "N. & Q." I had intended, 
but omitted to explain more in detail, what I 
believe to. have been the case, viz. that the 10,000 
tontinists, of 1001. each, were separated into ten 
classes of 1000 each the members of each class 
being entered at a particular age. This error 
being corrected, the result is, that the last sur- 
viving member of each class would or ought to 
receive 3000/. a-year for his 100/. investment ! I 
think such a percentage may be justly termed 
" magnificent" without any irony. I do not for 
moment doubt the accuracy of YLLTJT'S figures 
as deduced from the Carlisle tables ; but I must 
confess that the result of his calculations is to me 
simply astounding ! Turning to the tables of the 
probabilities of human life, and taking the mean 
of the London and Northampton tables, I find 
that out of 1000 people born, on the average only 
seventy-nine remain alive at the age of seventy 
(one of" the ages given by me), and only twenty- 
one survive at the age of eighty-two (the other 
example given by me). I find also that, at the 
age of seventeen, the average probability is that 
the life may last some thirty-two years. In the 
example I gave it lasted fifty- two years. But I 
ask any one who has the fortune, or misfortune, 
to have arrived (like myself) at an age when he 
can look back with a fair memory for a longer 
period than fifty-two years, whether half or a 
quarter, or even a smaller proportion, of the rela- 
tives and friends of his youth of similar age are 
still living ? Alas ! the experience of the writer 
of these lines is sadly different. YLLUT charges 
me with an ungenerous inuendo as to the manage- 
ment of the particular tontine referred to. In 
reply to which I will frankly say, that I should 
hesitate to place implicit faith in the financial 
operations of any government, whether Tory, 
~ onservative, Whig, or Advanced Liberal. But 
resides, it is quite possible that, without any 
manipulation of the tontine fund, personation of 



[4 S. X. AUGUST 24, 72. 

dead members may have passed undetected^ as 
they often do as to dead voters at parliamentary 
elections. On the whole, I am compelled to ac- 
knowledge myself somewhat in the condition of 
the personage alluded to inHudibras : 
" He that complies against his will, 
Is of his own opinion still." 

M. H. R 


(4 th S. viii. ix. passim.) 

I have looked carefully through all the refer- 
ences on this subject in the hope that I might 
find some allusion to, or quotation of, the following 
lines, which I recollect copying out some thirty 
or more years ago (but unfortunately not in a 
book, so they have for the- most part escaped my 
memory). Still, a$ they are germane to the u Col- 
lectanea Eldonian a," and curiously characteristic of 
the old Chancellor's ex-cathedra judicial style, I 
think it worth while to ask insertion of them 
even in their fragmentary form, on the chance 
that some one of your numberless readers in the 
four quarters of the globe, may supply the missing 
links ; that thus the whole sketch of the Court of 
Chancery and the Chancellor, humorously caus- 
tic enough to have been written by a disappointed 
" suitor," may be embalmed in the amber of 
"N. &Q.": 


" ' Up ! ' said the Spirit, and ere I could pray 
One hasty orison, whirl'd me away 
To a limbo lying I wist not where, 
Above or below, in earth or air, 
All glimmering o'er with misty light, 
One couldn't tell whether 'twas day or night ; 
And one felt like a needle going astray, 
With its one eye out thro' a bundle of hay ; 
When the Spirit grinn'd as he whisper'd me 
' Thou'rt now in the Court of Chanceric ! ' " 

Then another verse of the same number (or 
more likely of twelve lines), which I am unable 
to recall, descriptive of the suitors in Chancery. 
The following being, I believe, the last verse, of 
which I have a very imperfect recollection : 
" I look'd and I saw a wizard rise, 

With a wig like a cloud before mine eyes ; 
And in his hand he held a wand, 
With which he beckon'd the embryo band ; 
And he waved it and waved it o'er and o'er, 
But they never got on one inch the more- 
He said, ' I think, I doubt, I hope' : 
Call'd G d to witness, and d d the Pope, 
With many more sleights of tongue and hand, 
I couldn't for the soul of me understand, 
Till the Spirit, grinning, whisper'd me 
' Behold th' Lord Chancellor of Chancerie ! ' " 
I am almost certain the last two lines are 
wrong. Will some brother correspondent, who 
may not only have made a note of the above, but 
also committed it to the faithful keeping of a 
scrap-book, oblige me by the author's name ? 
Brookthorpe. F. T. B. 

(4 th S. x. 45.) 

The late Mr. Thomas Wheaton's reminiscences 
are certainly not quite correct in all their details. 
"Dr. O'Meara," who, according to his account, 
showed him " the heart of Napoleon in sperrits," 
left Longwood "never to return" on July 25, 
1818, nearly three years before the emperor's 
death. He sailed from St. Helena on August 2, 
and his name had been ordered to be erased from 
the list of naval surgeons on November 2 in the 
same year. (Forsyth, History of the Captivity of 
Napoleon at St. Helena, Murray, 1853, iii. 48, 50, 
116.) He was certainly not present at the post- 
mortem examination of the remains of Napoleon, 
which took place on the afternoon of May 6, 1821, 
in the presence of Counts Montholon and Ber- 
trand, Sir Thomas Reade, Major Harrison, Capt. 
Crokat (the orderly officer) ; Drs. Shortt, Arnott, 
Burton, Mitchell, Livingstone, Rutledge, and 
Henry; the Abbe Vignali and the three servants, 
Marchand, St. Denis, and Pierron (Forsyth, ib. 
p. 288). The heart of the emperor was placed, 
with the stomach, in a small silver vase by Assist- 
ant-Surgeon Rutledge to whose care it was com- 
mitted, and who was ordered to remain in charge 
of the body. On the evening of May 7, 1821, 
Mr. Rutledge placed the heart in a silver vessel 
which he had prepared for the purpose ; and, 
having filled it up with spirit of wine, closed the 
opening by placing a silver shilling (bearing the 
head of George III. on it) over the open part, 
and having soldered it down, placed the stomach 
in a silver pepper-box. These he put with other 
articles into the tin case wherein the body had 
just been laid, saw the lid of the case soldered on, 
and the covering of a wooden case which was 
outside the tin one screwed down, and all placed 
in a leaden coffin, the cover of which he saw 

have been shown by Mr. Rutledge. Now is it 
likely that any medical man, presumably possess- 
ing the ordinary notions of decency, would have 
so far forgotten himself as to display the internal 
organs of the dead emperor to a stranger, and that 
stranger a mere common soldier ? I cannot think 
that it is ; and I believe that there are few per- 
sons who will not agree with me that the story 
is, as it stands, utterly incredible. 

It is just possible, however, that Wheaton may 
have been one of the men employed to assist Mr. 
Rutledge in the performance of his duties, and 
that he may have caught sight of the heart just 
after the vase containing it had been filled with 
spirit, and before it was finally closed up ; but it 
is much more probable that "undertakers' men" 



should have teen the only persons present with 
Air. Paitledge on the occasion. 

Merton, Surrey. 

PELAGIUS, in his note on this subject, mentions 
that the old soldier Tom Wheaton was willing 
enough to speak of Napoleon " when he could be 
caught sober." I fear he was not quite in a state 
of sobriety when he informed your correspondent 
that " Dr. O'Meara " * showed him " the heart of 
Napoleon in sperrits," it being a well-known fact 
that O'Meara was recalled from St. Helena, to 
which he never afterwards returned, in the month 
of July, 1818, nearly three years before Napoleon 
died. The autopsy of the emperor's body was 
carried into effect by Dr. Antommarchi (assisted, 
I think, by Dr. Arnott), who was his medical 
attendant at the time of his death, the cause of 
which was schirrus of the pylorus. The diseased 
portion of the pylorus is now preserved in the 
Museum of the Royal College of Surgeons, Lin- 
coln's Inn Fields, where I have seen it. There 
used to be a descriptive label attached to the 
phial that contained it, which was removed in 
consequence of a great disturbance occasioned by 
some foreign visitor, who, in going through the 
Museum, came upon this relic, and expressed 
the utmost indignation which was not confined to 
words, on witnessing what he conceived to be an 
abominable desecration of the great man's memory. 


Waterloo Lodge, Reading. 

I was some years ago informed by Captain 
Sampson, H.E.I.C.S., whose father was Town 
Major at St. Helena during the detention of 
Napoleon, that after his death a correspondence 
inculpating very many people on the island was 
discovered in a half-burnt condition at the back 
of a stove that was being taken down by some 
workmen. It would not appear, however, that 
any official notice was taken of the matter. It is 
alluded to in a very interesting article on Saint 
Helena which appeared in The Cape Magazine 
for, I think, 1858. The subject, I believe, was a 
plan for his escape from the rock. 


Woolston, Hants. 

CATER-COUSINS (4 th S. ix. passim ; x. 36, 52.) 
T. T. W. is quite. right about the Lancashire 
dialect and its variations, but I never considered 
cater-cousins as peculiarly a Lancashire -ism. When 
he gave his experience of its meaning, I merely 
wished to state that even in Lancashire that was 

* O'Meara did not possess the diploma of M.D. In his 
Voice from St. Helena, he is styled " Barrv E. O'Meara, 
Esq." ' 

not the only meaning ; I, as a resident, having 
heard it used in Halli well's sense viz. good 
friends. Had I known Halliwell agreed with me 
I should have quoted him as a higher authority 
than P. P. 

Among the very interesting works on this re- 
markable character, I do not see any notice of a 
melodrama of which he was the hero, which I 
remember seeing in the Theatre Royal, Hawkins 
Street, Dublin, about the year 1830. The last 
scene was a grand pyrotechnic affair in the style 
of Faust and Frcischutz, although I forget the 
name of the particular demon who officiated on 
the occasion. H. HALL. 

Woolston, Hants. 

MILTON QUERIES (2) : SONNET xxn. (4 th S. ix. 
445; x. 76.) MR. OAKLEY is amusing in the 
reason he gives for believing that "this three 
years day " is not an error of the press. " It is 
not likely to have been so," he says, " for in the 
Milton MS. the line runs thus 
'Cyriack, this three years day these eyes, though 

clean,' " 

and then comes a note to tell us that " clean " is a 
lapsus plumes of the amanuensis for clear. Why, 
then, may not " this three years day " be a lapsus 
also ? I cannot see the force of the objection that 
" ' three years this day ' would be an exact reckon- 
ing more worthy of the diary of some common- 
place proser than the opening line of a sonnet by a 
great master." Did not Milton intend to be exact ? 
Whether he dictated " this three years day," or 
" three years this day," he surely meant to say 
that he had been blind for three years. It is only 
poetasters who think that to be poetical one must 
be vague. We expect a good poet, just as we 
expect a good prosaist to write intelligibly and 
grammatically. Of course in a poem we look for 
a great deal more than mere sense and grammar, 
but these at least we have a right to demand. 
Poetry is not " prose run mad." MR. OAKLEY'S 
quotation from Henry VI. is really to the pur- 
pose as a parallel to the phrase in Milton's sonnet, 
though if this form of speech was usual in Mil- 
ton's time there can be no reason for assuming 
that the poet had any special line of Shakspeare 
in his head. MR. OAKLEY need not sneer at my 
suggestion as a " Bentleian emendation." My 
attempt was not to suggest that Milton ought to 
have written so and so, but to submit a simple 
query as to whether the printer might not have 
committed an error of the press. J. DIXON. 

CHRISTIAN NAMES (4 th S. ix. 423, 510; x. 14, 
74.) A short time ago I baptised a friend's child, 
giving her the name of Isabel. This name, which 
I never saw before, was an old family name. 

A man with whom I was at college married a 
lady whose Christian name was John. The lady 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [4th s. x. AUGUST 24, 72. 

is, I believe, still alive, and Her name appears in 
Burke's Peerage thus " John (a daughter)." 

R. H. A. B. 

I have recently had occasion to look carefully 
through the parish registers of North Winfield, 
Derbyshire. They commence in 1567 and are in 
fair preservation up to the present date. Amongst 
the unusual Christian names which occur with 
more or less frequency up to the close of the 
seventeenth century, I noted the following: 
Archelaus, Cisseley (sic), Gamaliel, Hercules, 
Jesper (sec), Joyce, Lemuel, Nathaniel, Penelope, 
Petronilla, Sybil, and Theophilus. 


Hazel wood, Belper. 

I give the full extract relating to "Louisa," 
from the Eegister of St. James, Piccadilly. It is 
the baptism, not marriage, of 

" Lewes Lenox, of Charles and Ann, Duke and Dutchess 
of Richmond, Jan. 9, 1694, born 1st. 

This Duke of Richmond was the son of Louise 
de la Querouaille, and evidently named his 
daughter after his mother. 

I am surprised to hear of Bertha in 1678. <( We 
live and learn " and the longer we live the more 
we learn. 

There certainly is no reason whatever why 
many names should not have been used at many 
periods. But I venture, with all deference, to 
remind your correspondent, who signs a very beau- 
tiful name FLORENCE that we are inquiring 
into the matter of fact : were they so used, or not ? 


RED AND BLUE COSTUMES, ETC. (4 th S. x. 105.) 
The following extract from Mr. Story's Rola di 
Roma (p. 370), part of the description of a Roman 
baptism, may be of service to J. P. : 

" If you meet this convoy you may know at once the 
sex of the child by the colour of the ribbon pinned to its 
dress, which the comare takes special heed shall flutter 
out of the carriage window. A red ribbon indicates a 
boy and a blue ribbon a girl blue being the colour of 
the Virgin, to whom all female children are dedicated." 


Upton, Slough. 

This apportionment of colours is certainly of 
very ancient date. In ecclesiastical art our Blessed 
Lady is almost invariably robed in blue, or in blue 
and white, and in her various apparitions the same 
colour has been observed ; St. Joseph and the 
apostles, on the other hand, are more frequentlv 
depicted in red, so far as my experience goes, than 
in any other colour. This is curiously borne out 
in the Hampshire and Wiltshire name for the 
Lungwort (Pulmonaria) , "Joseph and Mary," the 
blossoms when first expanded being red, and sub- 
sequently turning to blue ; in the Isle of Wight 
the plant is called " Soldier and his wife " from 
the same circumstance. JAMES BRITTEN. 

British Museum. 

(4 th S. ix. 427, 543.) Whatever means Ninon 
de 1'Enclos may have taken for preserving her 
beauty in her youth or middle age, they do not 
appear to have been very successful in her vieillesse, 
as Voltaire, who knew her when a boy, describes 
her when in her eightieth year: "Son visage 
portait les marques les plus hideuses de la vieillesse ; 
que son corps en avait toutes les infirmite's" (Vide 
art. " Dictionnaire," Diet. Phil. vol. ii. p. 98), un- 
necessarily, perhaps, adding " et qu'elle avait 
dans 1'esprit les maximes d'un philosophe austere."" 


WoolstoD, Hants. 

"LA BELLE SAUVAGE " (4 th S. x. 27, 73.) I 
quote the following from The Etymological Com- 
pendium, or Portfolio of Origins and Inventions, 
by W. Pulleyn, 2nd ed. 12mo. bds. 1830 : 

" The etymology of the Bell Savage, on Ludgate Hill, 
has been variously, but very incorrectly given ; the fol- 
lowing, however, may be relied on as correct. The Bell 
Savage, now called La Belle Sauvage, took its name from 
those premises once being the property of Lady Ara- 
bella Savage, who made a deed of gift of them to the 
Cutlers' Company ; corroborative of which, a painting 
may be seen in Cutlers' Hall, representing her ladyship, 
accompanied by her conveyancer, presenting the said 
deed of gift to the Master and Wardens of the aforesaid 

What does FITZ RALPH think of this ? 


TREES (4 th S. ix. 504 ; x. 19, 95.) I believe " The 
Parting between Sereno and Diana," a beautiful 
poem in my MS. volume (see previous notices) 
represents an affecting period in the history of the 
Duke of Monmouth and the -Baroness Wentworth 
of Nettlestede. They are represented in the cha- 
racters of Shepherd and Shepherdess, alone, within 
a shade of trees 

" Close by a streame whose flowry banks might give 
Delight to those who had no cause to grieve." 

Each in turn addresses the other in terms of 
fondest endearment on the prospect of approaching 
separation ; and if this interpretation of the poem 
be correct, there are two lines in Diana's first ad- 
dress to Sereno which will be of historic interest 
to many besides MR. PICKFORD. They are as 
follows : 

" I read my name on every bark ; 
Of our past loves the kind afflicting mark." 

The author in another poem, " Scandall Satyr'd," 
refers amongst others to the intimacy which sub- 
sisted between the duke and the baroness, and 
here there is no disguise, as they are referred to 
by name, Monmouth and Wentworth; hence I 
think MR. PICKFORD may safely regard the MS. 
from which I have quoted as a sufficient testimony 
to the accuracy of Macaulay's statement that such 
a memorial of the Baroness " was long contem- 
plated with far deeper interest than the sumptuous 



mausoleum which was reared over her remains by 
her family." But as to the period of its duration 
we must wait for information from Bedfordshire 
m I should be disposed, however, to place implicit 
confidence myself in Macaulay's statement as re- 
gards this also. 0. B. B. 

FOREIGN INVENTORIES (4 th S. x. 8, 94.) In- 
ventories of both secular and ecclesiastical furni- 
ture may be found in Le Beffroi and La Flandre, 
reviews published here ; also in Pinchart, Archives 
des Arts. Immense numbers of such inventories 
exist in the archives here; many of these wil] 
appear in a work I am now publishing : Les 
Eglises du Diocese de Bruges. As regards Ger- 
many, CORNIJB. may consult with fruit the pub- 
lications of the Archivists of Cologne and Dussel- 
dorf, the bi-monthly journal Organ fur Christliche 
Kunst, &c. W. H. JAMES WEALE. 


LADY KITTY HYDE (4 th S. ix. 219, 372.) From 
MR. PERRY'S reply to my inquiry, it is evident 
that the poem, from which he sent a quotation, is 
not identical with that found among my papers, 
of which I herewith forward a copy. Both the 
lady and the picture must have had great cele- 
brity at the time to have thus inspired poets 
great and small. What I wanted to know was, 
whether the picture is still in existence ; and who 
is the possessor? Can you kindly supply this 
information ? 


" By milk-white Doves, as drawn of old, 

'Venus the Queen of Love, 
S r Godfrey's paintings to behold, 
Descended from above. 

" When to the Earth y e goddess came 

Pleas'd and surpriz'd she saw 
Thy labours, Kneller, and thy Fame 
Salsb'ry and Ranelagh. 

" Fixt on Miranda, streight she crys 

Astonisht, Here I trace 
No modern shades, no mortal eyes, 
Apelles art, my face. 

" But soon as her mistake she found 

(I swear by all that's pretty), 
I thought the goddess would have swoon'd 
To hear 'twas Lady Kitty. 

* Poor Venus ! I must fairly tell her 

(What cannot be deny'd), 
Apelles is outdone by Kneller, 
As Venus is by Hyde." 

G. A. 0. 
Chew Magna Vicarage. 

ST. KILDA AND HOCK HALL (4 th S. x. 49.) In 
the second volume of James Wilson's Voyage 
round Scotland is a full account of St. Kilda, and 
a census taken by himself : one hundred and five 
inhabitants. The island then belonged to a gen- 
tleman of the M'Leod family. 

As for itock Hall, the question to whom it 
belongs is somewhat unnecessary; as it is one 
hundred and eighty-four miles west of St. Kilda, 
and only three hundred yards in circumference. 
Basil Hall, in his Fragments of Voyages (chap, 
xxxiii.), gives an interesting account of an ex- 
ploring party from the Endymion frigate being 
caught in a fog while on it. W. G. 

A very good account of Rock[h]all will -be 
found in Capt. Basil Hall's Fragments of Voyages, 
and, I think, third series. An article on St. Kilda 
will be found in the British Cyclopccdia (" Geo- 
graphy"), and in Chambers' s Cyclopesdia, as well 
as an article in an early volume of Chambers^ 
Journal, which, for want of an index, I un- 
fortunately cannot refer to. The population of 
St. Kilda in 1851 was one hundred and ten ; but 
it has, I believe, decreased since. H. HALL. 

Woulston, Hants. 

BELL INSCRIPTION (4 th S. x. 105.) I cannot 
agree with my respected friend H. T. E. that, in 
the following bell inscription 

"Personet hec cellis dulcissima vox Gabrielis," 
the word cellis is probably the founder's error for 
ceelis. To me it admits of no doubt that the 
word, which signifies literally monastic cells, is 
here intended to mean every part of a monastic 
or ecclesiastical edifice, and it is wished that the 
bell may sound through every cell or portion of 
the building. F. C. H. 

x. 30, 95.) No good histories of these churches 
have been published. Baines's Lancashire (iii.)> 
published 1836, gives some account of both ; and 
the new edition, which came out a year or two 
since, corrects some glaring mistakes in the for- 
mer one concerning them. If YLLUT has access 
to the Chetham Society's works, he will find 
many interesting notices relating to both in Mr. 
Hul ton's u Priory of Penwortham" and in Canon 
Raines's " Account of the Lancashire Chantries." 
He will find some account of Ley land church in the 
Proceedings of the Lancashire and Cheshire His- 
toric Society for 1855, vol. vii. It was accom- 
panied by drawings of incised slabs, stones from a 
Norman arch, gurgolyes, &c. Both churches have 
been more or less " restored " as it is called ; and 
soon after Penwortham was completed, the old 
registers were burnt through a flue taking fire. 


SYMBOLUM MARINE (4 th S. x. 4, 74.) Your 
voluminous, interesting, and usually accurate cor- 
respondent, F. C. H., should consult the pieces 
'ustijlcatives before making sweeping assertions. 
He remarks that " MR. HODGKIN says the author- 
ship (of the Psalterium B. V. Maries) is attributed 
:o St. Bernard, but this is evidently a mistake." It 
s F. C. H. who is mistaken, and not I. The title 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [4* s. x. AUGUST 24, 72. 

of the book which I have alluded to Contains this 
evidence on its face. It runs thus : , 

" Psalterium beatje Maria? Virginis. Compositum per 
devotissimum doctorem Sanctum Bernardum." 

I admit, with the judicious Butler, that the 
Psalter is unworthy to bear the name of St. Ber- 
nard, St. Bonaventure, or any other saint. It is 
one of the most blasphemous productions of an 
unscrupulous age. I used the words u attributed 
to St. Bernard" advisedly, on this very ground. 

It would be interesting to hear from some other 
correspondent, whether the Psalter in English, 
alluded to by F. 0. H., does contain at the end 
the Symbolum Maries also, to ascertain whether 
it is a translation of this rare Latin Psalter or of 
another work. 

I should be happy to transcribe a psalm for 
F. C. H. to set this matter at rest. The English 
version does not appear to be mentioned by 

. West Derby. 

DRAUGHT = MOVE (4 th S. ix. 483; x. 17,94.) 
In my note on this subject I made no reference to 
the " tivelve feraes," because I was unable to sug- 
gest' any explanation of the phrase, and I do not 
think that A. H. has succeeded in solving the 
difficulty. He says "the word fers (pf) is an 
equivalent to our word l piece/ " a statement on 
the authenticity of which his conjecture depends, 
but for which I shall be surprised if he can 
produce any reliable authority. The " courier 
game " is played, as he says, on a board of ninety- 
six squares (twelve by eight) with the ordinary 
chess men, supplemented for each player by four 
pawns, two couriers, a man and a fool, which 
last are now called state counsellors.* Professor 
Forbes, in writing on the chess queen, informs us 

" The Persian term for this piece is Farz or Firz, which, 
as an adjective, signifies ' wise ' or ' learned,' and, as a 
substantive, it denotes a ' Counsellor,' a ' Minister,' or 
' General.' The forms Farzan, Farzin, and Farzi, are 
also in use, but less frequently. In this latter sense, viz. 
' General,' the Arabs adopted' the word on receiving the 
game itself from the Persians, and conveyed it unaltered 
to Western Europe, where it was Latinized into Farzia 
or Fercia" f 

On the introduction of chess into France, I may 
add, in the reign of King Pepin, the term fers, by 
a curious philological blunder, caused no doubt 
by the similarity of sound, was corrupted into 
merge, from which it was subsequently transmuted 
into la dame, a designation which the queen has 
retained on the French chess-boaxd to the present 
day. H. A. KENNEDY. 

Waterloo Lodge, Reading. 

* Vide Professor Tomlinson's excellent little volume; 
Amusements in Chess, p. 71. 
f History of Chess, p. 209. 

PERSICARIA (4 th S. x. 48, 118.) I am inclined 
to think that the water- weed named by F. C. II. 
(Murithian) is the Anacharis alsinastrum (Bab.), 
a plant which is most prolific in its growth. So 
great an evil did the weed become in the Cam, 
near Cambridge, that it was named Bdbinytonia 
diabotica, from the fact of its supposed introduc- 
tion there by Prof. Babington. No doubt that it 
is of foreign extraction, but whence is not pre- 
cisely known. Your correspondent will find a long 
account of this plant, and an illustration in the 
Illustrated London News, Sept. 30, 1854. S. K. 


Withering enumerates six species of this plant, 
but I take .the one F. C. H. (Murithian) inquires 
about to be either Potyganwn amphibium, or P. 
persicaria^ probably the former. This pretty, but 
to swimmers very dangerous plant, grows almost 
everywhere. As long as I can remember, there 
has been a bed of it in the Serpentine close to 
the Humane Society's boat-house. It has rose- 
coloured flowers. P. Persicaria (Spotted Per- 
sicaria) has a dark mark like a bruise in the centre 
of each leaf, and about Maidenhead is known by 
the name of the Virgin Mary's Pinch ; from a 
tradition that the Blessed Virgin once pressed it 
with her thumb. Then there is P. hydroplper, 
common enough also, which is now before me, 
shading the inhabitants of my aquarium with its 
floating leaves. It closely resembles P. amphibium, 
but its flowers are greenish. 



It is doubtless to the Potyyonum persicaria, one 
of the amphibious species, that your correspondent 
refers. This plant, from its power of throwing 
oat roots from every joint of its long stem, pro- 
duces a tangled mass of vegetation most dangerous 
to bathers and inimical to drainage. Its old name 
of Snakeweed sufficiently denotes its character. 

E. B. 

LAIRG, LARGS, ETC. (4 th S. ix. 485 ; x. 33, 96.) 
If we had had the least notion that E. IV s equi- 
nimity of temper would have been upset by the 
smell simply of Celticism which prevails in the 
names of the hills and dales, the rivers and 
waters, the baronies, estates, and farm towns of 
Scotland, and which was brought under his notice 
by us, we should have hesitated long before dis- 
turbing him in his Gothic dream. But it was his 
duty certainly, in asking for information through 
"N. & Q.," to have announced openly and not by 
innuendo his malady, and the incurable nature of 
it, as now indicated by the fact announced that 
he has not yet (possibly he is very young) dis- 
covered "any evidence that they (the Celts) ever 
had a footing in the British islands." Without 
any pretension to prophetic vision, we have the 
hardihood nevertheless to predict that many years 

. X. AUGUST 24, '72.] 



will be added to his age ere he be favoured with 
the tl satisfactory explanation " which he asks, 
inasmuch as he requires it from one source only, 
and there it is not obtainable, as we humbly 
think. ESPEDARE. 

CHATTERTON (4 th S. x. 55, 99.) MAKROCHEIR 
startled and surprised me by his implied intima- 
tion that a good stanza was not to be found in 
Chatterton's poems, and I was a little relieved 
by the reply of MR. BOUCHIER. I have always 
considered that the questioning that Chatterton was 
a true poet showed a malady in the questioner past 
praying for. I never saw the poet Keats but 
once, but he then read some lines from (I think) 
the "Bristowe Tragedy" with an enthusiasm of 
admiration such as could only be felt by a poet, 
and which true poetry only could have excited. 
Is there in the English language a lyric, a truer, 
and more striking one than the verses beginning 
" When Freedom dressed 

In blood-stained vest, 
To every knight her war song sung, 
Upon her head 
Wild weeds were spread, 
A gory anlace by her hung " ? &c. 
As Dr. Johnson criticised the "Lycidas" of 
Milton in terms which implied that he thought it 
a poor affair, we are thereby taught to believe 
that MAKROCHEIR may be a very able man in 
spite of his estimate of the poetry of Chatterton. 
I trust, however, that you will receive and give 
place to other protests against the judgment of 
MAKROCHEIR of the poetry of Chatterton besides 
that of MR. BOUCHIER and that of J. H. C. 
THE MISERERE OF A STALL (4 th S. ix. 472, 517; 
x. 15, 98.) Your learned correpondent F. C. H., 
replying to MR. MICKLETHWAITE'S query as to the 
meaning of Miserere, said it was so-called "as 
being a merciful contrivance to relieve fatigue," an 
explanation that does not appear to be satisfactory 
to your querist. I therefore mention an explanation 
if the word with ^which I have long been fami- 
liar, though I do not know whether it is intended 
to be accepted in jest or in earnest, but it is this. 
Ihe stall seat, when turned up and put back, left 
the small ledge or shelf on which the tired eccle- 

poised on their hinges that the result of any one 
resting on the bracket and then nodding to sleep 
will be as I have stated. Experto crede. 


I give it as a guess, but am unable to under- 
stand how Milner could have made so barbarous 
a blunder as to call a misericordia a miserere. I 
think it more likely that, in the humour and 
spirit of the times, such a seat was jocularly called 
a miserere or miserere met, after the penitential 
psalm so commencing. An old French saying 
given by Cotgrave embodies in a similar spirit the 
first and last words of the same psalm. "Tu 
auras miserere" (or " du miserere) jusques a vitulos" 
was a clerical mode of saying, " You shall have a 
good sound whipping." And, after the experiences 
of MR. WALCOTT, I can quite understand how some 
mediaeval joker to whom, " Miserere mei, Deus, 
secundum magnam misericordiam tuam," were as 
household words, would remark as he left his 
narrow penance-indulgence shelf, that it was a 
miserere (or lamentation, or penance) rather than 
a tnagfia misericordia; and this, too, would become 
a household word. B. NICHOLSON. 

P.S. I do not quite understand MR. WAL- 
COTT'S last clause, " as the correct," &c. Sedilia 
is the correct Latin technical for sanctuary stalls 
(for an instance, see Ducange, s. v. " Misericor- 
dia "), and " ceiled seats " appears to me a collo- 
quial corruption by sound, just as " le bois brule" " 
or the Mississippi, became Bob Ruley's woods. 

" WHAT THOUGH BENEATH," ETC. (4 th S. x. 107) 
is from Campbell's poem of " The Last Man." 

F. H. H. 

Shelley's Adonais, stanza 51. 
follows : 

The lines are as 

; Here pause ; these graves are all too young as yet 
To have outgrown the sorrow which consigned * 
Its charge to each." 


CENTENE OF LYNG (4 th S. x. 86.) This, I 
should judge from Ducange, to mean 108 pounds 
of lyng, for under the word " Centena," he says 

" Centena cera?, zuccari, piperis, cumini, &c., apud 
Anglios, continet 13 petras et dimidiam : et quaelibet 
petra continet 8 libras. Summa ergo librarutn in cen- 
tena 108." 

As used in the sense of weight of such a variety 

siastic might obtain a slight rest from the fatigue 

ot a long service ; but this small projection only I An S Ilos continet 15 petras et dimidiam : et qi 

afforded him support so long as he leaned back /^ m continet 8 libras. Summa ergo librarum i 

or steadily kept his balance. If, overcome by 

drowsiness he nodded and leaned a little forward , 

as his tired legs gave way, it was quite enough to * otller artlcles > we m y fairly include among 

make the stall seat fall, the consequence being ' them that of .^A. 

that the sleepy worshipper was precipitated against 

the desk or tumbled on to the ground. In such a 

condition he was to be pitied, and was an object 

of commiseration, and hence the word miserere as 

applied to this bracket underneath the stall seat. 

Whether this explanation be fanciful or no it is 

certain that the old stall seats are so delicately 

f Jish. 

Centena also signifies the part of a county, re- 
gion, &c. EDMUND TEW, M.A. 

The word centena denoted a hundred, but of 
variable numerical quantity, according to the 
nature of the article to which it was applied. 
Brand (Popular Antiquities, Sir H Ellis's ed., ii 
474), on the meaning of the old saw 



S . x. AUGUST 24, 72. 

" Five score (to the hundred) of men, money, and pins, 
Six score of all other things," 


" The Norwegians and Islandic people used a method 
of numbering peculiar to themselves, by the addition of 
the word tolfrced (whence our word twelve), which made 
10 = 12,100=120, 1000 = 1200, &c. The reason of this 
was that these nations had two decads or tens ; a lesser 
consisting of ten units, and a greater containing twelve 
(tolf) units : hence by the addition of the word tolfrced, 
the hundred contained ten times twelve." 

The " long hundred " was used in England at 
an early period. In a statute of uncertain date, 
but generally assigned to 33 Edw. I. (1301), "De 
ponderibus et mensuris," whilst the centene of 
wax, sugar, pepper, &c., was to contain 108 Ibs. 
only, a centene of canvas, linen-cloth, &c., was to 
consist of six score ells ; a centene of hard (. e. 
cured) fish, six score sometimes eight or nine 
score ; but a centene of horse-shoes was only five 
score. Statutes of the Realm (Record edition), i. 
205. See also Fleta (Lond. 1647, p. 73) lib. ii. 
c. 12, ss. 4, 5. 

Mulvells are expressly mentioned in the above 
statute amongst the hard fish as being vi score to 
the hundred, but in some places ix score; ling 
would no doubt be reckoned by the same rule. 

Halliwell (Archaic Diet.} conjectures the fish 
called mulvells to have been haddock. They are 
said to have been called in London greenjish, but 
in Lancashire mulwin. Has it been ; determined 
what they really were ? E. V. 

" HAHA " (4 th S. x. 37, 95.) I agree with ME. 
OAKLEY that the derivation of a haha fence from 
" the circumstance of a person coming suddenly 
upon it in riding, and naturally exclaiming 'Ha ! 
ha ! ' at being so suddenly stopped in his pro- 
gress," as your correspondent W. P. puts it, is 
laughable enough. It is on a par with the popu- 
lar derivation of Charing Cross from chere reine. 
It strikes me that if a person was suddenly pulled 
up whilst riding by an obstruction of this kind, 
he would be more likely to exclaim " Bothera- 
tion ! " or " Confound it ! " than " Ha ! ha ! " which 
is a laughing exclamation, and he would probably 
be in the reverse of a laughing humour, especially 
if the sudden check nearly threw him over his 
horse's head ! 

The following passage from Walpole's Modern 
Gardening, for which I am indebted to that in- 
valuable book Richardson's Dictionary, will, how- 
ever, show that W. P. is not alone in his conjec- 
ture : 

"The capital stroke, the leading step to all that followed, 
was (I believe the first thought was Bridgman's) the 
destruction of walls for boundaries, and the invention of 
fosse's, an attempt then deemed so astonishing that the 
common people called them Ha ! ha's ! to express their 
surprise at finding a sudden and unperceived check to 
their walk." 

It is probably, as MR. OAKLEY says, a redupli- 

cation of haw, a hedge, though why it was redu- 
plicated I do not quite understand. 


VAIR IN HERALDRY (4 th S. x. 88.) Permit me 
to correct, what I. think must be a slight mistake, 
in your reply to RESTJPINUS'S query. In vair the 
points of the argent cups all point one way, whilst 
the azure point the other; that is to say, the 
points of the azure cups may point downwards, 
and those of the argent upwards, and vice versa, 
though I believe the former method is the more 
generally used. In counter-vair the azure cups 
would point downwards in the first row, up- 
wards in the second ; downwards in the third, 
and so on. the argent of course doing exactly the 
reverse. G. P. C. 

532 ; x. 56, 92.) As a sincere cat-lover I was much 
pleased to see the question whether the domestic 
cat was known to the antients being mooted in 
the pages of " N. Q. " ; and I was in hopes that 
by this time some more decisive conclusion would 
have been come to. I have discussed the subject 
often with a learned friend of mine learned in 
every sense of the word but without any positive 
result. He, relying on a piece of evidence I will 
presently mention, feels convinced that pussy was 
familiar to the Greeks and Romans. I at least 
doubt this from the utter absence of any allusion 
to the cat as a home-pet in all the writings of 
antiquity that have come down to us. We have 
found (I am speaking much more of my friend's 
researches than my own), besides the passage in 
Pliny, quoted by MR. RAVAGE (ante, p. 56), others 
in Aristotle, ^Elian, and other antient writers on 
natural history, which show some knowledge, not 
always very accurate, of the cat's habits. But all 
these seem applicable to the wild or undomesti- 
cated animal. Not the slightest trace could we 
hit on of any allusion to the cat as a companion of 
man ; and considering how much we have of the 
dog, both in works of art and in literature dear 
old Argos will occur to every one it seems al- 
most incredible that some notice should not have 
come down to us of tl the harmless necessary cat," 
and of her playful winning ways. There is not 
even a Greek or Latin word for " purring." All 
this, of course, is only negative evidence; but it 
seems very strong. 

The one piece of positive evidence to which I 
referred is the representation of a cat on a coin 
of Tarentum. Col. Leake had one of these coins, 
and thus describes the reverse : " Half-draped 
figure, seated on chair, with footstool to I. (left) ; 
in right hand a bird, cat leaping up to seize it." It 
is not a common variety of the Tarentine coins, 
but I have seen a specimen in the possession of 
a living numismatist, and the animal represented 
is an indubitable cat. But how far this instance, 

4 h S. X. AUGUST 24, '72.] 



if a solitary one, would weigh against what I hare 
termed the negative evidence on the other side 
seemed always a matter of doubt. 

When I read the passage from Mr. Hare's book, 
quoted by MR. RADECLIFFE (ante, ix. 532), about 
a bas-relief representing " a lady trying to induce 
her cat to dance to a lyre," I had some misgiv- 
ings whether the animal might not be the mythical 
leopard that we meet with so often in ancient 
works of art. The communication, however, of 
A. R. (antt, 92) renders it very doubtful if the 
animal represented belongs at all to the feline 
race. But the bronze cat spoken of by C. L. 
(ante, 56), would indeed be a very " stubborn and 
unyielding witness " to the classical domesticity 
of tf poor puss " if it is unquestionably an an- 
tiquef CCCXI. 

"FlLIAMlJNDI:" "FlLIAPOPTJLl" (4 th S. X. 

87.) I do not think there was any difference 'be- 
tween these expressions, both of them being ap- 
plied to illegitimate children. In the parish 

and at Cheshunt "a son of the people base 
born," 1560. These unfortunates were described 
just as it pleased the parson or clerk, Thus, in 
Weston registers we find " ex fornicatione gra- 
vitee," 1620; Burwash (Sussex), "incerti vero 
patris," 1566 ; All Saints', Newcastle, " love be- 
got," 1683; Lambeth, " merry begot," 1685, and 
"a byeblow," 1688; Chelsea, "filius meretricis," 
1564; Isleworth, "fil. unius cujusque," 1603; 
Twickenham, "scape-begotten," 1690, &c., &c. 
See Burn's .History of Parish Registers. 

Stoke Newington. 

"Ex LUCE LTJCELLTJM" (4 th S. x. 115.) It 
may be desirable to record in your pages that, in 
the month of April, 1871, Mr. Lowe, then Chan- 
cellor of the Exchequer, being desirous of reliev- 
ing the pressure upon the Succession Duty and 
Income Tax, proposed a duty on lucifer matches, 
to be levied by means of a stamp upon each box 
bearing the motto, "Ex luce lucellum." The 
measure did not pass, as it was feared that it 
might interfere too much with the employment 
of very many poor children, who had nothing to 
do but make them. Still the whole of the neces- 
sary apparatus, stamp and all, had been provided, 
at some cost no doubt; and some writer in a 
newspaper at the period proposed, by way of solace 
to the Chancellor of the Exchequer's wounded 
feelings, that he should levy a tax upon photo- 
graphs, and adopt as the motto " Ex sole sola- 
tium." About the same period, and during the 
German war in France, many observations were 
made upon the (then) King of Prussia constantly 
commencing his dispatches home by acknow- 

ledgement to Providence for the slaughter, &c., 
his troops had successfully committed. Under a 
large portrait of his Majesty, exposed in a shop 
window, some wicked and witty urchin had 
scrawled " Let us prey /" 


SUBJECT OP AN ENGRAVING (4 th S. x. 108.) 
The eremitical figure in this engraving is intended 
for St. Ethbin, or Egbin, a Breton of noble family, 
who took the habit at Taurac, in Brittany, in the 
year 554 ; but the province having been laid waste 
by the Franks about the year 560, he sailed into 
Ireland, and built himself a small hermitage 
and chapel in a wood called Necten, where he 
wrought many miracles, and led a mortified life 
for twenty years, dying at the age of eighty-three, 
on the 19th of October, on which day he is com- 
memorated in the Roman martyrology. The pic- 
ture, no doubt, commemorates his welcoming and 
entertaining Christ himself under the guise of a 
pilgrim, or rather a leper, as the verses would in- 
dicate. The three cards, however, could not be 
intended to represent the Blessed Trinity; though 
what they do symbolise is not apparent. I should 
imagine them to signify the three theological 
virtues of Faith, Hope, and Charity, which the 
holy hermit was exercising towards his divine 
Guest. The life of St. Ethbin is given by Cap- 
grave, but he does not mention this subiect. 

F. C. H. 

THOMAS GISBORNE (4 th S. x. 127.) A most 
interesting account, based on early personal recol- 
lection, of Mr. Gisborne, is to be found in Sir 
James Stephen's Essays in Ecclesiastical Bio- 
graphy, ii. 299-307, " Clapham Sect." The style 
is as usual somewhat euphuistic, but singularly 
expressive. LTTTELTON. 

The only difficulty in reading this inscription ap- 
plies to the last words in each line. The inscrip- 
tion is the following : 

& ' lohtfcrg jFj |^ for pi evasions st% Q) 
^astarbt. -* l)twe nursi on pi sinfull ^ 

Of course the Lombardic letter CO crowned stands 
for the Blessed Virgin Mary, and has no connexion 
with the two lines. Each line ends with a word 
terminating in 5, and the question is, what does 
this stand for here ? Unfortunately for the de- 
cypherer, this contraction is put very arbitrarily 
on brasses and monuments, for at least the follow- 
ing varieties : ur, urn, us, bus, s, is, er, re, oris, y. 
Probably many more, but I could refer in a few 
minutes to examples of these at least. If we sup- 
pose the 5 to stand in each word at the end of 
ihese two lines for re, perhaps we may venture to 
read the lines thus : 

" Jesu for thy passions sere, 
Have mercy on thy sinfull here." 



[4 th S. X. AUGUST 24, '72. 

This would presume the word sere to stand for 
sore. I am not aware of any instance of such 
spelling, but I should not despair of finding some. 
This, of course, is pure conjecture, but nothing 
better has occurred to F. C. H. 

"Wno MURDERED DOWNTE " ? (4 th S. x. 128.) 
The story appeared in No. 122 of Household 
Words, dated July 24, 1852. G. H. 

BASIL AND RUE (4 th S. ix. 522.) Before at- 
tempting to answer MR. J. PERRY'S question, it 
would be well to ascertain whether his statement 
has any foundation in fact. The notion of sym- 
pathy between certain plants, and antipathy be- 
tween others is very old ; but I have always 
looked upon it as wanting any foundation. Thus 
Thomas Johnson, in hia Cornucopias (1595) says : 

" The Vine is greatly delighted with the Elme and 

yeeldeth more frute being placed together: the 

Olive-tree so detesteth the Cowcumber, that being placed 
nere together they wil turne backe and growe 
lest they shoulde touche one another." 

That strawberries grow best in the vicinity of 
nettles is a belief which was current in Shake- 
speare's time, and yet lingers among us. 




Particulars of Price, &c.. of the following books to be sent direct to 
the gentlemen by whom they are required, whose names and addresses 
are given for that purpose : 

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Wanted by Mr. R. J. Fynmore. 4, Blunsdon Buildings, Sandgate, 

We are compelled to postpone until next week our usual 
Notes on Book?, including a notice of Mansell's Photo- 
graphs from the British Museum. 

S. S. S. The twelve good (or golden} rules attributed 
to Charles I. are printed in " N. & Q." 3^ S. iii. 197, 215. 
We are inclined, however, to think they were agreed to by 
JBen Jonson and his fellow poets, and called by them 

"Table Observations." The Game of Goose is described 

by Strutt, Sports and Pastimes, ed. 1801, p. 249. On the 
Stationers' Registers, IGth June, 1597, was licensed " The 
newe and most pleasant game of the goose" 

J. BEALE. A widow bewitched is a ivoman who is sepa- 
rated from her husband. 

G. P. Benjamin Noldmann's (?'. e. A. F. F. L. von 
Knigge) German work, Geschichte der Aufklarung in 
Abyssinien (a political satire), 1791, 8vo, is in the British 

JOHN WOODWARD (Montrose). What our correspond- 
ent entitles " Birthday Lines," is a Greek epigram, already 
discussed in " N. & Q." 3 rd S. v. 195, 269, 328 ; xi. 509. 

J. H. M. (Chancery Lane) is referred to " N. & Q." 
1" S. i. 247 ; iii. 285 ; 3^ S. v. 300, for the authorship of 
the lines on " Woman's Will." 

JOHN REYNOLDS The heretical and ungallant lines 
attributed to Maucroix appeared in the New Monthly 
Magazine (1827), xx. 333 : 

" I would advise a man to pause 

Before he takes a wife ; 
Indeed. I own, I see no cause, 

He should not pause for life." 

S. MARTIN. Tyrannical Government Anatomised; 
being the Life and Death of John the Baptist, a dramatic 
piece, 1642, 4to, is attributed by Peck to Milton. 

ERRATA. 4 th S. x. p. 109, col. ii. line 12, for ".fiend " 
read "fiord"; p. 137, col. i. line 21, for " Earl of Berk- 
shire" read " Earl of Suffolk." 


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4 th S. X. AUGUST 31, 72.] 




CONTENTS. N. 244. 

NOTES: Ancient Alliance of the Scots with France: the 
Rebel Marquis of Tullibardine : " the Thistle," 1734-6, 161 

A Longevity Ballad, 162 Over Swell Chancel, Glouces- 
tershire, If). Swift's "Polite Conversation" Evelyn's 
and Pepys's Diaries, their Correctness Blessing or Cros- 
sing Oneself Ethel A Chaucer Construction Sir 
John Denham Two Caxtons omitted by Mr. Blades 
Epigram, 163. 

QUERIES : Artists' Proofs Boys, Boyes, Boyse, Boyce 

Lord Broueham Lord Byron Church Taxes 
House of Orleans Edward Cup Farthing of George IV. 

James Grant of Carron Heraldic Hymnology 
Lines on a Cow "Little Billee " Thomas Moore 
O'Neill Owen Old Simon "Our Beginning shows 
what our End will be" " Rejected Addresses" 
"Saint" as an Adjective: Dedication of Churches St. 
Francis of Assisi Shelton's " Don Quixote " Skermer, 
Wallingford Sliper-Stones iSteer Family Montague 
Talbot The Three Cups Rev. Mr. Trumon Richard 
Wilmot, M.D. Johude Witt, Grand Pensioner of Hol- 
land, 165. 

REPLIES : Lord Drumlanrig, 169 Kylosbern, 170 
H6 = Hoe, 171 Muriel, 172 " To err is human : to for- 
give, divine," 173 Transmutation of Liquids, 174 
Parody on Longfellow's " Psalm of Life," Ib. Dryden's 
Broken Head "Little Jock Elliot " Arms assumed by 
Advertisement Persicaria Dr. Dee's Mathematical 
Preface Toilet Articles of the Seventeenth Century 
Father Arrowsmith's Hand Models of Ships in Churches 

Sir John Anstruther A Census of 1789 Old Sea 
Charts Age of Ships Beever The London University, 
&c., 175. 

INotes on Books, &c. 



Until the first French revolution, the nobility 
of Scotland had the same privileges as were en- 
joyed by the French nobles of exemption of arrest 
for debt. A singular instance of this occurs in the 
case of the second Marquis of Tullibardine, the 
heir apparent of the dukedom of Athol, which 
is preserved in The Thistle, a Scotch newspaper, 
commencing on February 13, 1734, and termin- 
ating on February 11, 1736. 

The Dukedom of Athol was created by Queen 
Anne, April 30, 1705. The first Marquis of Tulli- 
bardine, Colonel of a Dutch regiment, was killed 
at the battle of Malplaquet in 1709. His next 
brother, William, succeeded to this titular honour 
and, having been actively engaged in the rebellion 
1715, was attainted. He made his escape to France 
^vhere, receiving no pecuniary assistance from hi 
friends in Great Britain, and little help in France 
lie got involved in debt, and was put in prison bj 
his creditors. Although deprived of his title am 
attainted in his own country, he was nevertheless 
recognised as a nobleman in France, and was by 
the Parliament of Paris admitted to the privileges 
to which his rank as such gave him right. 

The following account of the proceedings adopted 

for his liberation are recorded in the pages of The 
Thistle (No. 36) : 

" Paris, October 8, 1734. On the 28th past, the cause 
f the late Marquis of Tullibardine, here call'd Duke of 
Athol, who had been long a prisoner for debt, was brought 
>efore the Parliament of Paris. The plaintiffs were one 
)'Ivary, joined by others of the defender's creditors. The 
>oint in question was, whether a man of the defender's 
rank and quality was liable to have his body confin'd for 
debt. The arguments pro and con were very learned, 
-,nd strenuously urged on either side. 

" The counsel for the defendant was Mr. O'Hanlon, a 
gentleman born in London, but descended from an old 
and noble family in Ireland. He made a very eloquent 
discourse, in which he laid down and elucidated the pri- 
vileges which had been granted by France to the Scots 
nation, and the advantages all the British subjects ought to 
enjoy in consequence of such privileges, by virtue of 
the Peace of Ryswick and of that of Utrecht. 

"Messieurs Lardelot and Savyard, noted for their 
earning, eloquence, and consummate knowledge in the 
law, appeared for the plaintiffs ; and with great warmth 
and strength of reason argued against Monsieur Gilbert 
de Voisins, chief of the King's Counsel, who appeared for 
the king, and -with his customary eloquence concluded in 
favour of the defender. The Court, after mature deliber- 
ation, declared his enlargement, and he was accordingly 
set at liberty that instant. It is certain Mr. O'Hanlon 
rendered a .signal service to the defendant ; and it is no 
small advantage to the British subjects to have a coun- 
tryman so able and so zealous to defend their interests in 
a foreign kingdom. Mr. Francia, who was solicitor in 
the case, was extremely vigilant, and neglected nothing 
which could contribute* to a happy issue on the part of 
the defendant." 

After his liberation, the marquis still continued 
his exertions on behalf of the exiled family ; and 
engaging in the rebellion of 1745-6, was taken 
prisoner and sent to the Tower, where he died the 
year after his apprehension, predeceasing his father 
the duke, whose demise did not take place until 
1764. A circumstance which saved the title, 
which in this way came to the third son James, 
who, when the event occurred, was member of 
Parliament for Perth and colonel of the first 
regiment of Guards. 

Of Mr. O'Hanlon, the Irish barrister, who ac- 
quitted himself with so much ability, we regret 
to say we can find no account ; but if his name 
should attract the attention of any Irish genealogist, 
he might not be disinclined to communicate to 
" N. & Q." such information about this gentle- 
man, and the ancient race from which he sprung, 
as may have come under his observation. 

The only perfect copy of The Thistle of which I 
am aware came from the library of John Earl of 
Hyndford a peerage now believed to be extinct. 
It was printed at Edinburgh, and sold by William 
Cheyne at the foot of Craigs Close, opposite to the 
Cross, where advertisements and letters are to be 
taken in. Also at most booksellers shops, and at 
the Laigh Coffee-house. The editor gave his 
name as " Sir John de Graham, Knight," and the 
paper stopped at No. 105. J. M. 



[4> S. X. AUGUST 31, 72. 

I forward copy of a ballad which will, I hope, 
find a corner in " N. & Q." GWYJTFA. 


(A Ballad exemplifying the Longevity of that Famous 
Town 200 Years- ago.} 

" Oh ! Painswick is a healthful town, 

It hath a bracing breeze, 
Where men by nature's rules might live 

As long as e'er they please. 
" Before the glass and baneful pipe 

Had robb'd man of his strength, 
And water only was his drink, 

He lived a greater length. 
" Two hundred years, or more, ago 

A pilgrim passed that way ; 
And what that pilgrim heard and saw 

I will relate to-day. 
" And while he stopp'd outside the town 

To rest his weary bones, 
He saw a very aged man 
Upon a heap of stones. 
" The pilgrim saw him with surprise, 
And surely thought he dream'd ; 
The poor man was so very old, 

Methuselah he seem'd ! 
" He'd travelled o'er the wide, wide world, 

Amid its heat and cold, 
But he had never, never seen 

A man one-half so old. 
" His face was Avrinkled like a skin 

That's shrivell'd by the heat ; 
His hair was whiter than the snow 

We tread beneath our feet. 
" It made the pilgrim very sad, 

As he was passing by, 
To see his old eyes h'U'd with tears, 

To hear him sob and cry. 
" The man was crying like a child, 

His tears fell like the rain ; 
The pilgrim felt for him, and ask'd, 

' Old man, are you in pain ? ' 
" ' Oh, tell me, tell me, poor old man, 

Why do you sob and cry ? ' 
The old man rubb'd his eyes, and said, 

' Feethur's bin a Uyutting //' 
" ' Old man, old man, you must be mad, 

For that can never be ; 
Your father surely has been dead 

At least a century.' 
" ' My feethur be alive and well, 
I wish that he weer dy'ud, 
For he ha bin and byut his stick 

About my face and yud? 
" The pilgrim pick'd the old man up, 
And walk'd to Painswick town ; 
' Oh show me where your father lives^ 

And I will put you down. 
" ' And I will tell the cruel man 

Such things must not be done, 
And I will say how wrong it is 

To beat his aged son.' 
" The pilgrim shook a garden gate., 

An old man ope'd the door ; 
His back was bended like a bow, 
His white beard swept the floor. 

" If Adam he had lived till now, 
And lengthen'd out his span, 
Then Adam really would have seem'd 

Another such a man ! 
" The pilgrim felt amazed, indeed, 

When he beheld his sire ; 
He held a great stick in his hand, 

His face was flush'd with ire. 
" ' Old man, old man, put down your stick, 

Why do you beat your son ? ' 
* I'll cut the rascal to the quick 

If he does what he've done. 
" ' Why up in yonder apple-tree 

Grandfeether risk'd his bones ; 
And while the old man pick'd the fruit, 

The rascal dubb'd with stones.' 
" The pilgrim turn'd his head and saw r 

In a spreading apple-tree, 
A ver}% very aged man, 

The" eldest of the three. 
" The pilgrim was a holy man, 

Whose hopes were in the sky ; 

He fled he thought it was a place 

Where man would never die ! 

H. Y. J. T. 
" Upton St. Leonards." 


In taking down the east wall of this chancel, 
last week, the following details were discovered : 
On the outside face, about a foot and a half below 
the level of the side walls, were two semicircular 
stones, forming together a small Norman light 
one foot in diameter. On removing a monumental 
tablet inside, appeared the splay of this window 
(circular), opening out to the diameter of 4 ft. 
5 in. j but the centre of the window itself was 
three inches below (what would be) the centre 
of the circumference of the splay. Below this,, 
about 2 ft. 9 in., a clearly defined line marked 
where the altar-beam went across, from side to 
side, resting on two plain brackets in the north 
and south walls. In the space between the above 
window and this line were three, apparently con- 
secration-crosses (pattee), thirteen inches wide : 
the central one chocolate, in a circular band an 
inch and a half wide, defined by two chocolate 
lines; the two side crosses similar, only counter- 
charged, excepting the white circle. Below the 
altar-beam, to the depth of 1 ft. 9 in., was a 
diaper, or rather a band of lozenges, with a square 
in the centre, and in the square a cross bottonee^ 
sable ; and issuing from its angles, the limbs of a 
like smaller cross saltire-wise. The arms of the 
larger cross sent out curved floriated branches. 
In the lozenge to the right of the square was 
another (consecration-like) cross, in a chocolate 
circle ; in the one to the left, apparently a plain 
black cross. In the other lozenges nothing re- 
mained but faint patches of chocolate. The halves 
above and below, heraldically speaking, were re- 
spectively arg. guttee sa., and gules guttee arg. 

AUGUST 3 1, '72.] 



Below this band of colour was modern plaster. 
The diaper was not carried down to the original 
door-line, which was found considerably below 
the late accumulations. 

Will F. C. H. kindly suggest what glass beamed 
on the circular window ? When the whole win- 
dow was revealed, it struck me instantly that it 
was intended to figure or represent the sun in liis 
rising. The patron saint is unknown. Will the 
position of this window afford a clue? What 
instances are there of sucli solitary circular win- 
dows in chancels ? Were the three, consecration 
crosses ? What were those in the diaper ? Did 
the altar-beam usually extend the whole width of 
the wall? How in such a small church, with 
such a small population (ninety-five last census), 
and with no rich lay resident or proprietor, would 
such beam be adorned and furnished in olden 
time ? DAVID ROYCE. 

P.S. This small chancel has in the north wall 
two very early, narrow, deep splayed Norman 

celebrated sketch, entitled Polite Conversation, is 
doubtless well known to many readers of " N. & Q," 
It is very striking on reading it for the first time, 
as I did very lately, to see how very ancient are 
most of the phrases which constitute the " small 
change " of society at the present day. A " girl 
of the period " who prides herself on her powers 
of chaff and repartee, and has a holy horror of 
anything old-fashioned, would be considerably 
astonished on reading this sketch to find that her 
great-great-great-grandmother talked in exactly 
the same style, almost indeed in the same words, 
that she herself does at a fashionable " at home " 
or "drum." My object, however, in writing to 
" N. & Q." is with reference to the following pas- 
sage in the author's introduction : 

" I can faithfully assure the reader that there is not one 
single witty phrase in this whole collection, which has not 
received the stamp and approbation of at least one hun- 
dred years, and how much longer it is hard to determine ; 
he may therefore be secure to find them all genuine, 
sterling, and authentic." Swift's Works, edited by 
Walter Scott, 1824, ix. 353. 

I have italicised "one hundred years," as I 
wish to draw particular attention to these words. 
I should be very glad to know upon what autho- 
rity the Dean was speaking when he made this 
assertion. I know that Swift was not one to be 
easily caught napping, and I do not doubt that he 
knew what he was saying perfectly well ; still it 
does seem incredible that all these colloquial 
phrases, four-fifths of which are constantly in use 
in our own time, should have existed for so many 
years. The Polite Conversation was written, so 
far as I can make out, in or about 1706 : a hun- 
dred years would accordingly take us back to a 

time when Shakespeare and Bacon were living, 
when Spenser had been dead only about half a 
dozen years, and Milton was not even born. Is it 
not most singular that phrases so familiar in our 
own mouths should have been in common use 
in a state of society so entirely different, not only 
from our own, but from that of Swift's age ? I 
presume that society underwent a far greater 
change in the century from Queen Elizabeth to 
Queen Anne than in the century and a half from 
Queen Anne to the reign of our own good Queen. 
I subjoin a few of the phrases used by the re- 
doubtable Tom Neverout and the overwhelming 
Miss Notable and their friends ; and I should feel 
greatly obliged to any correspondent who would 
kindly point me out instances of their use in any 
work prior to the reign of Charles I. : 

' You must eat a peck of dirt before you die." 

' Water bewitched." 

' Miss Notable. I never heard that. 
Tom N. Why then you have a wrinkle." 

' To teach one's grandmother to suck eggs." 

' He was a bold man that first eat an oyster." 

' Sauce for a goose, sauce for a gander." 

' They must rise early that would cheat him of his 

" Sharp's the word." 

" Diamonds cut diamonds." 

" Promises and piecrust made to be broken." 

" Thou hast a head, and so has a pin." 

" To quarrel with one's bread and butter." 


RECTNESS. COL. CHESTER has proved (4 th S. x. 
13) that Evelyn gave the true date of Cowley's 
burial, but it may be worth showing that Lord 
Braybrooke's foot-note statement, italicised by 
COL. CHESTER, though inapplicable to that in- 
stance, is well founded. About three months ago 
I came across an example in proof. In 1678 
Evelyn writes thus : 

" 15 th Nov r . The Queen's birthday. Coleman and one 
Staly had now been tried, condemned, and executed. On 
this Gates grew so presumptuous, as to accuse the queen 
of intending to poison the king. .... divers of the 
Popish peers were sent to the Tower, accused by Gates, 
and all the Roman Catholic lords were by a new Act for 
ever excluded the Parliament ; the king's, queen's, and 
duke's servants were banished, and a test to be taken," 
&c., &c. 

Now these sentences could not have been written 
till at least nineteen days after the date prefixed, 
and the different incidents, noted without re- 
gard to chronological succession, lead, as they are 
told, to wrong inferences, and are merely grouped 
around the queen's birthday as a convenient and 
central point, though not one of them occurred on 
that day. Staly was convicted on the 21st, and 
executed Nov. 26. Coleman was convicted Nov. 27, 
and executed Dec. 3. Gates made his public 
accusation of the queen before the Commons 
Nov. 28, and as he had previously made it before 



[4* S . x. AUGUST 31, 72. 

the council, and thereupon had his papers seized 
by order of the king, he must have made it before 
the conviction, and therefore before the execution 
of Coleman. The accused Roman Catholic peers 
were sent to the Tower on Oct. 25. Not the 
lords only, but all Roman Catholics were ex- 
cluded from Parliament ; and the bill caused an 
affray in the House of Commons on Nov. 18, and 
did not receive the royal assent till Nov. 30. 

When, on the other hand, COL. CHESTER writes 
" Pepys was correct in this instance," I fancy he 
did not mean to imply, what might be gathered 
from itj that he was inaccurate in his dates. His 
Diary bears evidence, I think, to his being a 
methodical man, and a clerk of excellent regu- 
larity: one who, had he not written up his 
journal for nineteen days, would have noted his 


Puritan writer says of some good people of his 
own persuasion, under the influence of strong re- 
ligious emotion and wonder, that " they held up 
their hands and blessed themselves." I should 
be very glad to meet with other passages of the 
kind, and see how long this custom lingered 
among the people, especially among the Puritans, 
after the Reformation. Similar customs still exist 
in popular practice. Thus I have seen in several 
parts of England people making the sign of the 
cross over flour previous to kneading it into cakes 
or loaves of bread ; and I have often heard the 
asseveration "Belleddy" (i. e. "by our Lady") 
from the mouths of people, who evidently fol- 
lowed local custom without any notion of the 
meaning of the expression. Q. Q. 

ETHEL. Judging from works of fiction, the 
columns of The Times, and other nominometers, 
there would appear to be every now and then a 
fashion in female Christian names. When Lady 
Blessing-ton wrote, the fashionable name was ap- 
parently Emily. About twenty-five years ago 
Julia was in the ascendant ; Eleanor succeeded, 
to be displaced at the Crimean period by an inun- 
dation of Alma. So far as my observation extends 
the reigning sovereign is Ethel. My object in 
writing is to effect an insurrection against her. 
How did an Anglo-Saxon word, signifying king, 
ever come to be used as a woman's name ? Is 
not this use purely modern ? I am not aware 
that we find an instance of it among the Anglo- 
Saxons, or during the Middle Ages, as a female 
name except in. composition. We meet with 
Etheldreda, Ethelswitha, and many others; but 
is there' one example of Ethel alone as a female 
name ? As I should not have liked, when I came 
to years of etymology, to find myself dubbed a 
.King, may I venture to suggest that this inappro- 
priate name should no longer be inflicted on in- 
offensive and defenceless feminine babies? If 

parents wish for an Anglo-Saxon name, or for a 
name perfumed with regality, are there not enough 
of both without having recourse to one which would 
probably have provoked the astonishment or ridi- 
cule of those doughty warriors who bestowed their 
ineffable contempt upon the Danes for daily comb- 
ing their hair, and, it is even to be suspected, 
washing their faces? Is there sufficient special 
beauty in Ethel to justify us in retaining it in 
defiance of gender ? HERMENTRUDE. 

has called my attention to a difficulty in line 14 
of Chaucer's Prologue to his Canterbury Tales, on 
which he says no English editor has commented, 
and which I own to having always passed over 
without question till called on to explain it. The 
difficulty is, with what is " To ferae halwes " to 
betaken what many-worded part of speech is it 
in the well-known lines 
"Thanne longen folk to gon on pilgrimages, 

And palmers for to seeken straunge strondes, 

To feme halwes, kouthe in sondry londes; 

And specially, from every schires ende 

Of Engelond", to Canturbury they wende, 

The holy blisful martir for to seeke, 

That hem hath holpen whan that they were seeke." 

I have no doubt that the to is part of the verb- 
seeken, and that though " seeken " alone governs 
" straunge strondes/' " seeken-to " governs " feme 
halwes." The two- worded verb " seek-to " was 
often used in our middle literature, as may be 
seen by Richardson's quotations in his Dictionary, 
though it is now out of use, I suppose ; but it 
was a favourite expression with old Perry, the 
rabbit-hunter in Windsor Park. Many a time did 
I hear the old fellow shout " Seek to him, 
Beauty! good bitch! seek to him! " in my boyish 

The construction of one editor, who puts a full 
stop at "strondes," and reads "they wende to 
ferne halwes .... and specially to Canturbury," 
is to me plainly wrong, for "feme halwes" must 
go with " straunge strondes." 


("N. & Q.," 4 th S. x. 13) that there is documen- 
tary evidence for the date of Sir John Denharn's 
death, as deduced from Pepys's Diary., I would 
now ask the authority for the statement com- 
monly made, that his madness was caused by cir- 
cumstances connected with his second marriage 
a euphemistic phrase, I presume, for his wife's in- 
fidelity. Marvell, in his "Instructions to a Painter," 
calls him not a cuckold, but a leader of wittols ; 
and in "Clarendon's House-warming," which must 
have been written between September 1666 and 
the end of 1667, he attributes the insanity to an 
accident ; though, could he have done so, he 
would rather have attributed it to his wife. In 
stanza 7, he says : 

4 th S. X. AUGUST 31, 72.] 



" And all for to save the expenses of brick-bat, 

That engine so fatal which Denham had brained/' 
If the writer of the " Historical Poem" attributec 
to Marvell spoke truth, Denham may have hac 
another illness, " due to circumstances connected 
with his second marriage " ; and this may have 
been confounded with his madness, or may have 
mingled itself with it. B. NICHOLSON. 

the Museum of Antiquities formed at Southamp- 
ton for the recent meeting of the Archaeological 
Institute, were two volumes printed by Caxton ; 
and as neither of them is included in Mr. Blades's 
valuable list of existing copies, I venture to send 
you particulars. They were both exhibited by 
Mr. Henry Bonham : 

1. Chaucer's Canterbury Talcs. 2nd edition. 
Imperfect. Begins with sig. C, wants all K, and 
four leaves -in L. Some leaves torn. 

2. Goiuer's Confessio Amantis. Wants six 
leaves, Table, and one leaf prologue. Begins on 
fol. 3. Wants C 1 and 2, also folios 46, 120, 126- 
129. Has the last leaf with the misdated colo- 
phon, 1493, for 1483. W. J. LOFTIE. 

EPIGRAM. Now everybody is talking of Ponte- 
fract and its recent election, the following epi- 
gram, written by Horace Smith " On Mr. Gully, 
the Pugilist, being returned M.P. for Pontefract," 
may be interesting : 
" Strange is it, proud Pontefract's borough should sully 

Its fame by- returning to Parliament, Gully ; 
' The etymological cause, I suppose, is, 

His breaking the bridges of so many noses." 

26, Wilberforce Street, Hull. 

ARTISTS' PROOFS. Will you allow me to ask 
for some brief directions how to mount proofs on 
Japanese paper ? This paper is unsized and very 
bibulous. I either fail altogether to get the 
proofs to ndhere, or discolour them so with the 
gum or starch used as to spoil them. F. JVI. S. 

BOYS, BOYES, BOYSE, BOYCE. As it is possible 
that these names are all varieties or corruptions of 
the original surname De Bois (that of the great 
Kentish family whose founder came over with 
the Conqueror), I shall feel obliged for any in- 
formation tending to establish or disprove my con- 
jecture. Mr. Treffry, a very clever and learned 
herald, though an amateur, pointed out to me 
certain similarities in the arms borne by some of 
these persons. The Irish branch of Boyse and 
Boyce may possibly have sprung from the imme- 
diate ancestor of the intrepid defender of Don- 
nington Castle : for a brother of Sir John Boys 
took the Parliament side, and may as one of 
Cromwell's officers have received a grant of land 

under the Cromwellian settlement. MR. PRENDER- 
GAST could perhaps settle this last question for 
me. GEO. COLOMB, Col. R. A. 

Jun. U. S. Club. 

LORD BROUGHAM. What truth, if any, is there 
in the following ? 

" Raikes, the dandy, whom Brougham called out for 
denouncing him as the ugliest man about London, pub- 
lished a Diarir, in which he too often drew upon his 
imagination for facts, albeit it contains some gossip." 
Court Journal, p. 859, July 20, 1872. 

I have a strong impression that Lord Brougham 
disapproved of duelling. OLPHAR HAMST. 

LORD BYRON. I came across the other day an 
edition of Lord Byron's Works, published by A. 
and W. Galignani (No. 18, Rue Vivienne, Paris, 
1826). Pasted in, at the commencement of hisLife, 
is a letter in his own handwriting denying the 
authorship of The Vampire. I wish to know if 
this a fac-simile, or if it is a bond fide letter ? 
Bohn does not mention it in Lowndes' Biblio- 
grapher's Manual at all. D. C. E. 


[Most probably the letter is a fac-simile, as there is 
one also pasted in the Paris edition of Byron's Works, 
published by A. and W. Galignani in 1828, now in the 
British Museum. This letter is printed in the Gentle- 
man's Magazine, Ixxxix(i). 633. Consult also "N. & Q." 
3 rd S. vii. 201.] 

CHURCH TAXES. Can any one refer me to the 
edition of Matthew Henry's Commentary, in which 
he expressed himself in favour of nonconformists 
paying church-rates ? The remarks would most 
likely be founded on St. Matthew xvii. 24-27, 
and I should be glad if the precise words could 
be given. The modern editions do not contain 
any such remarks, and I am anxious to ascertain 
whether this is owing to wilful suppression of 
that eminent nonconformist's opinions. 

O. B. B. 

HOUSE or ORLEANS. I feel curious to know a 
few matters as to this illustrious family, restored 
to France yet once again. 

1. How did the so lately deceased son of the 
Due d'Aumale acquire the title of Due de Guise? 
He was born some years after the revolution of 
1848, and it therefore could not have been con- 
ferred upon him. (All the male members of the 
House of Orleans appear to bear titles a thing 
which I do not understand.) 

2. What was the exact scope of the confisQa- 
ion with which Louis Bonaparte rewarded the 

very rare leniency shown him by Louis Philippe ? 

3. Has the above confiscation been reversed by 
,he Republic? 

4. HoW came the Orleans family to recover 
;heir vast possessions in 1814 ? Other proprietors 
despoiled by the great revolution were not nearly 

o lucky. 

5. Did the House of Orleans inherit the im- 



[4 th S. X. AUGUST 31, '72. 

mense estates of " La Grande Mademoiselle/' the 
niece of Louis Treize ? If so, by what right ? . 

Q. M. R. 

EDWARD CUP. What is meant by an Edward 
cup ? It is mentioned in tlie will of a Mrs. 
Alinor Hulle, of Cannington, who died October 
14, 1458, thus : " Also I bequethe to myn fadyr 
Hauswyff my gret cuppe ' Edwarde.' " 


FARTHING OF GEORGE IV. In the coinage of 
copper for Ireland, from A.D. 1821 to 1825, was a 
farthing issued as well as a penny and halfpenny ? 
I ask the question as several numismatists are 
anxious to have it solved through " N. & Q." 



[According to Ruding (Annals of Coinage, ii. 129), by 
an order in council on July 5, 1822, a penny, halfpenny, 
and farthing, were struck for currency in Ireland ; but 
the farthing was never issued : a few patterns only were 

JAMES GRANT OF CARRON. This celebrated 
outlaw is described in a note to Burton's History 
of Scotland as " a son of the family of Carron, well 
descended, and cousin to Huntly on his mother's 
side." This connection with the Huntly family 
appears to have been of great service to James 
Grant. Can any of your readers show how he 
was related to the Marquis of Huntly of his day ? 
James Grant was a son of John Roy Grant first of 
Carron, who was a son of John More Grant first 
of Glenmoriston. Who was the wife of John 
Roy Grant first of Carron, the mother of the out- 
law? and who were the brothers of James 
Grant, and what became of them ? The Grants of 
Nether-Rothes or Auchinroath, as it was after- 
wards called, were, I believe, descended from a 
brother of James Grant. What I particularly 
wish to ascertain is the name of the first laird of 
Carron's wife, but any information concerning the 
family would be most acceptable. 


HERALDIC. In the year 1871 a silver seal was 
ploughed up in the parish of Aldborough, Berks, 
bearing three escutcheons, with the legend " S. 
Isabelle de la Beche." The escutcheons have 
the following beamings: (1) Vaire, arg. and gu. 
on a canton of the first, a martlett sable; (2) 
Chequee, on a chief three oak-leaves; (3) Semee 
of rpundles, or six roundles, 3, 2, and 1. The first 
of these escutcheons is that of De la Beche, and I 
have supplied the tinctures from Burke's General 
Armory. To whom do the other escutcheons 
belong? The present possessor of the seal has 
given me an impression of it, which is as clear as 
could have been obtained when the seal was first 
made. W. M. H. C. 

HYMNOLOGY. Is it known who was the author 

" Hymnes and Spiritual Songs, extracted from Scrip- 
ture : composed in Private Meditation, and made use of 
(once) in Publick for the Saints' comfort, now published 
for their sakes that sung them or others that desire them. 
London, printed by J. R. for the Author, 1682 " ? 

J. C. J. 

LINES ON A Cow. I have heard the following 
description of a good cow. Who is it by ? There is 
more than I give, where shall I find the rest ? 

" She's long in her face, she's fine in her horn ; 
She'll quickly get fat, without cake or corn ; 
She's clear in her jaws, and full in her chine ; 
She's heavy in flank, and wide in her loin." 


" LITTLE BILLEE." On what occasion did 
Thackeray write the ballad of " Little Billee," 
and where was it first published ? 


" Fortunate senex ! ergo tua rura manebunt ! " 

Virg. EC. i. 47. 

The above, &c., were turned into English verses 
(?) by Thos. Moore. They appeared in 'The Times,- 
1828 : 

" Thrice fortunate old man, to thee alone 
The griefs that haunt thy brethren are unknown ; 
While Melville's heart becomes a heavier load 
At every stage along the Northern road." 

Will any generous litterateur help me to the 
rest of this version ? A. J. 

O'NEILL. What was the coat of arms of the 
O'Neills of Clannaboy in the time of Brian Bal- 
lagh, who is mentioned in the Four Masters as 
having been killed by Cormac McQuillin in the 
year 1529 ? CLANEBOY. 


OWEN. The usual Latin form for Owen is 
Audoenus ; is this correct ? Herbert in Britannia 
after the Romans, i. 29, says: 

" That the name, variously expressed Owain, Owen, 
Oen, Ywein, Eoghann, is Eugenius. The Irish priests 
(witness Tyrone, Tir-oen, Terra Eugenii) knew no other 
Latin for it, and in ancient records the Welsh Owen is 
expressed Eugenius. The Franks had in their language 
a different but resembling name, written Audoenus in 
Latin, Ouen in Romance." 

The meaning of this very ancient Keltic name 
seems to be also a matter undetermined. 


OLD SIMON. Who was Old Simon, whose head 
was the sign of Seago, print-seller, High Street, 
St. Giles's, near Tottenham Court Road ? Seago 
was living in 179G, and was a popular publisher. 

BE." How far back can this proverbial saying be 
traced? Q. Q. 

"REJECTED ADDRESSES." Who was the au- 
thoress satirised in the poem " Drury's Dirge, by 

4h S.X. AUGUST 31, '72.] 



Laura Matilda " ? A footnote says, " The authors, 
as in gallantry bound, wish this lady to continue 
anonymous." S. G. B. 

CHURCHES. No dictionary which I have had an 
opportunity of consulting Bailey > Johnson, Ma- 
sou (Supplement to Johnson), Sheridan, Richardson, 
Ogilvie, Wedgwood makes any allusion to the use 
of the word saint as an adjective simply, as it is cer- 
tainly employed in the dedication-names of many 
churches such, for instance, as Saint Saviour 
(not uncommon), Saint Faith (London, Winches- 
ter), Saint Cross (Oxford), Saint Sepulchre (Lon- 
don, Cambridge), equivalent to the Holy Saviour, 
the Holy Faith, &c. At York is a Saint Crux ; 
Saint Sacrament I believe I have seen, but cannot 
now find an example. Probably nineteen out of 
twenty of those who commonly use these names 
have no idea but what they are as much names 
of persons as Saint Peter or Saint Dunstan. 

Oh the other hand, there appears to be no Saint 
Trinity, although there is a Holy Trinity in nearly 
every large town. At Salford there is a Sacred 
Trinity. Then there is at Hitchin a church of 
the Holy Saviour; at Shrewsbury and Stoke 
(Norfolk), Holy Cross ; at Southampton, Holy 
Kood ; at Liverpool, Holy Innocents ; at Chaiiton 
Kings, Holy Apostles ; and, if I am not at fault, 
there are, somewhere in the country, churches de- 
dicated to the Holy Name and the Holy Angels. 

But the anomalies of church nomenclature are 
very puzzling. There are numerous churches dedi- 
cated to the Holy Trinity, but, so far as I can dis- 
cover, not owe sacred to the Divine Unity, though 
the doctrine of the Oneness of the Divine Being is 
universally acknowledge to be as important as 
that of the Trinity, and the one expression, equally 
as the other, comprehends the whole godhead. 
There are many consecrated to the Second Person 
of the Trinity under the titles of Christ, Saint 
Saviour, Emmanuel, &c. ; but I can only find one 
(a chapel at Southampton) in the proper personal 
name of our Lord Jesus, and none under the title 
of the Messiah, equivalent to Christ. Then also, 
there seems to be none at all consecrated specially 
to the Father or to the Holy Spirit. 

Are these matters governed by any definite 
principle ? Will some correspondent, without 
trenching on points debated in theology, endea- 
vour an elucidation of the peculiarities which I 
have referred to ? What was the origin of the 
dedication of buildings intended for the worship of 
God toSaints, and Angels and sacred Things f Did 
it *aean that in each case some particular saint, 
angel, or thing was to be specially honoured or 
worshipped there ? And what does it mean now 
to dedicate a church to St. John, St. Anne, St. 
George, St. Alban, or St. Raphael P 

The materials for this note have been gathered 
from the list of benefices in the Clergy List, but % 

in by far the great majority of cases the dedica- 
tion-name is not given. Is there any work which 
gives the names attached to all the parish churches 
in the kingdom ? JAMES T. PEESLEY. 

Cheltenham Library. 

ST. FRANCIS OF ASSISI. I have lately acquired 
a very curious old picture, about which I am 
anxious to obtain some information. It measures 
about five feet square, and is apparently a Ger- 
man work of the latter part of the sixteenth cen- 
tury. The subject may be described as follows: 
On the right of the picture, a Pope is seated 
under a canopy, having on his left hand two 
cardinals, and on his right three figures in scarlet 
robes and birettas, whose faces exhibit consterna- 
tion and disgust. One of them holds a book, and 
the one in the centre has a faint halo of golden 
rays round his head. In the front of the Pope 
kneels a Franciscan saint, with a plain gold nim- 
bus, whom I imagine to be St. Francis of Assisi 
from the great resemblance he bears to all the 
most authentic representations of that saint. He 
appears to be pleading for some one, and offers 
red and white flowers, which the Pope extends 
his hand to receive. Behind him kneels another 
Franciscan. On the left of the picture is an arch- 
way, in front of which stands an ecclesiastic, ap- 
parently a bishop, with a very dejected coun- 
tenance. He holds his biretta in his hand, and 
beside him stands his chaplain. The archway is 
filled with guards, who appear to view the pro- 
ceedings with great interest: over their heads 
appears a very quaint landscape, with a river, 
bridge, church, &c. From the central position 
which St. Francis takes in the composition, I 
imagine it must represent some incident from his 
life. I have searched Mrs. Jameson's Legends of 
the Monastic Orders, and Mrs. Oliphant's Life of 
St. Francis of Assisi, in vain. Perhaps some of 
your readers can inform me of a legend which it 
may be intended to represent j or refer me to 
some book likely to afford me the information I 
am in search of ? G. P. C. 

SHELTON'S u DON QUIXOTE." I should be glad 
to learn who was the earliest Italian translator of 
Don Quixote, from whom it is stated Shelton 
took his version. It could not be Franciosini if 
the first edition of his translation was not pub- 
lished till 1622. (See N. & Q." 4 th S. viii. 295.) 

W. M. M. 

[In Bohn's Lowndes, p. 401, it is stated that Thomas 
Shelton's translation of Don Quixote, 1612-1620, " ac- 
cording to Charles Jarvis, is taken from the Italian 
of Lorenzo Franciosini." The British Museum Catalogue 
seems more correct, which states that Shelton's transla- 
tion is from the Spanish, more especially as the Italian 
edition of Franciosini d\d not appear until 1622.] 

MS. 4to, of sixty-eight pages, in an old and rather 
"spidery" hand. It is written (as a note at the 



s. X. AUGUST 31, 72. 

beginning tells me) by a clergyman named Sker- 
mer, Master of the Free-school at Henley, End 
minister of some place in the neighbourhood, son 
of Henry Skermer, joyner, of Wallingford. He 
seems to have received some assistance from Mr. 
Stonor Crouch (of Wallingford) in writing this 
" History and Antiquities of Wallingford." The 
note further says that Mr. Richard Skinner (sic) 
proceeded Master of Art (sic} on July 9, 1701, he 
being of St. Mary Hall. It does not inform us 
whether this gentleman be identical with the 
author of the work mentioned above. I should 
much like to know further particulars of Mr. 
Skermer concerning his other works, if any, and 
also himself and his family. Has the work ever 
been printed ? I cannot find the name Skermer 
or any notice of such a work in Camden Hotten's 
Catalogue of Topographical Literature, or in any 
other catalogue. I will add, that I will be happy 
to forward the MS. to any gentleman who would 
be interested in examining it, 

Tivoli Cottage, Cheltenham. 

SUPER-STORES. What is the derivation of the 
word " sliper-stones," a range of lofty hills in the 
county of Salop, and in several places near its 
base ? Lead ore is procured in great abundance. 
On a part of its summit several very large stones 
seem to have been upheaved, and this is known by 
the name of " The Devil's Chair." 


STEER FAMILY. -Chas. Steer, Esq., of Chiches- 
ter, was father of Frances Countess of Albemarle, 
wife of Augustus, fifth Earl. Can any one oblige 
me with the Christian name of this gentleman's 
father, and with his mother's name ? X. 

MONTAGUE TALBOT. Was young Talbot, after- 
wards an actor in Ireland, who was mixed up 
with Ireland, junior, in the early stages of the 
Shakespeare Forgeries, the same Montague Talbot 
who was manager of the Belfast Theatre about 
half a century ago, and a great favourite on the 
Dublin boards for his personifications of Young 
Mirabel, Ranger, Rover, Mons. Morbleu, and a 
similar range of characters, besides attempting (in 
his own opinion at least) with considerable success 
Romeo, Lothario, Earl Osmond, &c., he posses- 
sing in common with other clever comic actors 
the opinion that his forte was tragedy ? I think 
he died about the year 1832. He is alluded to in 
Familiar Epistles. H. HALL. 

[Montague Talbot, the younger son of Capt. George 
Talbot, was for a short period connected with the Eng- 
lish bar, but quitted it to try his fortune on the stage. In 
consequence of this unlucky step in life, his uncle, Dr. 
Geech, revoked his will, in which he had made Mr. Mon- 
tague Talbot joint heir to sixty thousand pounds with 
another nephew, the Rev. Dr. Grossman. He went to 
Ireland, and acted there by the name of Montague, and 
was for twenty-three years manager and proprietor of 

the Belfast Theatre, and also for many years manager of 
the Newry and Derry theatres. William Dunlap, in 
The Life of George Frederick Cooke, i. 121, states that 
"Cooke's principal correspondents in 1798 seem to be 
Mr. Williams, his Buxton friend, and Mr. Montague, who 
quitted Mr. Jones's company in August and went to 
Liverpool, and of whom Mr. Cooke speaks in warm terms 
as an actor, a friend, and a man." Mr. Talbot's forte 
lay in general comedy ; though he frequently wooed the 
tragic muse with great success. In the Thespian Dic- 
tionary it is stated that " he was supposed to have been 
concerned with Ireland in Shakspearian forgeries," and 
he is frequently noticed by W. H. Ireland in An Authen- 
tic Account of the Shakspeare Manuscripts, 1796, 8vo. 
Mr. Talbot died after a lingering illness on April 26, 1831, 
aged fifty-eight.] 

THE THREE CUPS is not an uncommon sign for 
a public-house in the south of England. Would 
any of your correspondents inform us what is the 
meaning of the sign, or from whence it is de- 
rived ? P. Y. 

REV. MR. TRUMON. In a Dublin Freeman's 
Journal for the year 1783 I find the following 
strange biographical notice : 

" A clergyman of the name of Trumon died at Daven- 
try some time since, rector of several places, particularly 
Bilton, where lived the celebrated Mr. Addison, and 
where his daughter now lives. He had livings to the 
value of nearly 400Z. a-year, and died worth nearly 
50,0007. His manner of living was to go to the farm- 
houses in. his parishes, to steal turnips as he went, then 
to beg a little bacon to be boiled with them ; but if the 
good wife turned her back and left the bacon near him 
he would take the knife, cut another slice, and put it in 
his pocket. This served him the next day at another 
farm-house, where he would beg potatoes and greens to 
his bacon. Sometimes he attended at the better sort of 
farm-houses, to stay all night, and this he would do with- 
out invitation. Here he would steal the red and blue 
worsted out of the corners of the blankets to darn his 
stockings with, for they were of all colours. He once in 
his life fell in love ; he found nothing would soften the 
heart of Dolly, the farmer's maid, but ribbands and 
jigambobs. He, recollected that he had a brother a har- 
berdasher in Daventry. Therefore made an errand to 
his brother, who was never glad to see him, and stole a 
piece of ribband. This said brother detected him philan- 
dering about the farmer's maid as he cheapened her 
butter. He was buried in his summer-house." 

Can any of your midland county readers give 
information as to this extraordinary character? 
Curiously enough, I recollect distinctly when I 
was last in Daventry, some years back, being told 
that a skeleton had been recently dug up in the 
back garden of one of the houses in the town. 
Could these have been the bones of the Rev. Mr. 
Trumon ? H. J. DE BURGH. 

2, Warwick Terrace, Dublin. 

RICHARD WILMOT, M.D. In The Reliqimry 
(xi. 137) I read that Richard VVilmot, M.I)!; of 
Derby, married Henrietta, daughter of William 
Cavendish, and that they had eleven children. 
Can any one supply me with their names, ages, 
and places of settlement? E. G. 

[For the names of Dr. Wilmot's eleven children con- 

V* S. X. AUGUST 31, '72.] 



suit the pedigree of the family in Glover's History of 
Derby, edit. 1833, ii. 238.] 

Whom did the above marry, and what was the 

name of his daughter, who married Watson 

of the Rockingham family ? Who was the latter, 
and what were John de Witt's arms and those of 
Ms wife? H. L. 0. 

(4 th S. ix. 506.) 

If the Earl of Dumlenrick (Drumlanrig) only 
died in 1715, it is very clear that he survived his 
father, James Douglas, Duke of Queensberry, who 
died in the forty-ninth year of his age, 1711, and 
was succeeded by his son Charles, who is still 
known in the south of Scotland as the u gude 
Duke Charles." It is curious to find that James 
Earl of Drumlanrig, who was born November 2, 
1697 (Douglas Peerage) should have been buried 
,at Londesborough in Yorkshire, while all the 
other children of Duke James, except the married 
daughters, were buried in the Douglas vault in 
Durrisdeer Church, Upper Nithsdale in Dumfries- 
shire. I have no doubt t